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city. And that staff having been laid up in the meeting house of the Salii, which was in the Palatine hill, when that house was burnt to the ground, was found unburnt." CIC. de div. c. 17.

7. But into the second went the high priest alone once every year, not without blood, which he offered for himself, and for the errors of the people.

"Jerusalem is the capital of the nation. Here stands the temple, containing immense wealth, and forming one of the strongest bulwarks to the city. To all foreigners the inner temple is shut, nor is access permitted, even to a Jew, beyond the portal." TAC. Hist. 1. v. c. 8.

27. It is appointed unto men once to die.


Ulysses and his companions after their return from Hades, are thus addressed by

"O sons of woe! decreed by adverse fates
Alive to pass through Hell's eternal gates!
All, soon or late, are doom'd that path to tread;

More wretched you, twice number'd with the dead."

HOм. Odyss. 1. XII. v. 22.

"Know that it is appointed unto all men to die."-PYTHAG. Aur. carm. v. 15.

"One endless night for all remains,

And once we all must tread the shadowy plains.
In horrid pomp of war the soldier dies;

The sailor in the greedy ocean lies;

Thus age and youth promiscuous crowd the tomb :

No mortal head can shun th' impending doom."

"Whether you boast a monarch's birth,

While wealth unbounded round you flows,

Or poor, and sprung from vulgar earth,—
No pity for his victim Pluto knows.
We all must tread the paths of fate;
And ever shakes the mortal urn,
Whose lot embarks us, soon or late,

HOR. 1. I. carm. 28

On Charon's boat, ah, never to return! "-IBID. 1. II. carm. 3.

"All mankind, whoever are or shall be, are condemned to die. All those flourishing cities that have the world at command, and all the greatness and splendour of foreign empires, in whatever part of the globe, shall one day fall into various kinds of ruin and be no more. Why then should I complain or be grieved, if I precede the general fate of things by a few moments ? "-SENEC. epist. 71.


25. Not forsaking the assembling of yourselves together, as the manner of some is; but exhorting one another and so much the more, as ye see the day approaching.

"Those who confessed that they had once been Christians, but had abandoned that profession, asserted at the same time that this had been the sum of their fault or error, namely, that they were accustomed to meet together on a certain day before the dawn, to repeat alternately among themselves hymns to Christ as God, and to bind themselves by an oath, not to any evil purpose, but that they would not be guilty of theft, robbery, adultery, or dishonesty; which being done, they departed, but assembled again to eat food in common, and in an harmless manner."-PLIN. I. x. epist. 96.


3. Through faith we understand that the worlds were made by the Word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear.

"Much knowledge of divine things, as Heraclitus affirms, escapes us through want of faith."-PLUT. Coriolan. c. 38.

"No one knows God, though many entertain strange and preposterous opinions of him. God, the most high and powerful, upholdeth all things. The likeness of God cannot be made of gold or silver or any such things."-SENEC. epist. 31.

6. Without faith it is impossible to please him: for he that cometh to God must believe that he is, and that he is a rewarder of them that diligently seek him.

"That which is pleasing to the gods is holy, and that which is not pleasing to them is impious."-PLAT. Euthyphr. c. 7.

"Be assured that the essential property of piety towards the gods is to form right opinions concerning them as existing and as governing the universe with goodness and justice."-EPICT. Enchir. c. 31.

"The first step to the right worshipping of God is to believe that there is a God. And next, to ascribe unto him all majesty, and goodness, without which true majesty cannot subsist; to know likewise that it is he who governs the world and presides over the universe as his own, who hath taken mankind in general under his protection, and on some is pleased to bestow particular favour. He can neither do nor suffer evil.” SENEC. epist. 95. 13. Confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth. "Empedocles sheweth that all men are but strangers, passengers, foreigners and exiles in the world."-PLUT. de exil. c. 18.

35. Others were tortured, not accepting deliverance.

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Why do you wonder at my saying, that some rejoice in being burned, wounded, ́bound in chains, and slain; nay, that sometimes they have made it their choice? "

37. They were sawn asunder.

SENEC. epist. 71.

