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No. 10. 'The Ujjain Cross. Troy (Schliemann. Troy, terra cotta cover of a vase or box, p. 286, Fig. 200). Kūrna. Early Indian Coins. In many Indian examples a smaller circle is enclosed in each of those at the ends of the arms, and on one coin a third is inside the inner one. In some other cases Swāstikas or ' taurine’designs are figured in the circles.

No. 11. Ceylon (Magical diagram). The same form appears in the plan of the Ortu Nūragh in Sardinia (P. and C. Hist.

Art in Sardinia and Judea, Vol. i, p. 33
No. 12. Kūrna.

Kūrna. Paladru Lake Dwellings (Keller. Lake Dwellings, 1878, Plate 193). Central America.

No. 13. Troy (Schliemann. Troy, pp. 80, 284. Kūrna. Early Indian Coins (Waring. Ceramic Art, Plate 41, Fig. 24). Ceylon, Early Coins (see ante, Nos. 53, 54, 55, where the branches of the tree are of this shape. In Coin No. 54 the tail of the elephant is also in the form of one arm of this Cross).

No. 14. Early Indian Coins. (Theobald. loc. cit. No. 196).

No. 15. Early Indian Coins (Cunningham. Ancient Indian Coins, Plate 1o, Fig. 11).

No. 16. Ceylon, Early Coin (see ante, No. 14).

No. 17. Santorin (Wilson. The Swastika, p. 843). Early Indian Coins (Smith. Catalogue, Plate 19, Fig. 10). Ceylon. Early Coins (see ante, Nos. 8, 10, 11, 13, 15, 16, 17, 43, 44).


VALLIYAMMĀ (p. 115).

Valliyammā is addressed with Skanda in an invocation for the cure of sickness caused by the Sohon Yakā; and I find that she is also included in a Low-Country list of seven Kiri-Ammās, who are goddesses. They are as follows :

1. Polawē Mahikāntāwā, the Goddess of the Earth. 2. Mūdē Manimēkhalā, the Goddess of the Sea. 3. Saraswati, the wife of Brahma. 4. Sitā Pramēswarī, the wife of Rāma, and an incarnation of

Lakshmi. 5. Māē-anganāwā, or Ammā Dēvi, or Umayanganāwā, the wife

of Siva. 6. Valliyammā, the wife of Skanda.

7. Pattini Dēvi, an incarnation of Durgā. A YIYANAR (p. 158).

Ayiyanār is said to have five Ministers, who are termed 'The Five Dēvatās.' They appear to be the deities of the Wanniyas, who may have erred in including Ayiyanār among these five deities. The list varies in different places, but all agree that three are Ilandāra, Kalu Dēvatā, and Kadawara Dēvatā, while another is said to be Kambili Unnaehae, and the fifth may be Gurumā Dēvatā. In that case Ayiyanār is their Wanniya Bandāra. THE SWASTIKA (p. 492).

In the case of the peculiar elevated Swāstika of Ceylon an alternative and perhaps preferable explanation of the four basal uprights is that they typify the Four Guardian Gods who protect the four quarters of the island. The base line would then represent the country itself.

The pointed ends of the lines on some coins may be intended not merely to close them against the entry of evil spirits. The pointed uprights resemble the right spear-head amulet on the crown of Duttha-Gāmiņi (p. 538), and pointed weapons are well known to be demon-scarers. The points would thus increase the protective power of the symbol.

According to the kapurālas, the Four Guardian Gods (Hatara Waran Deviyo) of Ceylon are, Saman ‘Divya Rāja,' in the east; Skanda, in the south; Vishnu, in the west-he is said to have delegated his powers to Vibhisana, the Rākshasa king of Ceylon, who is now treated as a god in the Western Province—and Ayiyanār (called also by Low-Country Sinhalese Boksal), in the north.

It is probably due to Rāma's being an incarnation of Vishnu, whose brother is Indra, that Saman Deviyā (or Sumana) is sometimes identified with Lakshmana, Rāma's brother, who assisted him in conquering the Rākshasas in Ceylon. According to Forbes (Eleven Years in Ceylon, i, p. 185), the colour of Saman is yellow (Dr. Davy says white), and his emblems are a golden bow and arrow; these are Indra's emblems, and he is the Guardian of the East in India. Buddha is stated to have placed Ceylon under the special protection of Sakka (Indra), who delegated the duty to his brother Vishnu, ‘the [blue] lotus-coloured' God (Mah. i, p. 32).

Saman or Sumana was evidently a mountain deity in Ceylon, the seat of his worship being Adam's Peak, called Sumanakūta in the histories. It is clear that the early annalists believed him to be settled on it before the first visit of Buddha, since it is stated that on that occasion he asked Buddha for something worthy of worship, and received some of his pure blue (black] locks,' which he enclosed in the emerald dāgaba at Mahiyangana (p. 315).

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Length Breadth Thick


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Contents in

Cubic Inches.

Dambulla cave temple

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PRE-CHRISTIAN BRICKS. Contents not under 366 cubic inches.
Central Province.
Bambå Wihåra, Galewela

(19.80) 10:30

3.30 34.0 (673) 16.28 9:04


24'0 392 19:45

2.45 Eastern Province. Raddila sluice.

3.06 North-central Province. Angamuwa. Waehaera-gala monastery

17.00 8.80 2:58

22.7 Anuradhapura. Abhayagiri dăgaba 18.92 9.62 3:20 30:7 583

Abhayagiri. Large
hall near Colossal

Building with Bud-
dhist railing (Bell) 18.00 9.00 3.00 270


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[blocks in formation]

wall of inner floor 17.78

8.55 2.60 Lankāräma dāgaba 17:37

Miriswaeți dāgaba.

10:41 3.00
Ruwanwaeli dāgaba,
inner work

9.67 2.79
Ruwanwaeli dăgaba,
outer work


8.99 2.90
Ruwanwaeli dăgaba,
elephant wall .

17.00 (8.80) 2.80 Thūpārāma dāgē 19.00 9:15 3.00 Awukana wihāra.

2.92 Ipalagama. Waehaera-gala dāgaba 17.00 9:21 2.83 Kațiyāwa. High-level sluice.

(18.96) 9.60 3:16 Kitikadawala sluice

(17.40) | 9.00 2.90
Lunu-oya dam below Angamuwa tank (16-56) 9:18 2.76
Maha Waehaera-gala, Eppăwala


2.75 Mihintale. Building at Stone Boat. (17:30) 8.80 2.88

Maha Sãēya dāgaba 17.92 8-87 2.91
Wihara on hill

(18.00) 9.00 3.00 Nuwara-waewa. H.L. sluice

(18.90) | 9.85 3:15 Malwatta-oya dam (18·10) 9:05 3:25 Oțțappuwa dăgaba

18.60 9:52 3:12


443 30•3 |(575) 26.1 (454) 24.6 (408)

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24.2 25.3 (437) 25.8 461 27.0 (486) 310 (586) 30-9 (559) 29.7


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