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ON his demise, Mahásíva, the patron of righteous men, the younger brother of Uttiya, reigned ten years. This monarch, 'complying with (the directions of) the thera Bhaddasála, constructed a vihára in the eastern quarter of the city, which was itself beauteous as Anganá (the goddess of beauty).

On his demise, Súratissa, the delighter in acts of piety, the younger brother of Mahásíva, reigned ten years. This monarch, laying up for himself an inestimable store of rewards, built superb viháras at many places, (viz.)3 to the eastward of the capital (near Dváramandala), the Hatthikkhandha; and in the same direction, the Gonnagiri vihára; 4(also viháras) at the Vanguttara mountain; at the mountain called Pácína and at the Rahiraka mountain ;-in like manner at Kólamba, the Kálaka vihára; and at the foot of the Ariṭṭha mountain, the Lanká vihára. (Still further) to the eastward of Anuradhapura, near Rahagallaka (different however from the vihára of the same name built by Dévánampiya Tissa), the Acchaggallaka vihára; to the north of the city, the Gírinélapanakanda vihára. This ruler of the land, a sincere worshipper of the "ratanattaya," during a period of sixty years, both before and after his accession, built in great perfection, and without committing any oppression, these, together with others, five hundred delightful viháras, in various parts of the island, both on this and on the other side of the river (Mahaveliganga).

This king was formerly called Suvannapinda Tissa. From the time of his accession to the sovereignty, he acquired the appellation of Súra Tissa.

Two Damila (Malabar) youths, powerful in their cavalry and navy, named Séna and Guttika, putting to death this protector of the land, righteously reigned for twenty-two years.

At the termination of that period, Aséla, son of Muṭasíva, and the ninth of the (ten) brothers (born of the same mother), putting them. (the usurpers) to death, reigned at Anuradhapura for ten years.

A Damila named Elára, of the illustrious "Uju" tribe, invading this island from the Cóla country, for the purpose of usurping the sovereignty and putting to death the reigning king Aséla, ruled the kingdom for forty-four years, administering justice with impartiality to friends and to foes.

At the head of his bed, a bell, with a long rope, was suspended, in order that it might be rung by those who sought redress. The said monarch had a son and a daughter. This royal prince, on an excursion to the Tissa tank in his chariot, unintentionally killed a full-grown calf, which was on the road with its dam, by the wheel of the carriage passing

1 being much pleased with the théra of Bhaddasála, built for him the beautiful vihára Nagarangana, on the eastern side of the city."

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This passage is omitted in the text of the Sumangala-Baṭuvantuḍáve Recension. on the southern side the Nagarangana vihára." Omitted in Turnour's text. There appears to have been another vihára of this name on the eastern side, built by Mahásíva.

466 at the Vanguttara mountain, the Pácína-pabbata vihára; near the Rahera dam, the Kolamba-kálaka vihára."

5 The names of nine of these brothers are given in the commentary: Abhaya, Dévánampiya Tissa, Uttiya, Maháséna, Mahánága, Mattábhaya, Súra Tissa, Kiranámaka, and Aséla; omitting Uddhañcúlábhaya, who is mentioned in the first chapter. [Note by Mr. Turnour.]


a man of upright character."

over its neck. The cow1 repairing to the said bell (rope), threw herself against it. The consequence of that peal of the bell was, that the king struck off the head of his son with that very wheel. A serpent devoured a young crow on a palmyra tree. The mother of the young bird, repairing to the bell (rope), flew against it. The king causing the said (serpent) to be brought, had its entrails opened; and extracting the young bird therefrom, hung the serpent up on the palmyra tree.

Although this king was ignorant of the "ratanattaya " as well as of its inestimable importance and immutable virtues, protecting the institutions (of the land), he repaired to the Cétiya mountain; and 3offered his protection to the priesthood. On his way back in his chariot, a corner of a Buddhistical edifice was fractured by the yoke bar of his carriage. The ministers (in attendance) thus reproached him :“Lord! is our thúpa to be demolished by thee?" Although the act was unintentional, this monarch, descending from his carriage, and prostrating himself in the street, replied, "Do ye strike off my head with the wheel of my carriage?" "Mahárájá," (responded the suite) "our divine teacher delights not in torture: seek forgiveness by repairing the thúpa." For the purpose of replacing the fifteen stones which had been displaced, he bestowed fifteen thousand kahápanas.

A certain old woman had laid out some paddy to dry. The déva (who presides over elements) causing an unseasonable shower to fall, wetted her paddy. Taking the paddy with her, she went and rang the bell. Satisfying himself that the shower was unseasonable, sending the old woman away, and saying to himself, "While a king rules righteously the rain ought to fall at seasonable periods," in order that he might be inspired with the means of giving judgment in the case, he consigned himself to the penance of abstinence. By the supernatural merits of the king, the tutelar déva, who accepted of his bali offerings, moved with compassion, repairing to the four kings of dévas (of the Cátummahárájá world), imparted this circumstance to them. They, taking him along with them, submitted the case to Sakka. Sakka (the supreme déva), sending for the 10spirit who presides over the elements, enjoined the fall of showers at seasonable hours only.

