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foreign religious faiths. Above the dwelling of Jótiya, and below the Gámaní tank, he built a residence for the Paribbájaka devotees. 1In the same quarter, but on separate sites, he constructed a residence for the Ájívakas, a hall for the worshippers of Brahma (another for those) of Siva, as well as a hospital.

This Pandukábhaya, the sovereign of Lanká, in the twelfth year of his reign, fixed the boundaries of the villages in all parts of Lanká. This monarch befriending the interests of the yakkhas, with the co-operation of Kálavéla and Cittá, who had the power (though yakkhas) of rendering themselves visible (in the human world), conjointly with them, enjoyed his prosperity.

Between the reigns of Pandukábhaya and Abhaya there was an interregnum of seventeen years.

This wise ruler, Pandukabhaya, who had entered upon his royal state in the thirty-seventh year of his age, reigned in the delightful and well-provided capital of Anuradhapura, over his firmly established kingdom, for seventy years.

The tenth chapter in the Mahávansa, entitled "The Installation of Pandukabhaya," composed equally for the delight and affliction of righteous men.


Ar his (Panḍukábhaya's) demise, his and Suvannapálí's son, known by the title of Muṭasiva, succeeded to the sovereignty, which was in a state of perfect peace.

This king formed the delightful royal garden Mahámégha, which was provided, in the utmost perfection, with every requisite, and adorned with fruit and flower-bearing trees of every description.

At the time this royal garden was being laid out, an unseasonable heavy fall of rain (Mahámégha) took place. From this circumstance the garden was called Mahámégha.

In the celebrated capital Anuradhapura, in the delightful Lanká, king Mutasiva reigned sixty years.

He had ten sons, living in amity with each other; and two daughters, both equally beautiful and worthy of their illustrious descent.

Among all these brothers, 3by the virtue of his piety (in his former existence in the character of a honey merchant), and by his wisdom, the second son was the most distinguished; and he became celebrated by the name of Dévánampiya Tissa (Tissa-the-delight-of-the-dévas).

On the demise of his father, the said Dévánampiya Tissa was installed king. At his inauguration (on the day of the new moon of Mágasira) many miraculous phenomena took place throughout Lanká : the riches and the precious metals and gems buried in the earth emerging, rose to the surface. The treasures sunk (in the sea) from ships wrecked in the neighbourhood of Lanká, and those naturally engendered there (in the ocean), also rose to the shores of the land.

1 In like manner, in divers places.

246 Brahmans, a Siviká house and a Sotthi-sálá hall.”
346 the second son excelled in virtue and wisdom, and."

On the Cháta mountain (situated two yójanas to the southward of Anuradhapura) three bamboo poles were produced, in size equal to a chariot pole. The first, called the creeper pole, 1entwined with a creeper, shone like silver. The creeper itself, glittering most brilliantly, was refulgent like gold. The second was the pole of flowers. The many descriptions of flowers which clustered thereon were resplendent by the brilliancy of their colours, as well as perfect in all the three qualities (which flowers ought to possess). The third was the pole of animals. The various quadrupeds and birds of every varied hue (represented) thereon, appeared as if they were endowed with life.

The eight descriptions of pearls, viz., haya (horse), gaja (elephant), ratha (chariot wheel), ámalaki (nelli fruit), valaya (bracelet), angulivéthaka (ring), kakudhaphala (“kumbuk" fruit), pákatika (ordinary), rising up from the ocean, stood in a ridge on the sea shore. All this was produced by the virtue of the piety of Dévánampiya Tissa.


1Within a period of seven days the following gems, viz., sapphires, lapis lazuli, and rubies, the aforesaid treasures of the miraculous poles, as well as the aforesaid pearls, presented themselves unto the king.7 The benevolent monarch, on observing these (supernatural tributes), thus meditated : My friend Dhammásóka, and no one else, is worthy of these invaluable treasures: to him I will make presents thereof." These two monarchs, Dévánampiya Tissa and Dhammásóka, though they were not personally known to each other, were united by the ties of friendship from a long period (preceding).

The king (of Lanká) despatched, as his ambassadors, these four individuals: viz., his maternal nephew Mahá Ariṭṭha-as the chief of the mission-the brahman (of the Háli mountain), the minister of state (Malla), and the accountant (Tissa), attended by a powerful retinue, and entrusted with these invaluable treasures: viz., the three kinds of gems, the three royal palanquin poles, a 10right-hand chank, and the eight descriptions of pearls.

