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"The misfortune is, some come only to hear, not to learn; as they attend the theatre, for pleasure's sake, to delight the ear with some speech, or a sweet tone of voice,⚫ or a diverting story exhibited in comedy. Such you will find great part of an audience, who make the philosophical school but a place of idle resort. They come not thither in order to dispossess themselves of any vice, or to receive any law for the better regulation of manners or better conduct of life; but to please the ear with the twang of eloquence." SENEC. Epist. 108.

EZEKIEL XXXVIII.

2. Son of man, set thy face against Gog, the land of Magog, the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal, and prophesy against him.

The present Aleppo was formerly called Hierapolis, or the sacred city, and still more anciently its name was Magog; whence we may infer the situation of the nations above mentioned.

"Not far from the Euphrates there is in Syria a city bearing the name of the holy city, and acknowledging the Assyrian Juno as its patron deity: though that does not appear to have been the name given to it by its first inhabitants, but in remoter ages it bore another."-LUCIAN. de dea. Syr. c. 1.

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Bambyx, in Cæle Syria, is called also Hierapolis, and by the Syrians Magog."
PLIN. Hist nat. 1. v. c. 19.

EZEKIEL XLI.

8. Six great cubits.

"The royal cubit exceeds the common cubit by six digits.”—HDT. 1. 1. c. 178.

EZEKIEL XLIV.

17. And it shall come to pass, that when they enter in at the gates of the inner court, they shall be clothed with linen garments; and no wool shall come upon them, whiles they minister in the gates of the inner court, and within.

"The Egyptians are forbidden by their religion either to be buried or to enter any sacred edifice wearing vests of wool. This is a peculiarity of those ceremonies which are called Orphic and Pythagorean: whoever has been initiated in these mysteries can never be interred in a vest of wool, for which a sacred reason is assigned.”—ÉDт. 1. I. c. 81.

DANIEL I.

7. Unto whom the prince of the eunuchs gave names: for he gave unto Daniel the name of Belteshazzar; and to Hananiah, of Shadrach; and to Mishael, of Meshach; and to Azariah, of Abed-nego.

Belteshazzar signifies "the Prince of Bel;" and is supposed to be a translation, in the Chaldæan language, of the name Daniel, which is, interpreted, "the Judge of God," or as others have it, "God is my judge." It is to be observed, however, that Nebuchadnezzar, in giving him this name, brought in, according to the custom of his times, the name of his deity, Bel or Baal, as a prefix. This practice may have originated in the change which God made in the names of Abram and Sarai, to each of which one of the We have in Scripture Zerubbabel, letters of the sacred name Jehovah was added. Jezebel, Belshazzar. In the Poenulus of Plautus, Hanno the Carthaginian invokes the The CarthaLord of Heaven and earth by the name of Baal, Balsamen, or Beelsamen. ginians were descended from the Phoenicians, who worshipped Baal, and many of their distinguished men assumed the name of Baal in addition to their other names, as Hannibal, Asdrubal, and others.

"HANNO. Hanno Muthumballe bachaëdreanech.
"AGORASTOCLES. What does he say?

"MILPHIO (interpreting). He says that he is Hanno, from Carthage, a Carthagenian, son of Muthumbal."-PLAUT. Poen. Act v. sc. 2.

DANIEL II.

2. Then the king commanded to call the magicians, and the astrologers, and the sorcerers, and the Chaldeans, for to shew the king his dreams. So they came and stood before the king.

"The Chaldæans being the most ancient of the Babylonians, hold the same station in the commonwealth as the Egyptian priests do in Egypt: for being appointed to divine offices they spend all their time in the study of philosophy, and are especially famous for their knowledge of astrology. They are much given to divination, and foretell future events; they also endeavour by purifications, sacrifices, or other enchantments, to avert evils and to They are skilful also in the art of divination by the procure good fortune and success. flight of birds, and profess to interpret dreams and prodigies."-DIOD. SIC. 1. II. c. 3.

"In Babylon a residence was set apart for the native philosophers, called Chaldeans, who were chiefly devoted to the study of astronomy. Some, who are not approved by the rest, profess to understand genethliology, or the casting of nativities."

STRAB. 1. XVI. c. 1.

Callisthenes sent from Babylon to Aristotle a series of observations of the stars and heavenly bodies, covering a space of 1,903 years. But though the study of astronomy had for so long a time been pursued by the Chaldæans with care and diligence, they degenerated in later times into mere astrologers and fortune tellers.

