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37 great bódhi and the great cétiyas of elephants and horses and gold and silver and the like; and in this wise also did the king acquire merit. 38 And the illustrious chief of men went in royal state to the Mahiyangana

cétiya and the excellent Nakhá cétiya, and heaped merit by worshipping 39 at those shrines and holding great feasts. And that he might worship 40 and make offerings at the beautiful cétiyas and viháras that the king 41 Parakkama Báhu had built in the noble city of Pulatthi, this faithful and renowned king went thither with a great number of followers and made offerings thereat befittingly. And the king, who was endued with faith and other virtues, worshipped at the Rajata vihára1 also, and acquired much merit.

42 And like the former kings of Lanká, he desired to show to the divers 43 classes of his subjects the rejoicings that were held in honour of Nátha,

Vishnu, and other gods, which were regarded by all the people as 44 conducive to prosperity. And to that end he caused preparations to

be made throughout the whole city, so that it looked like the city of 45 the gods. And he assembled together all the inhabitants of Lanká in that city, dividing the people according to their districts and offices, and placing them in divers parts of the city,--the people of each district having a flag to distinguish them, raised (in their several encampments). 46 And he caused the emblems of the gods, that were in the temples, 52 to be (taken out and) placed on the back of elephants, and commanded that they should be taken in procession, accompanied before and behind by elephants and drums and a host of dancers; by numbers of divers elephants and horses; by men in the dress of Brahmas, arrayed gorgeously in divers garments; by persons holding divers kinds of umbrellas and chowries; by numbers of divers classes of women and officers of state; by numerous sword bearers and shield bearers and spearmen and men armed with divers kinds of weapons; by persons carrying divers cloths and flags; by people of strange countries, and men skilled in divers languages; by numerous artificers and handicraft53 men, and by many such people. And then the king followed in royal state, like the king of the gods, and after that he had gone round the whole city with the procession, returned (with it), and entered the palace at the conclusion thereof.


And while our great king thus celebrated the Ásálhi 2 rejoicings 55 yearly he thought it proper, as his faith and wisdom increased, that they should be preceded by a procession in honour of Buddha. So he caused a golden howdah of exquisite workmanship to be fixed on the 56 back of the state elephant, and adorned this white elephant 3 with 57 ornaments. And this one was surrounded by elephants ridden by men

1 Ridivihára.

2 July-August.

3 The expression Subha-candiradan-gajaṇ is evidently a blunder. The writer probably had a hazy idea of the Sanskrit words Subhra-candira, which may be used for a white elephant, and in attempting to render them into Páli made an incomprehensible mess of the compound. The Sinhalese version makes it, “the elephant with beautiful spots and two tusks," for which I do not find any warrant.

who carried silver umbrellas and chowries and flowers, and canopies with flowers hanging from them, and manifold other things that were meet for offerings; by divers flags and banners; by men who disguised 58 themselves in manifold dress; by royal ministers; and by divers strangers. And when everything was thus made ready, the ruler of 59 men reverently placed the splendid golden casket containing the relics 60 of the body of Buddha on the howdah, and caused the flower-strewers to strew flowers thereon, thick as rain. Then there was great rejoicing 61 with cries of "sádhu," and with the sound of conchs and cymbals and the noise of divers drums. And the good people, who were struck 62 with wonder and amazement, unceasingly worshipped the relics with their hand raised to their foreheads. And the ruler of men arranged that 63 the procession should be preceded by men carrying torches and by men wearing festive garments and by a variety of festive shows. And he 64 commanded that the relic of the conqueror, which had obtained the 65 first place among the things that were to be adored by gods and demigods and men, should be carried foremost; and the rest, such as the emblems of gods, and men and others, should follow behind it. And he himself, surrounded with all the magnificence of royalty, 66 amidst shouts of victory and applause, with the majesty of a king, and with great rejoicings, went forth, as if displaying before men the manner in which the chief of the gods celebrated the great feast of the relic in heaven.