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Embarking on board a vessel at Jambúkola and in seven days prosperously reaching their port of debarkation, and thereafter departing from thence and in seven days having reached Páṭaliputta, they delivered these presents to king Dhammásóka. That monarch, on seeing these persons and these articles, rejoiced; and thus reflecting within himself "There are no treasures in these parts to be compared to these "he conferred the office of "sénápati on Ariṭṭha; he also conferred on the brahman the office of" purohita," on the other minister the office of "dandanayaka," and on the accountant the office of "setthi." Having bestowed presents of no trifling value, and (provided) dwellings for them, he consulted with his own ministers, and settled what the proper presents were to be sent in return: viz., a chowrie (the royal fly flapper), a diadem, a sword of state, a royal parasol, (golden)

1 Dele.

"The beautiful creepers thereof were of a golden colour, and looked most lovely."

366 Many flowers of divers hues, full blown, clustered thereon."

4.66 Many and varied forms of birds and beasts of divers colours appeared thereon."

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slippers, a head ornament (crown), a golden anointing vase, golden sandalwood, 3and costly hand towels, which to the last moment they are used (are cleansed by being passed through the fire) without being washed; ointments for the body, obtained from the nágas, and 4the clay of Aruņa; water from the Anótatta lake, a right-hand chank, containing the water (used at the inauguration of the king) from the stream of the Ganges, and a royal virgin of great personal charms; sundry golden vessels, and a costly howda; the precious aromatic medicinal drugs," haritaka and "ámalaka6;" and one hundred and sixty loads of hill paddy which had been brought by parrots-being the articles requisite for his inauguration-and a complete suite of royal attendants.

In due course, this monarch despatched his mission to his ally (Dévánampiya Tissa), entrusting them with the aforesaid presents, and the following gifts of pious advice: "I have taken refuge in Buddha, his religion, and his priesthood: I have vowed myself a devotee in the religion of the descendant of Sákya. Ruler of men, imbuing thy mind with the conviction of the truth of these supreme blessings, with unfeigned faith do thou also take refuge in this salvation." This attached ally (of Dévánampiya Tissa) having addressed this additional injunction to the (Sinhalese) ambassadors, "Solemnise ye the inauguration of my ally"; allowed them to depart hither (to Lanká), vested with every royal favour. These highly-favoured ministers (of Dévánampiya Tissa) having resided there, at Pátaliputta, for five months, on the first day of the bright half of the month of Vesákha" took their departure. Embarking at the port of Támalittiya, and landing at Jambukóla, they presented themselves before their sovereign on the twelfth day.


The (Jambudípa) ambassadors delivered these gifts to the ruler of Lanká on them the sovereign of Lanká conferred great favours.

These envoys, revering him as if he had been their own sovereign, having delivered to the monarch of Lanká-who had already been inaugurated on the first day of the increasing moon of the month of “Maggasira ”—Dhammásóka's message, his own devoted subjects a second time solemnised the inauguration of him, who was beloved by the people of Laņká.

This dispenser of happiness to his own subjects, bearing the profoundly significant title of Dévánampiya (the delight of the dévas), exerting his powers to the utmost, and making Lanká overflow with. rejoicings, held his re-investiture on the full moon day of the month Vesákha."

The eleventh chapter in the Mahávansa, entitled " The Inauguration of Dévánampiya Tissa," composed equally for the delight and afflic tion of righteous men.

1 Dele.

244 sandalwood of the Hari mountain."


a crore of cloths that require no washing."

4"Aruna-coloured clay"; Aruna is a bright red colour resembling the streaks of light at sunrise.

medicinal fruits."

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THE illuminator of the religion of the vanquisher, the théra, son of Moggali, having terminated the third convocation, was reflecting on futurity. Perceiving (that the time had arrived) for the establishment of the religion of Buddha in foreign countries, he despatched severally, in the month of "kattika," the following théras to those foreign parts. He deputed the théra Majjhantika to 1Kasmira and Gandhára, and the théra Mahádéva to Mahisamandala. He deputed the théra Rakkhita to Vanavási, and similarly the théra Yóna-Dhammarakkhita to Aparantaka. He deputed the théra Mahá-Dhammarakkhita to Maháraṭṭha; the théra Mahárakkhita to the 2Yóna country. He deputed the thera Majjhima to the Himavanta country; and to Suvannabhúmi, the two théras Sóna and Uttara. He deputed the théra Mahá Mahinda, together with his (Moggali's) disciples, Iṭṭhiya, Uttiya, Sambala, Bhaddasála (to this island), saying unto these five théras, "Establish ye in the delightful land of Lanká the delightful religion of the vanquisher."