"May I perish and be sawn in two, and cut up into yoke straps!"

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ARISTOPH. Equit. v. 765.

'Caligula condemned persons of honourable rank to be tied by the neck and heels in the manner of beasts carried to slaughter; and would shut them up in cages, or cut them asunder."-SUET. Calig. c. 27.

See notes on Matthew xxiv. 51.


1. Wherefore seeing we also are compassed about with so great a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which doth so easily beset us, and let us run with patience the race that is set before


This verse refers to the combats and races of the Grecian games. Christ is compared to the judge, whose place it was to appoint the laws of the games and to adjudge

the prizes.
He is the leader who marks out our course and crowns the conqueror: we
are to lay aside every weight for this contest, as Porphyry tells us the runners in the
games did their garments, whence they were called yuvaσrai. The cloud of witnesses
signifies the great multitudes who thronged the amphitheatre as spectators.


"In one firm orb the troops were ranged around;
A cloud of heroes blacken'd all the ground."

"Alas! a cloud of sorrows surrounds me!"

HOм. I. . IV. v. 274.

EURIP. Herc. fur. v. 1140.

"A cloud of foot soldiers follows Turnus."-VIRG. En. 1. VII. v. 793.
"Immense clouds of birds."-STAT. Sylv. 1. 1. v. 76.

See notes on 1 Cor. IX. 24.

For whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth, and sco rgeth every son whom he receiveth.


Maximus Tyrius, after describing the wanderings and sufferings of Ulysses, says"To all these things the divinity exposed him with benevolent intentions. exercises were assigned to him by a divine allotment, through which he both was, and appeared to be, a worthy man.' -MAX. TYR. diss. 22.

"The gods neither suffer evil themselves, nor inflict it upon others; though they sometimes chastise and lay heavy afflictions upon some persons, which have the appearance of evil.-SENEC. epist. 95.

11. Now no chastening for the present seemeth to be joyous, but grievous: nevertheless afterward it yieldeth the peaceable fruit of righteousness unto them which are exercised thereby.

"The art which makes men better is that which chastises properly and knows the good and bad.”—PLAT. Amator. c. 7.

"We must not let a poet say that those are miserable who are punished, and that it is God who does these things. If they say, however, that the wicked, as being miserable, need correction, and that in being punished they are benefited by God, we may suffer the assertion."--IBID. de rep. 1. II. c. 19.

"Let no one be too much cast down in adversity: perhaps this may be the occasion of good."-MENAND. apud Stob. CVIII.

"Cato used to say, He had rather his good actions should go unrewarded than his bad ones unpunished; and that he pardoned every body's faults sooner than his own." PLUT. Cat. Maj. c. 8.

14. Holiness, without which no man shall see the Lord.

"Who is in the way? Who is in the halls? Let him depart, and let every one be pure as to his mouth, speaking propitious things; for now I will with hymns celebrate Bacchus, according to custom."-EURIP. Bacch. v. 68.

"Then earth began to bellow, trees to dance,

And howling dogs in glimmering light advance
Ere Hecat came.-Far hence be souls profane,

The Sibyl cried, and from the grove abstain."-VIRG. Æn. 1. vi. v. 256.


2. Be not forgetful to entertain strangers: for thereby some have entertained angels unawares.


The violence of Antinous against Ulysses when he returned to his home as a poor stranger, meets with the following reproof

"Ill fits the stranger and the poor to wound:
Unbless'd thy hand if in this low disguise
Wander, perhaps, some inmate of the skies;
They (curious oft of mortal actions) deign
In forms like these to round the earth and main,
Just and unjust recording in their mind,
And with sure eyes inspecting all mankind.”

Hoм. Odyss. 1. Xvii. v. 485.

3. Remember them that are in bonds, as bound with them; and them which suffer adversity, as being yourselves also in the body.