And as he was endued with faith and many other virtues he gave 67 his services to the cause of Buddha, the Law, and the Order. And 68 remembering with pleasure what was real and what was unreal, he did always deeds of charity and the like good works. And as he abounded in faith, wisdom, and mercy, and other excellent virtues, he was like unto a lamp that shed light throughout the island. And he rejoiced exceedingly in the supreme Buddha, and walked circumspectly according to the law of the sage with the ten powers. And he was always diligent and zealous, and looked at the real and the unreal; and, being mindful of the welfare of all his people, he performed many acts of merit, such as almsgiving and the like, and continued so (even to the end).1

And because of the respect that he had unto the Three Sacred Gems, 69 he continued daily to make great offerings to the tooth-relic with great rejoicing. And being always mindful of the priests who were brought 70 into the church in his reign, he ministered unto them, out of his own income, with the four things that were necessary for monks. And as 71 he delighted in the sacred Law he ofttimes heard it expounded with great attention, and acquired much merit. And thus he caused the 72 religion of the conqueror to flourish, even as it did when Buddha yet

1 These two verses are composed in different metres-viz., the Upéndravajjrá and Șragdhará, respectively, and contain needless repetitions—a lamentable fault throughout these chapters. The two verses, besides, are unconnected with the narrative, and have evidently been added or interpolated for effect.

73 lived, and did much good to the inhabitants of Lanká. And when he heard of the works that had been done by Parakkama Báhu and former kings he was struck with their excellence, being indeed himself a 74 follower in their footsteps. And as he had learnt the duties of kings 75 he had a great regard thereto, and lived in fear of the four states of mind that lead to the perversion of justice,1 and applied himself with great heed to the practice of the four kingly virtues. He showed favour unto his own brother and others in a manner that was most fitted to please them, and gained their affections by inquiring constantly 76 after their health and welfare. Thus did this chief of men, the supreme lord of Lanká, give himself up to the welfare of others, and was always diligent in defending the cause of religion and of his people. And when he heard of the many former kings who had been the defenders of Lanká and remembered their noble deeds, he resolved, saying, "I also will 77 walk in the excellent path of the duties of kings." And when he had thus resolved the ruler of men pondered it in his heart.

Now the history of the kings of the Great Dynasty and of the kings 78 of the Lesser Dynasty, from Mahá Sammata unto those of the city of Hatthiséla, was formerly comprised in verse, and preserved by them 79 of old under the title of " The Mahávansa.” And this ruler of Lanká 80 caused an examination to be made, separately and in due order, of the two books, namely, that which was extant in the island of Lanká and the same book of the history of the kings of Lanká that was brought 81 hither from Siam; and when it was told him that they were wanting, 82 he caused the portion also of the history of the latter kings, from 83 Parakkama Báhu2 and others to the present time, to be written up, and caused the genealogy also of the kings to be preserved.3

Thus did this ruler of men administer the affairs of the kingdom justly and righteously, and committed not any breach of the precepts of kings or of the precepts of religion, but conformed himself to the laws that govern the conduct of kings, and daily performed divers acts 84 of merits, such as giving alms and the like. And this liberal king meditated on the noble Law, and steadily practised the four kingly 85 virtues (that conciliate people); namely, giving of gifts, speaking kind words, seeking the good of others, and regarding their fellow-creatures 86 as they do themselves. And so that the world might see that he had the same regard for his two younger brethren, the sub-kings, as he had for himself, the king bestowed liberally on them equipages and all 87 other things that were necessary for kings; and thus he pleased them 88 much, and practised to their utmost extent the four-fold kingly virtues. And these two sub-kings who had received such favours from the king,

1 The Agatis, viz., love, hatred, fear, and ignorance.

2 Parákrama Bahu IV. who reigned at Kurunegala. See chap. XC., v. 64.

3 Being an important passage, relating to the composition of the last portion of the Mahavansa, I have rendered the original very closely. The portion thus written up to this date evidently commenced from the 105th verse of the XCth chapter, which records the reign of Parakkama Báhu IV. See note in loc.