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Among the Assyrians, the Chaldæans, a tribe who had this name, not from any art which they professed but from the district they inhabited, by a very long course of observations of the stars are considered to have established a complete science, so that it became possible to predict what would happen to each individual, and with what destiny each separate person was born."—CIC. de div. l. I. c. 1.

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"But chiefly in Chaldæans she believes :
Whate'er they say with reverence she receives,
As if from Hammon's secret fount it came;
Since Delphi now, if we may credit fame,
Gives no responses, and a long dark night

Conceals the future hour from mortal sight."—Juv. sat. vi. v. 552.

"Tiberius, lounging away his time with his herd of Chaldæan astrologers, in the rock of Capres that he made his palace."-IBID. sat. X. v. 93.

Herodotus mentions that the Persians were accustomed to refer their dreams to the soothsayers for interpretation.

"Whilst everything was making ready for his departure, Xerxes saw a third vision. The Magi, to whom it was related, were of opinion that it portended to Xerxes unlimited and universal empire."-HDT. 1. vII. c. 19.

20. Daniel answered and said, Blessed be the name of God for ever and ever for wisdom and might are his :

21. And he changeth the times and the seasons: he removeth kings, and setteth up kings: he giveth wisdom unto the wise, and knowledge to them that know understanding:

22. He revealeth the deep and secret things: he knoweth what is in the darkness, and the light dwelleth with him.

"Is not God capable of surveying all things, and being present with all, and receiving a certain communication from all? Is the sun capable of illuminating so great a portion of the universe, and of leaving only that small portion of it unilluminated which is covered by the shadow of the earth: and cannot he who made the sun and causes it to revolve a small part of himself if compared with the whole-cannot he perceive all things? "When you have shut doors and darkened your room, remember never to say that you are alone; for you are not: but God is within, and your genius is within: and what need have they of light to see what you are doing ?"-EPICT. 1. I. c. 14.

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35. Then was the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold, broken to pieces together, and became like the chaff of the summer threshingfloors; and the wind carried them away, that no place was found for them.

"As on some ample barn's well-harden'd floor
(The winds collected at each open door),
While the broad fan with force is whirl'd around,
Light leaps the golden grain, resulting from the ground.
So from the steel that guards Atrides' heart,
Repell'd to distance, flies the bounding dart."

HOм. I. 1. XIII. v. 588.

38. And wheresoever the children of men dwell, the beasts of the field and the fowls of the heaven hath he given into thine hand, and hath made thee ruler over them all. Thou art this head of gold.

39. And after thee shall arise another kingdom inferior to thee, and another third kingdom of brass, which shall bear rule over all the earth.

40. And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron: forasmuch as iron breaketh in pieces and subdueth all things: and as iron that breaketh all these, shall it break in pieces and bruise.

"The immortal gods formed first a race of gold.
The gods then formed a second race of silver.
Father Jove then formed a third, or brazen race.

The present generation is of iron."-HES. oper. et dies, v. 110-174.
See Genesis II. 8.

39. A third kingdom of brass which shall bear rule over all the earth. The third kingdom, says St. Jerome, signifies Alexander and the kingdom of the Macedonians and of the successors of Alexander: the description seems very appropriate to the Greeks.

"The brazen-coated Greeks.”—HOм. Il. 1. œ. v. 47.

"When Alexander was with his army at Babylon, ambassadors came to him from all parts of the world; some to offer their congratulations on his victories; others to tender their crowns; others to make leagues and alliances with him.”

DIOD. SIC. 1. xvI. c. 12.

"When Alexander returned to Babylon, ambassadors from Lybia met him, who congratulated him and bestowed a crown upon him. From Italy the Brettii, Leucani, and Tyrrteni sent ambassadors, as did also the Carthaginians, the Ethiopians, the Scythians, the Celta, and the Iberians. Then it was that Alexander seemed, both to himself and those about him, to have the sovereignty both of the earth and sea."

ARR. Exped. Alex.. 1. vII. c. 15.

"Alexander, having received the empire, commanded that he should be called the king of all lands and of the world."-JUSTIN. 1. XII. c. 16.

DANIEL III.

1. Nebuchadnezzar the king made an image of gold, whose height was threescore cubits, and the breadth thereof six cubits: he set it up in the plain of Dura, in the province of Babylon.

