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were all still gazing at it, eight sprouting shoots were produced, and became vigorous plants, four cubits high each. The king, seeing these vigorous bó trees, delighted with astonishment, made an offering of, and invested them with, his white canopy (of sovereignty).

Of these eight, he planted (one) at Jambukólapaṭṭana, on the spot where the bó tree was deposited on its disembarkation; one at the village of the brahman Tivakka; at the Thúpíráma; at the Issarasamanaka vihára; at the Paṭhama Cétiya; likewise at the Cétiya mountain vihára; and at Kájaragáma, as also at Candanagáma (both villages in the Róhana division); one bó plant at each. These bearing four fruits, two each (produced) thirty bó plants, which planted themselves, at the several places, each instant a yójana in circumference from the sovereign bó tree, by the providential interposition of the supreme Buddha, for the spiritual happiness of the inhabitants of the land.

The aforesaid Anulá, together with her retinue (of five hundred virgins, and five hundred women of the place), entering into the order of priesthood, in the community of the thérí Sanghamittá, attained the sanctification of "arhat." Ariṭṭha, together with a retinue of five hundred personages of royal extraction, obtaining priestly ordination in the fraternity of the théra, also attained "arhatship." Whoever the eight persons of the seṭṭhi caste were, who escorted the bó tree hither, they, from that circumstance, obtained the name of bódháhará (bó bearers).

The thérí Sanghamittá, together with her community of priestesses, sojourned in the quarters of the priestesses, which obtained the name of the "Upásiká vihára."

There (at the residence of Anulá, before she entered into the priesthood) (the king) formed twelve apartments, three of which were the principal ones. In one of these great apartments (called the Cúlangana) he deposited the (kúpayaṭṭhika) mast of the vessel which transported the great bó; in another (called Mahá-angana) an oar (piya); in the third (called the Sirivaḍdha) the ariṭṭha rudder. From these (appurtenances of the ship) these (apartments) were known (as the Kúpayaṭthithúpanagára). Even during the various schisms (which prevailed at subsequent periods) the Hatthálhaka priestesses uninterruptedly maintained their position at this establishment of twelve apartments.

The before-mentioned state elephant of the king, roaming at his will, placed himself at a cool stream in a certain quarter of the city, in a grove of kadamba trees, and remained browsing there;-ascertaining the preference given by the elephant to the spot, they gave it this name of "Hatthálhaka."


On a certain day this elephant refused his food: the king inquired the cause thereof of the théra, the dispenser of happiness in the land. The chief théra, replying to the monarch, thus spoke : " (The elephant) is desirous that the thúpa should be built in the kadamba grove.' sovereign, who always gratified the desires of his subjects, without loss of time built there a thúpa, enshrining a relic therein, and built an edifice over the thúpa.

"Thirty-two bódhi plants, produced from four other fruits, planted themselves in the several viháras throughout the island at a distance of a yójana each, by virtue of the glory of Buddha inherent in the bódhi tree."

2" they planted there a post ('álhaka') (to secure the elephant hatthi thereto at night)."

3" who had effected the conversion of the island."

4" a thúpa."



The chief thérí Sanghamittá, being desirous of leading a life of devotional seclusion, and the situation of her sacerdotal residence not being sufficiently retired for the1 advancement of the cause of religion, and 2for the spiritual comfort of the priestesses, was seeking another nunnery. Actuated by these pious motives, repairing to the aforesaid delightful and charmingly secluded thúpa edifice, this personage, sanctified in mind and exalted by her doctrinal knowledge, enjoyed there the rest of noonday.

The king repaired to the temple of the priestesses to pay his respects to the thérí, and learning whither she had gone, he also proceeded thither, and reverentially bowed down to her. The máhárájá Dévánampiya Tissa, who could distinctly divine the thoughts of others, having graciously consulted her, inquired the object of her coming there, and having fully ascertained her wishes, erected around the thúpa a charming residence for the priestesses. This nunnery being constructed near the Hatthálhaka hall, hence became known as the " Hatthálhaka vihára." The chief thérí Sanghamittá, surnamed Sumittá, from her being the benefactress of the world, endowed with divine wisdom, sojourned there in that delightful residence of priestesses.

Thus this (bó tree) monarch of the forest, endowed with many miraculous powers, has stood for ages in the delightful Mahámégha garden in Lanká, promoting the spiritual welfare of the inhabitants of Lanká, and the propagation of the true religion.

The nineteenth chapter in the Mahávansa, entitled "The Arrival of the Bó Tree," composed equally for the delight and affliction of righteous men.


