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have all one breath; so that a man hath no preeminence above a beast:

for all is vanity.

20. All go unto one place; all are of the dust, and all turn to dust again.

"I envy not these sumptuous obsequies,
The stately car, the purple canopies;
Much better pleased am I, remaining here,
With cheaper equipage, and better cheer.

A couch of thorns, or an embroider'd bed,

Are matters of indifference to the dead."-THEOGN. v. 1191.

Among the dead one is of as much worth as another. Beauty and strength are gone! We are immersed in the same darkness without the least preference or distinction. Here the most perfect equality reigns; the bravest and the basest man-one is dead as well as the other."-LUCIAN. Inferor. dial. c. 15.

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Earth, impartial, entertains

Her various sons, and in her breast

Princes and beggars equal rest.”—HOR. 1. II. carm. 18.

Weigh the remains of Hannibal! How many pounds will you find in that most consummate general ?"-Juv. Sat. x. v. 147.

22. Wherefore I perceive that there is nothing better, than that a man should rejoice in his own works; for that is his portion: for who shall bring him to see what shall be after him?

"Each day in pleasures bathe your drooping spirits,

For treasured riches nought avail the dead."-Æscн. Pers. v. 841.

ECCLESIASTES IV.

8. There is one alone, and there is not a second; yea, he hath neither child nor brother: yet is there no end of all his labour; neither is his eye satisfied with riches; neither saith he, For whom do I labour, and bereave my soul of good? This is also vanity, yea, it is a sore travail. "I have seen one, who, though rich, grudged a liberal meal even to his own belly; but before he could complete his projects, down he went to the nether world, and his wealth became the accidental possession of another man, so that all his labour and parsimony were in vain."-THEOGN. v. 911.

"How can we believe that any riches whatever could satisfy desire."

LUCIL. 1. v. v. 2.

"A fool never has enough, though he may have everything.”—IBID. 1. xviii. v. 2. "Riches increase, and with them the mad desire for riches; and the more men possess the more they covet."—Ov. Fast. 1. 1. v. 211.

"While the streams of affluence roll,

They nurse the eternal dropsy of the soul,

For thirst of wealth still grows with wealth increased,

And they desire it less who have it least."

Juv. Sat. XIV. v. 138.

9. Two are better than one; because they have a good reward for their labour.

10. For if they fall, the one will lift up his fellow but woe to him that is alone when he falleth; for he hath not another to help him up.

"By mutual confidence, and mutual aid,

Great deeds are done, and great discoveries made ;

The wise new prudence from the wise acquire,

And one brave hero fans another's fire."-Hoм. Пl. 1. x. v. 224.

"Friendship is useful to those who are in the prime of life, because it aids them in the performance of beautiful actions, (as Homer says) When two in concord meet': for they are more able through it both to conceive and to act.”—ARISTOT. Eth. 1. viii. c. 1. 12. And if one prevail against him, two shall withstand him; and a threefold cord is not quickly broken.

We are reminded here of Esop's well known fable of the bundle of sticks, a similar story to which is related by Plutarch as a matter of fact :—

“Scylurus, a king of the Scythians, dying, left eight sons: when his end drew near he called for a bundle of darts, or a quiver full of arrows, to be brought to him. These he put into the hands of his children, bound together as they were, and commanded them to break them; which, when they had essayed to do, and could not with all their strength accomplish, he took them out of the quiver and snapped them asunder, one by one, with the greatest facility. By this device he showed them that as long as they held together they would be strong and invincible, but that discord and disunion would enfeeble them and expose them to destruction."—PLUT. de garrul. c. 17.

ECCLESIASTES V.

2. Be not rash with thy mouth, and let not thine heart be hasty to utter any thing before God: for God is in heaven, and thou upon earth : therefore let thy words be few.

"In all public ceremonies and processions of the priests, a herald went before who gave notice to the people to keep holiday. For, as they tell us, the Pythagoreans would not suffer their disciples to pay any homage or worship to the gods in a cursory manner, but required them to come prepared for it by meditation at home: so Numa was of opinion that his citizens should neither see nor hear any religious service in a slight or careless way, but disengaged from other affairs, bring with them that attention which an object of such importance required."-PLUT. Num. c. 14.

"Let vows be carefully performed."-Cic. de leg. 1. 11. c. 9.