At that time, a savage nága king named A'ravála, who was endowed with supernatural powers, causing a furious deluge to descend, was submerging all the ripened crops in Kasmíra and Gandhára. The said théra Majjhantika, instantly repairing thither through the air and alighting on the lake A'ravála, walked, 3absorbed in profound meditation, on the surface of the water. The nágas seeing him, enraged (at his presumption), announced it to their king. The infuriated nága monarch endeavoured in various ways to terrify him: a furious storm howled, and a deluge of rain poured down, accompanied by thunder; lightning flashed in streams; thunderbolts (descended), carrying destruction in all directions; and high-peaked mountains tottered from their very foundations.

The nágas, assuming the more terrific forms and surrounding him, endeavoured to intimidate him. He himself (the nága king), reviling him in various ways, spat smoke and fire at him. The théra, by his supernatural power, averted all these attempts to terrify him; and displaying his omnipotence, thus addressed the nága monarch: "O, nága ruler! even if the dévas were to unite with the (human) world to strike terror into me, their efforts would prove nugatory. Nay, if uplifting the whole earth, together with its ocean and its mountains, thou wert to keep them on my head, even then thou wouldst fail to create in me an appalling terror. 50, nága monarch, let thy destruction of the crops be arrested."

To him who had been subdued on hearing this reply, the théra propounded his doctrines. Whereupon the nága king attained the salvation and state of piety of that faith.

In like manner, in the Himavanta (or snowy) regions, eighty-four thousand nágas, and many gandhabbas, yakkhas, and kumbhandakas (were converted).

A certain yakkha called Pañcaka, together with his wife Hárita and five hundred youths, attained "sówán (the first stage of sanctification). He then thus addressed them: "Do not hereafter, as formerly, give

1 Orig., Kasmira-Gandháran, as if to designate one country.

2 Orig., Yónalóka. The use of lóka, "world," instead of rattha, " country," is suggestive, I think, of distance and extensiveness. 3" to and fro."

fling." "Only, O nága king, thou wouldst weary thyself thereby." "the first stage of fruition."



way to pride of power and vindictive anger; but evincing your solicitude for the happiness of living creatures, abstain from the destruction of crops 1extend your benevolence towards all living creatures : live, protecting mankind." They who had been thus exhorted by him regulated their conduct accordingly.

Thereupon the nága king, placing the théra on a gem-set throne, respectfully stood by, fanning him.

On that day the inhabitants of Kasmíra and Gandhára, who had come with offerings to the nága king (to appease his wrath and arrest the desolation of the crops), learning the supernatural character of the théra, bowing down to him (instead of the nága king), stood reverentially at his side.

The théra preached to them the "ásivisópama" discourse (of Buddha). Eighty thousand persons attained superior grades of religious bliss: one hundred thousand persons were ordained priests by the théra.

From that period to the present day the people of Kasmíra and Gandhára have been fervently devoted to the three branches of the faith, and (the land) has glittered with the yellow robes (of the priests). The théra Mahádéva repairing to the Mahisamandala country, in the midst of the population preached to them the "dévadúta" discourse (of Buddha). Forty thousand persons became converts to the faith of sovereign supremacy; and by him forty thousand (more) were ordained priests.


Thereafter, the théra Rakkhita, repairing to the Vanavása country, poising himself in the air, in the midst of the populace preached the 'anamatagga" discourses (of Buddha). Sixty thousand persons attained the sanctifications of the faith; and by him thirty-seven thousand were ordained priests. The said théra constructed five hundred viháras in that land, and there he also established the religion of the vanquisher.

The théra Yónaka Dhammarakkhita repairing to the Aparantaka country, in the midst of the populace preached the "aggikkhandópama" discourse (of Buddha). This (disciple), who thoroughly understood how to discriminate true from false doctrines, poured out to the seventy thousand who had assembled before him the delicious (draught of the) true faith. A thousand males and a still greater number of females, descendants exclusively of Khattiya families, impelled by their religious ardour, entered into the priesthood.

The sanctified disciple Mahá-Dhammarakkhita repairing to Maháraṭṭha, there preached the "mahánáradakassapa Játaka " (of Buddha). Eighty-four thousand persons attained the sanctification of "magga," and thirteen thousand were ordained priests by him.

The sanctified disciple Mahárakkhita repairing to the Yóna country, in the midst of the populace preached the "kálakáráma " discourse (of Buddha). One hundred and seventy thousand living beings attained the sanctification of "magga," and ten thousand were ordained.

1 Insert "all beings desire happiness; therefore."

266 wishing that all men may live happily."

366 went up to the théra whose supernatural power was great, and." 4"the knowledge of the Law."

$ Dele.

666 knowledge of the Law."

7.66 renounced the world and."

8" fruition of the paths."

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