In the eighteenth year of the reign of Dhammásóka, the bó tree was planted in the Maháméghavana pleasure garden. In the twelfth year from that period the beloved wife of that monarch, Asandhimittá, who had identified herself with the faith of Buddha, died. In the fourth year from (her demise) the rájá Dhammásóka, under the influence of carnal passions, raiseds to the dignity of queen-consort 2an attendant of his (former wife). In the third year from the date this malicious and vain creature, who thought only of the charms of her own person, saying, "This king, neglecting me, lavishes his devotion exclusively on the bó tree,”-in her rage (attempted to) destroy the great bó with the 10 poisoned fang of a toad. In the fourth year from that occurrence, this highly gifted monarch Dhammásóka fulfilled the lot of mortality. These years collectively amount to thirty-seven.

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7 In reference to the period at which the first portion of the Mahavansa was composed, between A.D. 459 and 478.-[Note by Mr. Turnour.]

8 Insert " the princess Tissarakkhá."

966 young."

10 The original word mandu-kantaka may also mean the "thorn of the mandu tree." There are several plants that bear the name of mandu or manduka.

The monarch Dévánampiya Tissa, impelled by his ardour in the cause of religion, having completed his undertaking at the Mahávihára, also at the Thúpáráma, as well as at the Cétiya mountain, in the most perfect manner; thus inquired of the théra, the dispenser of joy to the land, who was endowed with the faculty of answering all inquiries: "Lord, 1I shall build many viháras in this land: whence am I to obtain the relics to be deposited in the thúpas?" He was thus answered by the théra: "O king, the relics brought thither by Sumana, filling the refection dish of the supreme Buddha, and deposited at the Cétiya mountain, are sufficient; transfer them hither on the back of a state elephant." Accordingly he brought the relics, and constructing viháras at the distance of one yójana from each other, at those places he enshrined the relics in thúpas, in due form; and depositing the refection dish of the supreme Buddha in a superb apartment of the royal residence, constantly presented every description of offerings (thereto).

The place at which the five hundred (Issaré) 3eminently pious persons, who had been ordained by the chief théra, sojourned, obtained the name of "Issarasamanaka.”

The place at which the five hundred (vessé) brahmans, who had been ordained by the chief théra, sojourned, obtained the name of "Vessagiri."

Wherever were the rock cells, whether at the Cétiya mountain or elsewhere, at which the théra Mahinda sojourned, those obtained the name of "Mahindaguhá."

In the following order (he executed those works): in the first place, the Mahavihára; secondly, the one called Cétiya; thirdly, completing previously the splendid Thúpa, the Thúpáráma vihára; fourthly, the planting of the great bó; fifthly, the designation of the sites of (future) dágobas, by (an inscription on) a stone pillar erected on the site of the Maháthúpa (Ruvanveli), as well as (the identification) of the shrine of the "Givaṭṭhi" relic of the supreme Buddha (at Mahiyangana); sixthly, the Issarasamana; seventhly, the Tissa tank; eighthly, the Pathamathúpa; ninthly, Vessagiri vihára; lastly, the delightful Upásiká vihára and the Hatthálhaka vihára, both these at the quarters of the priestesses, for their accommodation.

"As the priests who assembled at the Hatthathaka establishment of the priestesses to partake of the royal alms (distributed at that place) acquired a habit of loitering there, (he constructed) a superb and completely furnished refection hall, called the Mahápáli, provided also with an establishment of servants; and there annually (he bestowed) on a thousand priests the sacerdotal requisites offered unto them at the termination of "pavárana." (He erected also) a vihára at the port of Jambukóla in Nágadípa; likewise the Tissamahá vihára and the Pácéna vihára (both at Anurádhapura).

Thus this ruler of Lanká, Dévánampiya Tissa, blessed for his piety in former existences, and wise (in the administration of human affairs),

1 "I am about to build."

2" how can I obtain."

3" lords."

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7 The sense of this passage has been entirely misunderstood. It is a continuation of the preceding paragraph, and should be rendered thus:-" And so that the priestesses might assemble at the Hatthálhaka convent and go together with the priests for the partaking of food at the distribution of alms, he built the refection hall called the Mahápáli, well supplied with all things needful and with plenty of servitors."


9" at the same port (of Jambukóla).”

for the spiritual benefit of the people of Lanká executed these undertakings in the first year of his reign; and delighting in the exercise of his benevolence, during the whole of his life, 'realised for himself manifold blessings.

2This land became unto this monarch an establishment (perfect in every religious requisite). This sovereign reigned forty years.

At the demise of this king, his younger brother, known by the name of prince Uttiya, righteously reigned over this monarchy, to which there was no filial successor.

The chief théra Mahinda, having propagated over Lanká the supreme religion of the vanquisher, his doctrines, his church discipline (as contained in the whole "pitakattaya "), and especially the means by which the fruits of the state of sanctification are to be obtained in the most perfect manner, (which is the Navavidhalókuttara dhamma;) moreover this lord of multitudinous disciples,-a luminary like unto the divine teacher himself, in dispelling the darkness of sin in Lanká,having performed manifold acts for the spiritual welfare of Lanká; in the eighth year of the reign of Uttiya, while observing his sixtieth since his ordination, and on the eighth day of the bright moiety of the month "Assayuja," he attained "parinibbána" at the Cétiya mountain. From that circumstance that day obtained that name, (and was commemorated as the anniversary of the "théraparinibbána day).