4. When thou vowest a vow unto God, defer not to pay it; for he hath no pleasure in fools; pay that which thou hast vowed.

"Swear not by the gods a perjured oath, for it is not endurable to hide from the immortals a debt that is due."-THEOGN. v. 1195.

The senators, in their address to the people of Rome, reminded them"When the Carthaginian camp was seen from the walls of the city, what vows were then offered up by each particular person, and by the whole body of the people! How often in their assemblies were their hands stretched out towards heaven, and exclamations heard,-O! will that day ever arrive when we shall see Italy cleared of the enemy, and blessed once more with the enjoyment of peace? That now, at length, in the sixteenth year, the gods had granted their wish, and yet not the slightest proposal had been made of returning thanks to the gods. So deficient are men in gratitude, even at the time when a favour is received; and much less are they apt to retain a proper sense of it afterwards."-LIV. 1. xxx. c. 21.

11. When goods increase, they are increased that eat them: and what good is there to the owners thereof, saving the beholding of them with their eyes?

12. The sleep of a labouring man is sweet, whether he eat little or much: but the abundance of the rich will not suffer him to sleep.

"Would you
the real use of riches know?
Bread, herbs, and wine are all they can bestow
Or add, what Nature's deepest wants supplies;
This, and no more, the mass of money buys.
But with continual watching almost dead,
House-breaking thieves, and midnight fires to dread,
Or the suspected slave's untimely flight
With the dear pelf; if this be thy delight,
Be it my fate, so heaven in bounty please,
Still to be poor of blessings such as these!"

HOR. 1. I. Sat. I. v. 73.

"What though you thrash a thousand sacks of grain,
No more than mine thy stomach can contain.
The slave who bears the load of bread, shall eat
No more than he who never felt the weight.
Or say what difference, if we live confined
Within the bounds of Nature's law assign'd,
Whether a thousand acres of demesne,

Or one poor hundred, yield sufficient grain ?"—IBID. V. 45.
"Labour brings sleep."-SIL. Ital. 1. 8. v. 574.

ECLESIASTES VI.

7. All the labour of man is for his mouth, and yet the appetite is not filled.

"No limit to wealth has ever appeared proper to men."-SOLON. 5.

9. Better is the sight of the eyes than the wandering of the desire this is also vanity and vexation of spirit.

Juvenal, referring to the interview of Alexander the Great with Diogenes, says"Even Philip's son, when in his little cell,

Content he saw the mighty master dwell,

Own'd, with a sigh, that he who nought desired,

Was happier far than he who worlds acquired."-Juv. .Sat. xv. v. 311.

ECCLESIASTES VII.

1. The day of death is better than the day of one's birth.

"The Thracians' custom I applaud, for they
Bewail the infant on its natal day;
But joy, when death with unexpected blow
Consigns the spirit to the shades below.

Full well,-for every ill besets man's life;

But Death's the balm of all its varied strife."-ANTHOL. Græc.

"Not to be born, never to see the sun

A greater worldly blessing there is none!

And the next best is speedily to die,

And lap't beneath a load of earth to lie!"-THEOGN. v. 425.

"What Euripides expresses in the following lines is said to be a custom among the people who dwelt about Mount Caucasus :-They lament the birth of the new-born on account of the many evils to which they are exposed; but the dead, who are at rest from their troubles, are carried forth from their homes with joy and gratulation."

STRAB. 1. XI. c. 11.

"There is a story told of Silenus, who, when taken prisoner by Midas, is said to have made him this present for his ransom; namely, that he informed him that never to have been born was by far the greatest blessing that could happen to man, and that the next best thing was, to die very soon; which very opinion Euripides makes use of in his Cresphontes, saying

"When man is born, 'tis fit, with solemn show,

We speak our sense of his approaching woe ;-
With other gestures, and a different eye,
Proclaim our pleasure when he's bid to die."

There is something like this in Cranton's consolation; for he says that Terinæus of Elysia, when he was bitterly lamenting the loss of his son, came to a place of divination to be informed why he was visited with so great affliction, and received in his tablet these three

verses

"Thou fool, to murmur at Euthynous' death!

The blooming youth to fate resigns his breath:
The fate whereon your happiness depends,

At once the parent and the son befriends."-CIC. Tusc. 1. 1. c. 48.