were wont to celebrate feasts in honour of the tooth-relic, each on his own account, and to cause books to be written for payment. They were wont also to invite priests and give them alms daily; and by 89 hearkening to the preaching of the holy law they knew what should be done and what should not be done; and thereby they eschewed evil 90 deeds and loved good works greatly. They sought also for Sámanéras who were good men, able and skilful, and provided them with the 91 eight things that were necessary for monks, as befitted princes, and 92 caused them to be ordained and well instructed in the laws of discipline and the discourses of Buddha. They built monasteries also, which are works of great merit, and caused priests to dwell in them, unto whom, 93 also, they were wont to minister duly, with great regard. And they also made inquiry, in divers ways, concerning the things that were needful to be done for the religion and the kingdom. And by encouraging 94 good men and discouraging the wicked, they acted according to the king's wishes, as it was their duty to do. In this manner they sought 95 to do good in divers ways, and conducted themselves according to the king's wishes, and made themselves one with the religion and the people. And because that some former kings, with the intent to 96 obtain the kingdom, cared not for their brethren and kinsfolk, but persecuted one another, the people, in like manner, by reason of their 97 dissensions, became of the same character. But these three brethren, having obtained and divided among themselves a kingdom that was not to be dispised, contended not with each other for greatness, nor 98 laid bare the faults of one another before the world. And they dwelt together in one city, and clave to each other like their own shadows. And thus, without (envying one another, or) being provoked to anger 99 on account of the kingdom, they displayed the virtues of the Bódhisatta as they are written in the Sílava Játaka. The Licchavi princes of 100 Visálá (in the days of old) ruled their kingdom in peace and harmony, and thereby obtained they the victory over their enemies. Even as 101 kings gifted with little wisdom, maddened by the beauty of Lanká, did that which was evil, and came to great trouble; so they who were 102 endued with wisdom and favoured by Lanká, did that which was right, and acquired great fame. Even so these three rulers of men who 103 became the (joint) lords of a Lanká, beautiful as she hath ever been, preserved peace and harmony among themselves. That, I say, is a 104 marvellous thing. And this great king, of great virtue, who had given 105 his brother the parasol and other emblems of royalty, beheld him once going about with a royal retinue (as splendid as his own), and was pleased (thereat), and looked on him again and again, and only turned his mind to contemplate the virtue of benevolence to all men.

And these three persons, endued with many virtues, who stood 106 high in the race of kings, and were the prop and support of religion, walked in the ways of good men. And as they avoided those things which lead to the perversion of justice, and associated with good companions, their only aim was to prepare their way to heaven.

2 P




Thus these virtuous kings, rich in faith, devoutly made offerings to the tooth-relic of the glorious Buddha, and his excellent Law and Order. And they acquired much merit which bringeth every blessing, and defended the spotless religion of the sage with great care, as also this island of Lanká.

May all men, therefore, always serve the virtuous ruler of Lanká who laid to his heart the weight of solid virtue that belongeth to the sage, the sole lord of the world, and constantly keepeth it in remembrance without forgetting his law and his priesthood.

109 Thus the great king, who is the chief of kings, endued with kingly authority, duly defended the spotless religion of the sage and this island of Lanká. And he pleased the people of many countries by giving them great possessions. He caused gods and men to rejoice; and he was endued with excellent wisdom, and was possessed of the power of authority as well as the power of merit.1

110 Now while this great king of great fame and great authority dwelt in 111 the great city, defending the church and the kingdom, the Hollanders, who were powerful merchants, and had been appointed in the time of king Rájasíha to defend the (seacoast of the) island, continued to 112 perform the duties of messengers to the kings of Lanká. It was their custom to bring presents of great value (to the king) of divers cloths 113 and other goods wrought in divers countries, and many costly things

also that were fit for the enjoyment of kings, every year, with great 114 honour and in great procession. Now at that time, by reason, perhaps, 115 of some sin committed by the people of Lanká, or of the neglect of the gods that were appointed to defend the religion and the land, 116 they (the Hollanders) became exceedingly wroth and cruel, and began

to vex the inhabitants of Lanká in manifold ways. And when the illustrious king heard tidings thereof, he thought it an unjust thing, 117 and sent officers against them. And those officers went with the men 118 of Lanká, as they had been commanded, and carried on a fierce war

with the Hollanders. And they destroyed the enemy, and burned their houses and forts, and, by manifold devices, struck terror into 119 their hearts. And when the enemy was thus oppressed with fear, 120 a certain stubborn, cruel, and vile man-a sinner whose days were

numbered-assumed the leadership, and took with him a great number of followers consisting of many Malays and others, and, in manifold 121 ways, began to lay waste divers parts of the country, and destroyed villages, viháras, déválas, bridges, resting houses, and the like. 122 And although the officers who had been ordered by the lord of Lanká opposed him in divers places with men of valour skilled in war, 123 and fought against him in divers ways and slew (many of) the enemy

1 Verses 106 to 109 are only laudatory, and have no connection with each other. They are composed in the Maliní, Sárdúla-Vikridita, and Vasanta-tilaka metres, and have evidently been intended as a conclusion to the religious life of the three royal brothers. The verses contain much tautology and are otherwise faulty.

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