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Amasis, King of Egypt, sent to Cyrene a golden statue of Minerva."

HDT. 1. II. c. 182.

"In the temple of the Theban Jupiter there was formerly an image of solid gold, twelve cubits in height."-IBID. c. 183.

"I promise you, after the manner of the nine Archons, that I will dedicate at Delphi a golden statue as large as life, not only of myself, but also of you."

PLAT. Phædr. c. 11.

"Semiramis built a temple to Jupiter, whom the Babylonians call Belus: upon the top she placed three statues of beaten gold, of Jupiter, Juno, and Rhea; that of Jupiter stood erect in the attitude of walking: it was forty feet in height, and weighed a thousand Babylonish talents. The statue of Rhea was of the same weight, sitting on a golden throne, having two lions standing, on either side one, at her knees, and near to them two enormous serpents of silver, weighing thirty talents each. The image of Juno stood upright and weighed 800 talents; her right hand grasped a serpent by the head, and in her left was a sceptre adorned with precious stones."-DIOD. SIC. 1. II. c. 1.

"In the temple at Elis is a statue of Jupiter of beaten gold, presented by Cypselus, the tyrant of Corinth."-STRAB. 1. VIII. c. 3.

Although the images of the gods and also much of the furniture of the temples were of solid gold, in later times they were only covered superficially with this metal. Plutarch, (Nicias, c. 3.,) mentions a statue of Pallas, which had lost part of its gilding.

18. But if not, be it known unto thee, O king, that we will not serve thy gods, nor worship the golden image which thou hast set up.

"In the reign of Caligula, when the Jews were commanded to place the statue of that emperor in their temple, they chose rather to rise in arms against him."

TAC. Hist. 1. v. c. 5.

19. Then was Nebuchadnezzar full of fury, and the form of his visage was changed.

"Dionysius assumed all kinds of colours, as a person who is in anger does."

DANIEL IV.

PLAT. Epist. 7.

10. Thus were the visions of mine head in my bed; I saw, and behold a tree in the midst of the earth, and the height thereof was great. 11. The tree grew, and was strong, and the height thereof reached unto heaven, and the sight thereof to the end of all the earth.

"Wonderful to be seen, two palm trees shot up together; of these one was greater than the other, and with its heavy branches overshadowed the whole earth, and with its new-grown foliage reached the highest stars."—Ov. Fast. 1. 1. v. 31.

25. That they shall drive thee from men, and thy dwelling shall be with the beasts of the field, and they shall make thee to eat grass as oxen, and they shall wet thee with the dew of heaven, and seven times shall pass over thee, till thou know that the most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever he will.

"Kind Jove, I marvel at thee; for thou rulest over all having honour thyself and vast power well knowest thou the mind of men and the spirit of each; and thy might, O King, is highest of all !"-THEOGN. v. 373.

30. The king spake, and said, Is not this great Babylon, that I have built for the house of the kingdom by the might of my power, and for the honour of my majesty?

"The Assyrians are masters of many capital towns; but their place of greatest strength is Babylon, where, after the destruction of Nineveh, was the royal residence. Such is the extent of the city of Babylon, that when it was taken by Cyrus, those who lived in the extremities were made prisoners before any alarm was communicated to the centre of the place."-HDT. 1. I. c. 178-191.

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Babylon is situated in a plain.

The wall is 385 stadia in circumference, and 32 feet in thickness. The height of the space between the towers is 50 cubits, and of the towers 60. The roadway upon the walls will allow chariots with four horses, when they meet, to pass each other with ease; whence, among the seven wonders of the world are reckoned this wall and the hanging garden. The shape of the garden is a square, and each side of it measures four plethra. It consists of vaulted terraces raised one above another, and resting upon cube-shaped pillars. These are hollow and filled with earth, to allow trees of the largest size to be planted. The pillars, the vaults, and the terraces are constructed of baked brick and asphalt. The ascent to the highest story is by stairs, and at their side are water engines, by means of which persons appointed expressly for the purpose are continually employed in raising water from the Euphrates into the garden; for the river, which is a stadium in breadth, flows through the middle of the city, and the garden is on the side of the river."-STRAB. 1. XVI. c. 1.

For a further account of Great Babylon, see notes on Is. xiii. 19. See also the account of its capture. Jer. 1. and li., and Dan. v.

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