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triangle. The owner of the Leopards then deposits one of them at any point where two lines meet, and lays down an additional one after each move of the Tiger until all are on the board. The opponents continue to play alternately afterwards. It is evident that the game is a very simple one. I am not aware that it is known in the interior of Ceylon.


The board is an enlarged form of that of the preceding game, all the lines being extended so as to provide an additional set of positions for the pieces on

the three sides of the triangle.

Three 'Leopards ' and fifteen pieces called 'Dogs' are required for this game, which is played exactly like the last one. Capturing the Dogs is termed

chopping' them (v. koṭanawā). This game is well known in southern India, from which country it was doubtless imported into Ceylon, as its name indicates. Its Hindustani name is Rafaya. Some extend the lines so as to make an extra set of positions for the pieces outside those described above.

FIG. 246. Indian Diviyan Keliya

DIVIYAN KELIYA, The Leopards' Game'; or Diviyalliya, 'the Leopards' Square'; or Koṭiyō saha Harak,' the Leopards and Cattle.'

This form of board is closely allied to the Kūrna diagrams illustrated in the next chapter. The board is a square with five lines passing across from each face, including the two outer ones; the diagonals which run into the angles of the square and through the middle of each of its sides are also drawn. A triangle of six places for the pieces, enclosed by two extended diagonals, projects at the middle of each face, in addition.

This game is played by two persons, one of whom has two

pieces called 'Leopards,' while the other has twenty-four pieces called 'Cattle,' with which he endeavours to shut up

FIG. 247. Diagram for Hēwākam and Diviyan Keliya.

imprisoned.' It

the Leopards, which are then said to be is played in the same manner as the last games, the Leopards ' eating' the Cattle one at a time, by jumping over them into a vacant place. The stations for the pieces are at all meeting places of lines, and the pieces move along the lines, both at right angles and along the diagonals, going one step each time, excepting when the Leopard is making a capture. Small stones and fragments of earthenware are used as pieces.

The owner of the Leopards begins the game by placing one of them at the centre of the board, but any other place may be selected for it. One of the Cattle is next put down by the other player at any meeting-point of two or more lines where it will be safe from immediate attack, and his opponent then deposits the second Leopard at any other place which he prefers. Another of the Cattle is then placed on the board, and the rest follow after each move of a Leopard until all are in play, up to which time they cannot be moved on the board. In the meantime some of them will have been 'eaten'; and not

withstanding the large number of them they are almost certain to lose the game if the Leopards can capture eight. With careful play the Cattle always win. This is probably the most developed and best of all shutting-up games.

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HEWĀKAM KELIYA, the War Game.'

This is also a game for two players, and the same diagram as for Diviyan Keliya is employed for it, with the exception that the two triangular 'rooms' at the right and left sides are not required.

Each player has sixteen pieces called 'Soldiers,' and these are said to be 'chopped' when captured. All move along the lines of the board, whether diagonals or otherwise, and capture the opponents by jumping over them exactly like kings at Draughts, that is, there is no limit to the number which may be captured at one move. At the same time the player has the option of refusing to capture the men of the other side. Small stones or pieces of earthenware form the Soldiers.

At the commencement, the Soldiers of each opponent are arranged in an orderly manner on the opposite sides of the board, as shown by those of one player in the illustration, leaving only the transverse central line clear of them. The players move the men alternately, taking one step at a time in any direction when not capturing an opponent's pieces. The player who captures all the Soldiers of the other side is the winner.

This game is known in India, and in Bengal is termed Sōlah Guttiya, 'Sixteen Balls.'

PERALI KOTUWA,' the War Enclosure.'

This is merely a variety of the last game, in which the two side rooms are retained, the board being thus the same as for Diviyan Keliya. Each player has seven more soldiers than in the last game, and in each case these fill up the outer room on his left hand, and three empty places are then left along the central transverse line.

The game is also played in India. Ludovisi mentions a variant called Koțu Ellīma, in which each player has one more

'Soldier,' making a total of forty-eight, so that only the central place on the board is vacant when the play begins. The mode of playing is evidently the same in all these games.

DĀM, Draughts; or literally 'The Net.'

This game, which is known in India also, is closely allied to Polish Draughts. The pieces move in the squares instead of going along the lines. It requires two players, who have a rectangular board of 144 squares, twelve being on each side, alternately coloured red (or black) and white. Each player has thirty pieces called Itta (pl. Ittō), which are placed on the white squares at each end of the board, as in Draughts, that is, in six out of each row of twelve squares, thus leaving only the two central rows vacant. The Itto move only diagonally, and capture or chop' the opposing pieces by jumping over them, and taking several consecutively if possible. They can move backwards as well as forwards from the beginning, thus having the powers of Kings in the ordinary English game. Excepting when capturing the opposing Ittō, the ordinary pieces move to the distance of only one square at a time.

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Every Itta which succeeds in reaching the last square on the opponent's side of the board is doubled, and is termed a 'King.' With this increase in rank it acquires additional powers, and it may proceed to the end of each diagonal at one move, if the end square be empty and the way be open, or to any intermediate square, as in Polish Draughts, jumping over and capturing any opponent's pieces on the way if there be any in suitable positions on that diagonal. It cannot pass over Ittō or Kings of its own side, and only over opposing ones if the next square to them be empty.

If any of the opponent's pieces be captured on this diagonal and the king can enter the end square, it may continue its course in the same manner, as part of the same move, to the end or to an intermediate square of the second diagonal, at a right angle from the last one, and so on over a third or more. To be permitted to do this, however, t must capture one or

1 Falkener, Games Ancient and Oriental, p. 236.

more pieces on each diagonal passed over, and there must always be an empty square for it to enter in the diagonal. If the King take no pieces, whether Ittō or Kings, on the first diagonal, he cannot proceed further than its end at one move. He has the option of remaining at any empty intermediate square before reaching the end of a diagonal. All pieces must jump over every opposing piece which they capture; they cannot stop in its square, or jump over it unless the next square be empty.

In other respects the play is the same as in English Draughts, the game being won by the player who captures all the pieces of his opponent.

The Ittō are flat disks, half being coloured black and half white; they are made of wood or of shark's bone.

A game of Draughts called Dāma is played in Egypt, and as the name shows is perhaps descended from the original form of the Eastern game. As the boards which I saw resembled those used in England I did not enquire into the manner in which it is played. It is not described by Lane, who merely mentions it as a favourite game there. On some boards the pieces are flat disks like those used in England, while on others they are short cylinders with flat tops.

KOTI KELIYA, 'the Leopard Game.'

This is played on the same board of 144 squares, and is a form of Fox and Geese.' It requires one piece called a 'Leopard,' and six others termed 'Cattle,' or 'Dogs,' which all move diagonally along the squares. The Cattle only move in a forward oblique direction and to the extent of one square at a time, and cannot be captured; but the Leopard has the option of going double the distance in any oblique direction if the course be unobstructed. He cannot pass over the Cattle.

The Cattle are set on the white squares along one side of the board; while the Leopard may be placed anywhere on a square of the same colour. As in the English game, the Leopard wins if it can pass through or round the Cattle, whose aim is to enclose or 'imprison' him. Neither this nor the previous game is played in the villages of the interior.

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