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King Uttiya hearing of this event, overpowered with grief and irrepressible lamentation, repairing thither, and bowing down to the théra, bitterly wept over the many virtues (of the deceased). Embalming the corpse of the théra in scented oil, and expeditiously depositing it in a golden coffin (also filled with spices and scented oils), and placing this 4superb coffin in a highly ornamented golden hearse, he removed the hearse in a magnificent procession. By the crowds of people who were flocking in from all directions, he celebrated a festival of offerings, which was (in due form) kept up by that great assemblage of the nation. Having brought (the corpse) through the decorated highway to the highly ornamented capital, and marching in procession through the principal streets of the city, having conveyed the coffin to the Mahávihára, this sovereign deposited it on the 'spot, which received the name of "Ambamálaka."

By the commands of the king, the vihára and the space for three yójanas round it were ornamented with triumphal arches, banners, and flowers, (and perfumed) with vases of fragrant flowers. By the interposition of the dévas, the whole island was similarly decorated. For seven days this monarch kept up a festival of offerings. On the eastern side, at the Ambamálaka of the théras, having formed a funeral pile of odoriferous drugs, and marched in procession round the great thúpa; and the splendid coffin having been brought there, and placed on the

166 performed many acts of merit."

2 "The island was plenteous during this king's reign; and he governed it for forty years."

3 From the circumstances that the théra Mahinda attained' nibbuti' on the eighth day (of the waxing moon), that day obtained the name of the (théra's) eighth day."

4 66 well-closed."

5" the common people and men in arms."

"he caused a festival of offerings to be celebrated (in due form)."

766 Pañhambamálaka."



funeral pile, he completed the performance of the last ceremony (by applying the torch to that pile). Collecting the relics of the théra on that spot, the king built a dágoba there.

The monarch, taking the half of those relics, at the Cétiya mountain, and at all the viháras, built dágobas. The spot at which the corpse of this sanctified personage was consumed, being held in great veneration, obtained the name of Isibhúmangana. From that time, the corpse of every 2" rahat" priest (who died) within a distance of three yójanas, being brought to that spot, is there consumed.

The chief thérí Sanghamittá, who had attained the perfection of doctrinal knowledge, and was gifted with infinite wisdom, having fulfilled every object of her sacred mission, and performed manifold acts for the spiritual welfare of the land, while sojourning in the Hatthálhaka establishment, in the sixty-ninth year of her ordination, and in the ninth year of the reign of king Uttiya, achieved " parinibbána."

For her, in the same manner as for the théra, the monarch caused offerings and funeral obsequies to be kept up with the utmost pomp for seven days. As in the case of the théra, the whole of Lanká was decorated (in veneration of this event).

At the termination of the seventh day, removing the corpse of the thérí, which had been previously deposited in the funeral hall, out of the city, to the westward of the Thúpáráma dágoba, to the vicinity of the bó tree near the 'Cétiya hall; on the spot designated by the thérí herself, (the king) performed the funeral obsequies of consuming the body with fire. This monarch Uttiya erected a thúpa there also.

The five principal théras (who had accompanied Mahinda from Jambudípa), as well as those of whom Ariṭṭha was the principal; and in like manner the thousands of sanctified priests (also natives of Lanká); and inclusive of Sanghamittá, the twelve théris (who came from Jambudípa); and the many thousands of pious priestesses (natives of Laņká) : all these profoundly learned and infinitely wise personages, having spread abroad the light of the "vinaya " and other branches of the faith, in due course of nature (at subsequent periods) submitted to the lot of mortality.

This monarch Uttiya reigned ten years. Thus this mortality subjects all mankind to death.

If mortal man would but comprehend the relentless, the allpowerful, irresistible principle of mortality, relinquishing (the hopeless pursuit of) "sansára " (eternity), he would, thus severed therefrom, neither adhere to a sinful course of life, nor abstain from leading a pious one. This (principle of mortality aforesaid), on finding his (man's) having attained this (state of sanctity) self-paralysed, its power (over him) will become utterly extinguished.

The twentieth chapter in the Mahávansa, entitled "The Attainment of Parinibbána by the Théras," composed equally for the delight and affliction of righteous men.

1"holy ground," or "

བ ་་ saintly."

3" fifty."

4" Citta."

the saints' ground."

It depends

"This may also be rendered" at the place where the théri dwelt." upon which of the two readings is correct, vutta or vuttha; the former would mean designated," the latter" dwelt."

"would he not be disgusted with the (wearying) course of renewed existence? Thus disgusted, would he not avoid that which is evil and cleave to that which is good? But even knowing (the truth), still would he be led astray. How exceeding great is the strength of his ignorance and delusion!"

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