The tutelar déva of the king imparted this (behest) to the monarch. From that period, during his reign, no shower fell in the daytime it only rained, 11at the termination of every week, in the middle of the night, and the ponds and wells were everywhere filled.

Thus, even he 12who was a heretic, doomed by his creed to perdition, solely from having 13thoroughly eschewed the sins of an "agati " agati" course of life (of impiety and injustice), attained this exalted extent of supernatural power. Under these circumstances, how much more should the true believer and wise man (exert himself to) eschew the 14vices of an impious and iniquitous life.

The twenty-first chapter in the Mahávansa, entitled "The Five Kings," composed equally for the delight and affliction of righteous men.

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11 once a week."

12" who had not discarded his false creed."

13" liberated himself from the sinful sources of injustice (love, fear, hate, and ignorance)."

14" evils that lead men to commit iniquity."


DUTTHA GÁMANÍ putting him (Elára) to death, became king. To illustrate this (event), the following (is the account given) in 1ancient history.

The next brother of king Dévánampiya Tissa, named Mahánága, had been appointed sub-king; and he was much attached to his brother.

The consort (of Dévánampiya Tissa), ambitious of administering the government during the minority of her son, was incessantly plotting the destruction of the sub-king. She sent to him, while engaged in the formation of the Taraccha tank, an amba fruit containing poison, which was placed the uppermost (in a jar) of ambas. Her infant son, who had accompanied the sub-king (to the tank), at the instant of opening the jar, eating that particular amba, died. From that very spot, for the preservation of his life, taking his family and his establishment with him, the sub-king escaped in the direction of the Róhana division.

(In the flight), at the Yaṭṭhála vihára, his pregnant consort was delivered of a son, to whom he gave the name of his (reigning) brother (and of the place of his nativity, Yatthála). Proceeding from thence to Róhana, this illustrious prince ruled over the fertile and productive Róhana country, making Mahágáma his capital. He constructed a vihára, bearing his own name, Mahánága, as well as Uddhakandara and many other viháras.

On his demise, his son, the aforesaid Yaṭṭhálaka Tissa, ruled over the same country. In like manner his son Góthábhaya succeeded him. Similarly, on the demise of Góthábhaya, his son, the monarch celebrated under the name of Kákavanna Tissa, ruled there. The queen-consort of that sovereign of eminent faith was Viháradéví, the equally pious daughter of the king of Kalyani.

Tissa, the sovereign of Kalyáni, had a brother named Uttiya, who, terrified at the resentment borne to him on the king's detection of his criminal intercourse with the queen, fled from thence. This prince, called Uttiya, from his grandfather (king of Anuradhapura), established himself in another part of the country (near the sea). From that circumstance, that division was called by his name. The said prince, entrusting a secret letter to a man disguised in the garb of a priest, dispatched him to the queen. (The messenger) repairing thither, stationed himself at the palace gate; and as the sanctified chief théra daily attended the palace for his repast, he also unobserved entered (with that chief priest's retinue) the royal apartment. After having taken his repast with the théra, on the king's leaving the apartment in attendance (on the théra), this disguised messenger catching (at last) the eye of the queen, let the letter drop on the ground. By the noise (of its fall) the king's (attention) was arrested. Opening it and discovering the object of the communication, the monarch, misled (into the belief of the chief priest's participation in the intrigue), became enraged with the théra; and in his fury putting both the théra and the messenger to death, cast their bodies into the sea.

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"Now there was a sovereign of Kalyani called Tissa, a Kshatriya, whose brother Uttiya, terrified," &c.

dévatás, 1to expiate (this impiety), submerged that province by the overflow of the ocean. This ruler of the land (to appease the dévatás of the ocean), quickly placing his own lovely daughter Suddhadéví in a golden vessel, and inscribing on it "a royal maiden," at that very place launched her forth into the ocean. The king (of Mahágáma) Kákavanna raised to the dignity of his queen-consort her who was thus cast on shore 3on his dominions. Hence (from the circumstance of her being cast on shore near a vihára) her appellation of Vihára Déví.

Having caused to be constructed the Tissamahá, as well as the Cittalapabbata, Gamiṭṭhaváli, Kuțáli, and other viháras, (the king) zealously devoted to the "ratanattaya," constantly bestowed on the priesthood the four sacerdotal requisites.

