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O. Dog with raised tail and forequarters lowered as though about to spring forward, standing on two arches, the tops of which are visible; Tusk Elephant; Circle with emblems; two Arches of a structure of which probably a third one has been destroyed by being over-stamped with the Elephant; Humped Bull with collar; Sun emblem.

R. Broad plain cross in a circular punch-mark; Tree (inverted) and remains of other symbols among which may be the three-arched Structure.

(c.) Rectangular, with corners rounded by wear; 68 in. by 62 in; weight 38 grains.

O. Bull; Circle with six emblems; a form of Tree punched over one of the last emblems; three arches of a Structure which probably had five, three in the lower row and two above them; these last are separated by a central space over which stands a Dog, with its hind feet on one arch and forefeet on the other; Sun emblem, the inner disk of which is connected with the outer ring by tiny spokes.

R. (not illustrated). Upright Axe with handle, or part of a Steel-yard, the whole punch-mark being a half ellipse; three Beads attached to the sides of a sector-shaped punchmark; Tree, and fragment of a symbol.

(d.) Irregular oval in shape; 87 in. by 72 in.; weight 30 grains. O. Dog; an uncertain symbol; Sun emblem; uncertain Quadruped behind with thick legs; a figure from the five angles of which rise twigs with three leaves which form crosses, a flower or fruit on a short stem being in each intermediate space (only half the figure is on this coin); concentric Circles. with six emblems. Quadruped wearing a broad collar and having two cuts above the tail.

R. Symbol which is possibly a Yak-tail Fly-whisk; Sun emblem; Fish; above these the Structure with three arches, surmounted by a crescent; above this a fragmentary symbol; part of uncertain symbol; a long punch-mark in which are a 'Taurine' symbol and two concentric circles without surrounding emblems; two uncertain symbols; an oblong punch-mark, inside which is a transverse bar near each end and a minute emblem between these.

(e.) Irregular oblong; 1.02 in. by 44 in.; weight 371 grains. O. Symbol resembling three or four leaves (not beads) projecting from the sides of a hollow, towards its centre ; traces of a symbol above it; a long elliptical punch-mark, the symbol in which is partly destroyed by the next one; the upper part of it may be a form of Trisūla and when the coin is turned round the other part resembles a Bull; Sun emblem; large 'Taurine' emblem; remains of another symbol above it.

R. Circles with surrounding emblems; Sun emblem, about 16 rays.

(f.) Rounded; 76 in. by 63 in; weight 37 grains.

O. Structure of three arches resting on vertical walls, the central arch rising half as high again as the others. Over it a snake formed by a deeply-waved line; it resembles the conventional clouds of temple artists, but possibly was not impressed by the same punch as the arched structure; worn symbol, apparently an animal and possibly a lion; Sun emblem, 16 rays; a design like a Palmira tree, but apparently a Flower with a circular centre and five petals, on a stem, perhaps stamped over the head of an Elephant.

R. Symbol like an upright Axe with short handle, punched over part of another emblem with a straight bar beneath it and possibly an arched Structure; traces of two other emblems.

(g.) Nearly circular; 58 in. by 58 in.; weight 34 grains. O. Dog (?); Circle surrounded by emblems; Fish, partly over-stamped by another design; Sun emblem, and others. R. Traces of emblems.

(h.) Oblong, one corner cut off, 55 in. by 34 in.; weight 29 grains.

O. Rude punch-mark, shaped like a Quadruped but turned to left.

R. Blank.

(i.) Oblong, one corner cut off; 56 in. by 45 in; weight 341 grains.

O. Punch-mark, resembling a letter, but possibly part of a symbol.

R. Traces of symbols.

(k.) Oblong, two corners cut off; 56 in. by 44 in; weight 29 grains.

O. Trace of part of concentric Circles with surrounding emblems; trace of Sun emblem.

R. Blank.

Three other small coins are as follows:

(1.) oblong; 57 in. by 44 in.; weight 28 grains. O. Fragments of Circle with surrounding emblems, and traces of three other symbols. R. Faint traces of two symbols. (m.) short oblong, one corner cut off; 57 in. by 50 in.; weight 29 grains.

Only indistinct crescentic symbol with straight back. (n.) oblong; 55 in. by 44 in.; weight 30 grains. Traces of two symbols on one side, and of one on the other. The average weight of thirteen coins of the smaller variety is 32.9 grains, the heaviest weighing 38 grains.