"Proteus being accused of worshipping the famous Magus, who was crucified in Palestine for having introduced novel mysteries into the world, was arrested and thrown into prison; a circumstance that contributed not a little to fan in him that singular vanity which had actuated him through life. For no sooner was he in confinement than the christians who looked upon it as a great disappointment to the common cause, attempted by all possible means to procure his enlargement from prison; and not succeeding, they let him at least want for nothing, and were the more assiduous in affording him every supply that could conduce to his accommodation and comfort. By the first dawn of day, a number of old women, widows (deaconesses?), and young orphans were seen hovering about the prison; some of the most principal even bribed the jailors and passed whole nights with him. Likewise, sumptuous meals were carried in to him, and they read their sacred books together. Several even came from different cities in Asia, as deputies from the christians in those parts to offer their assistance, and to be his advocates on his trial, and to comfort him.-LUCIAN. de morte Pereg. c. 12, 13. 4. Marriage is honourable in all.

"Celebrate the lovely nuptials honourable to men, and to all the immortal gods." Ном. Hymn. in Vener. v. 142.

14. Here we have no continuing city; but we seek one to come.

"The soul does not acknowledge any terrestrial city, as Ephesus, or Alexandria, or if there be any other more populous and whose buildings are greater and more beautiful. She claims for her country the universe, where the air expanding itself between earth and heaven conjoins them both."-SENEC. epist. 102.


2. My brethren, count it all joy when ye fall into divers temptations; "You ought to remember your past sufferings as slaves do their whipping, that you may refrain from the same faults. The pains of experience are useful to us, whether we will or no."- EPICT. 1. III. c. 25.


If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God, that giveth to all men liberally, and upbraideth not; and it shall be given him.

"Will not the deity, who is able to allot and distribute to you things necessary, such as science, poetry, and divination, be able and willing, by a much greater priority to distribute virtue."-MAX. TYR. diss. 22.

"The ruler of the gods is the author of all these benefits; but it never was his custom to utter reproaches on account of the good that he had done to good men." PLAUT. Amphit. prol. v. 44.

6. But let him ask in faith, nothing wavering. For he that wavereth is like a wave of the sea driven with the wind and tossed.

"No one can improve while he is wavering. Whichever way you decide to be preferable, incline to that way altogether, and let no other kind of reasoning draw you aside."-EPICT. 1. IV. c. 2.

"A mind which disagrees and quarrels with itself, cannot taste any portion of clear and unrestrained pleasure."-Cic. de fin. 1. 1. c. 18.

11. For the sun is no sooner risen with a burning heat, but it withereth the grass, and the flower thereof falleth, and the grace of the fashion of it perisheth so also shall the rich man fade in his ways.


"But youth, too transient flower-of life's short day,
The shortest part-but blosoms to decay.
Lo! while we give the unregarded hour

To revelry and joy, in Pleasure's bower,

While now for rosy wreaths our brows to twine,

And now for nymphs we call, and now for wine,

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The noiseless foot of time steals swiftly by,

And ere we dream of manhood, age is nigh!"—Juv. Sat. Ix. v. 127.

"How blest, had it been giv'n thee to behold

Thy children's tender youth, their riper years!

But, ere the flow'rs their petals can unfold,

Fate cuts the tender stalk with eager shears.

So the pale lily droops upon its stem;

So fades the blushing rose before the blast;
So flowers that deck the fields with many a gem,
Wither and die, ere yet the spring is past.'

STAT. Sylv. 1. 1. consolat. v. 124.

13. Let no man say when he is tempted, I am tempted of God: for God cannot be tempted with evil, neither tempteth he any man:

14. But every man is tempted when he is drawn away of his own lust, and enticed.

"Perverse mankind! whose wills, created free,
Charge all their woes on absolute decree;
All to the dooming gods their guilt translate,
And follies are miscall'd the crimes of fate."

Hом. Odyss. 1. I. v. 32.

"To say that God, who is good, is the cause of ills to anyone, this we must by all means oppose, nor suffer it to be said in our State."-PLAT. de rep. 1. 1. c. 19.

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