At that period there was a certain sámanéra priest, a most holy character, and a practiser of manifold acts of charity, residing in the Kótipabbata vihára. For the purpose of facilitating the ascent to the 5 Ákásacétiya vihára (which was difficult of access) he placed in the (intervals of) three rocks, some steps. He constantly provided for his fraternity the beverage used by priests, and performed the menial services due to the senior brotherhood. Unto this (sámanéra), worn out by his devout assiduities, a severe visitation of illness befel. The priests who were rendering assistance (to the patient), removing him in a 7" siviká" to the Tissáráma vihára, were attending him in the Silápassa parivéņa. The benevolent Vihára Déví constantly sent from the well-provided palace the forenoon principal alms to the priesthood; and taking with her the evening meal, offerings of fragrant garlands, medicinal drugs, and clothing, she repaired to the temple and administered every comfort. While she was in the performance of this duty, she happened to be seated near the chief priest; and the said théra in expounding the doctrines of the faith, thus addressed her: "It is on account of thy pious benevolence that thou hast attained thy present exalted position of prosperity. Even now (however) in the performance of acts of benevolence there should (on thy part) be no relaxation." On his having delivered this exhortation, she replied, "Why? in what does this exalted prosperity consist? Up to this period we have no children; it follows, therefore, that ours is the prosperity of barrenness." The chief théra, master of the six branches of doctrinal knowledge, 10foreseeing the prosperity which would attend her son, replied, "Queen, look (for the realisation of the wish) to the suffering sámanéra." Repairing to the dying priest, she thus implored of him : 11" Become my son: it will be to us (a result) of the utmost importance." Finding that he was not consentient, still with the same object in view, having held a magnificent festival of flower

1" incensed at."

*"his daughter Déví, a princess of great beauty and purity." 366 near the Lanká vihára."

4" Now."

311 terrace of the dágoba aloft (on the top of the rock), he fixed three stone slabs on the fight of steps that led thereto."

6.66 grateful for his services."

7" litter."

"Now the gentle Vihára Dévi was always wont to treat the priesthood with sumptuous food at the king's palace in the forenoon, and, after meal time, to take with her unguents, flowers, drugs, and clothes to the temple, and make offerings to the priests according to their wants."

"What prosperity is this to us who have no children in this world: our prosperity, therefore, is indeed barren."

10" foreseeing that she would be blessed with a son."

11" Desire to become my son (in thy next re-incarnation); for our estate indeed is great."



offerings, 1this benefactress again renewed her petition. On3 him who was thus unrelenting and on the priesthood (generally), the queen, fruitful in expedients, having bestowed medicines and clothing, again implored of him (the dying sámanéra). He (at last) consented to become a member of the royal family. She, causing his residence to be ornamented with every description of decoration, and bowing down and taking leave of him, departed, seated in her carriage. The sámanéra expiring immediately afterwards was conceived in the womb of the queen, who was still on her journey. Conscious of what had taken place, she stopped (her carriage); and having announced the event to the king, together with his majesty returned, and both performed the funeral obsequies of the sámanéra; and for the priesthood, sanctified in mind, resident in that parivéņa, they constantly provided alms.

Unto this pre-eminently pious queen the following longing of pregnancy was engendered.

First that lying on her left side, on a magnificent bed, having for her head-pillow a honey-comb, an "usabha" in size, and having given thereof to twelve thousand priests, she might eat the portion left by them.

Secondly that she might "bathe in the (water) in which the sword which struck off the head of the chief warrior of king Elára was washed, standing on the head of that identical individual.


Thirdly that she might wear unfaded 'uppala flowers, brought from the 10uppala marshes of Anuradhapura.

The queen mentioned these longings to the king, and the monarch consulted the fortune-tellers. The fortune-tellers, after inquiry into the particulars, thus predicted: "The queen's son, destroying the Damilas, and reducing the country under one sovereignty, will make the religion of the land shine forth again." The sovereign caused to be proclaimed by beat of drums: "Whosoever will discover a honeycomb of such a description, to him will the king give a proportionate reward." A native of that district seeing a canoe which was turned 11up on the beach 12near the waves, filled with honey, reported the same to the king. The rájá conducted the queen thither; and 13 in a commodious building erected there, she had the means of partaking of the honey-comb according to her longing.

For the purpose of gratifying her other longings, the ruler assigned the accomplishment of the task to the warrior named Vélusumaņa. He, repairing to Anuradhapura, formed an intimacy with the groom of the king (Elára's) charger (named Sammata), and constantly assisted him in his work. 14Perceiving that the groom had relaxed in his vigilance, at the dawn of day, (previously) concealing some 15uppala flowers and a sword on the bank of the Kadamba river, without creating the slightest suspicion, leading the state charger (to the river), mounting him, and seizing the 15uppala flowers and the sword, and proclaiming who he was, darted off at the full speed of the horse.

1 Add" (in his behalf)."


truly wise woman."

3 Insert" behalf of."

"of about the size of a bull." 7" drink of."

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4 Dele.

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10 on the priesthood."


a garland of water-lilies."

11 66

upside down.” 12" of the Gotha sea." Gotha is the name of the sea called by Sinhalese writers Golumuhuda, "the Dumb sea," most probably on account of its calmness. 13" in a well-furnished hall erected there, caused her to partake of the honey as she pleased."

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Assuring himself of the groom's friendship."



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