See Job III. 11, 16.

2. It is better to go to the house of mourning, than to go to the house of feasting for that is the end of all men; and the living will lay it

to his heart.

"Fathers bring their sons to a discreet and modest temper of mind, and teachers their youth to all good learning by tears; and it is by affliction and tears that the laws influence citizens to justice in their conduct. But can you say that your movers of laughter either do any service to the bodies of men, or form their minds to a better sense of their duty with respect to their private families, or to the public ?"

7. Surely oppression maketh a wise man mad.

"O, Jupiter! I do not wonder now

XEN. Cyrop. 1. II. c. 2.

That men run mad with injuries."-TER. Adelph. Act. II. sc. 1.

9. Be not hasty in thy spirit to be angry, for anger resteth in the bosom of fools.

"Immoderate anger turns to madness: and, therefore, anger is to be avoided, not only for moderation's sake, but for the health."-SENEC. ep. 18.

10. Say not thou, What is the cause that the former days were better than these? for thou dost not enquire wisely concerning this.

"Of what consequence is it to you to be talked of by those who were born after you, and not by those who were born before you, who were certainly as numerous and more virtuous."-Cic. Somn. Scip.

Turnus, in the combat with Eneas, is thus described-

"An antique stone he saw,

So vast that twelve strong men of modern days

Th' enormous weight from earth could hardly raise:
He heaved it at a lift, and poised on high,

Ran staggering on against his enemy."-VIRG. Æn. 1. XII. v. 899.

"That disregard of the gods which prevails in the present age had not then taken place; nor did every one by his own interpretations accommodate oaths and the laws to his own particular views, but rather adapted his practice to them."-Liv. 1. II. c. 20.

"O, times! O, manners! Tully cried of old,
When Catiline in impious plots grew bold;
When in full arms the son and father stood,
And the sad earth reek'd red with civil blood:
Why now, why now, 'O times! O manners!' cry?
What is it now that shocks thy purity?

No sword now maddens, and no chiefs destroy,

But all is peace, security, and joy.

These times, these manners, that so vile are grown,
Pry'thee, Cæcilian, are they not thy own?

For additional notes on this subject, see Gen. vi. 4.

MART. 1. IX. epigr. 71.

11. Wisdom is good with an inheritance: and by it there is profit to them that see the sun.

"Imperial wealth, by wisdom graced,

In the first lot of bliss is placed."-PIND. Pyth. II. v. 103.

14. In the day of prosperity be joyful, but in the day of adversity consider. "Take a just pleasure in prosperity and grieve not immoderately in adversity." ISOCR. Orat. 1. "Outward misfortunes have often proved to be a great assistance in the study of philosophy."-MAX. TYR. Diss. 37.

"Whoe'er enjoys the untroubled breast,
With virtue's tranquil wisdom blest,
With hope the gloomy hour can cheer,
And temper happiness with fear.

If Jove the winter's horrors bring,
Yet Jove restores the genial spring.

Then let us not of Fate complain,
For soon shall change the gloomy scene.
Apollo sometimes can inspire
The silent muse, and wake the lyre:
The deathful bow not always plies,

Th' unerring dart not always flies.

When Fortune, various goddess, lowers,

Collect your strength, exert your powers;

But, when she breathes a kinder gale,

Be wise, and furl your swelling sail."-HOR. 1. II. carm. 10.

16. Be not righteous over much; neither make thyself over wise: why shouldest thou destroy thyself?

"Laws are good; but he who adheres to the law too strictly appears to me to be a sycophant."-MENAND. apud Stob. XLIV.

"Behold, behold, O priests, this religious man, and if it seems good to you (and it is only the duty of virtuous priests), warn him that there are some fixed limits to religion; that a man ought not to be too superstitious."-Cic. pro domo, c. 40.

"Whoever is wise, without being too wise, is truly wise."-MART. 1. XIV. ep. 210. 20. For there is not a just man upon earth, that doeth good, and sinneth not.

Socrates, quoting a poem of Simonides, says

"I shall never, searching for that which cannot be, throw away a portion of my life on an empty impracticable hope,-searching for an all-blameless man among us, who feed on the fruits of the wide earth. When I have found one I will inform you." PLAT. Protag. c. 31.

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