(0.) The lightest coin weighs 28 grains, and is a little larger than these. It measures 59 in. by 56 in., and is thus almost square, with rounded corners ; one corner is cut off.

There are four or five very faint punch-marks on O. One is a Structure of three arches with a channel below it; another appears to be the fore-quarters of an Elephant; between these is part of a Sun-emblem; there are also faint traces like part of the Circle with six emblems, and of two other symbols. On R. all that can be seen is a worn punch-mark of a narrow Leaf-shape, and perhaps the trace of another symbol.

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In the case of the nine Purānas discovered at Anuradhapura by Mr. Bell, in 1891,1 the antiquity of the building at which they were disinterred is proved by the size of the bricks employed in the lower part of the walls. These measured 18 inches by 9 inches by 3 inches, Bt. being thus 27 square inches and the contents 486 cubic inches. My Amended List' of bricks shows that these dimensions probably belong to the latter part of the second century or the early part of the first century B.C. Unfortunately there is nothing to indicate the period when the coins were deposited there; judging by their extremely worn state it may have occurred at some date con

1 Arch. Survey of Ceylon. Fourth Progress Report, pp. 4 and 13.

siderably after Christ, as other money, both South Indian (Kurumbar and Pallava) and Roman (Theodosius), was also found at the site.

Three of the Purānas were apparently spurious imitations of silver coins, being made of copper and having still traces of the silver coating which had been applied to them. Two of these were square, with half inch sides and weighed 24 and 29 grains. The third was an oblong, 7 in. by 37 in., weighing 40 grains. On its obverse was a standing figure unlike those of the true Purānas, and perhaps copied from an oblong coin like those described below, with a length amounting to threequarters of the coin; on the reverse appeared a chequer pattern.

The other six were silver coins, three being more or less oblong,

and three nearly square. Of the former variety, one coin measured 56 in. by 44 in., and weighed only 16 grains. It had the Sun emblem, and the remains of another. Each of the others weighed 19 grains, and was a broad oblong, with one corner cut off. Both had traces of symbols.

Of the square coins, two had sides of half an inch; one with a corner cut off weighed 30 grains, and the other 42 grains; these also showed traces of symbols. The third one, of an irregular shape, had a length of 75 in., and weighed only 17 grains. On its obverse was a Sun symbol, a Tree, and other worn punch-marks, one of them appearing in the figure to be the three beads projecting into a hollow. It may represent pearls in the shell, a powerful amulet in Vedic times (Ath. Veda, iv, 10).

It is noticeable that on nearly all the Purānas of apparently the earliest date traces are visible of some of the same punchmarks as those on the coins of the latest type. Among these the wheel-like Sun symbol was the emblem most generally employed.

The symbol consisting of two concentric circles from which project six emblems is common on Indian coins. In the Mulleittīvu coins the emblems usually are a 'Taurine' or bull'shead symbol enclosed in a semi-ellipse, and another which has been termed a Chatta or umbrella, but which may be a form of Axe-head with a narrow stem and a semi-circular

cutting edge. These occur alternately, being three times repeated. On another Mulleittīvu coin a Fish is placed between them, the three emblems being twice repeated.

The meanings of the symbols will be considered after the other coins have been described.



These coins are all thin copper oblongs of one type, cut off strips of beaten copper which were themselves cut off a larger sheet. The designs on both faces were impressed simultaneously by means of two dies that were nearly as large as the coins.. On the obverse, which has a flat border, a person is represented, standing facing front, and holding an upright object, apparently a flower stem, at each side of the coin. On the reverse the Swastika appears, exactly resembling those cut at some pre-Christian inscriptions, being raised high on a central pole which rests on a transverse base line from which rise two short upright bars at each side of the central post. This symbol is found on all the oblong copper coins of the island, and also on a large circular copper coin which supplanted them. As a typical emblem of ancient Ceylon it is stamped on the cover of this work.

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In the following descriptions of the coins the letter f. is 'front,' and r. and 1. are 'right' and 'left' respectively. 1. 1.14 in. by 46 in.; weight 52 grains.

O. A figure of a deity, facing f. Over and round the head runs a slightly waved line or circlet. The 1. hand appears to rest on something represented by three upright lines; the r. fore-arm apparently turned upwards. Legs slightly apart and feet turned outwards. There may be a tunic or cloth extending onto the thighs. The figure is well proportioned and even somewhat graceful.

R. Indistinct. Part of the Swastika symbol visible with its arms turned r. To l. under arm of cross there are indistinct marks in relief. Colombo Museum.

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