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great wild boar. They eagerly gave chase to the animal. She, taking the infant and the thousand pieces, proceeded to the destined place of concealment, and secretly gave them to the person intended to have the charge of them.

On that very day the wife of this herdsman brought forth a son. Giving it out," My wife has given birth to twin sons," he took charge of him (the prince) also.

When he attained his seventh year his uncles, having ascertained his existence, ordered the boys who resorted to a certain marsh (in his vicinity) for amusement, to be destroyed.

There was a hollow tree growing in the waters (of that marsh), having an aperture under water. He was in the habit of diving and entering by this aperture, and of 'taking up his station frequently there. And when this young prince emerged from thence, on being accosted and questioned by the other boys, he, artfully concealing the deception. practised, accounted in some other manner for his (absence).

The people (sent by the princes) having come to that place, surrounded the marsh. The young prince, at the instant these men came, putting on his clothes, and diving under water, placed himself in the hollow of the tree. 2Counting the number of the clothes (left on the bank), and putting to death the rest of the boys, returning they reported to the uncles," All the boys are destroyed." When they had departed, he (the prince) returned to his home, the house of the confidential herdsman, and living under his protection attained his twelfth year.

At a subsequent period, hearing that the prince was in existence, his uncles again gave orders to destroy all the herdsmen in the village (Dváramandala). On the day (appointed for the massacre) the herdsmen having succeeded in killing a wild quadruped, sent this prince to the village to bring some fire. He, going home and complaining, "I am leg-wearied," and saying, "Take some fire to the herdsmen, there thou wilt eat roasted meat," sent the confided herdsman's own son. That youth, on being told this story, carried the fire to the place where the herdsmen were. At that instant, the men who had been sent, surrounding them, put them to death. Having destroyed all the herdsmen, they reported the same to the uncles.

Thereafter the uncles again obtained information regarding him in his sixteenth year.

The mother sent one thousand pieces (of money) for his use, with written directions (regarding her son). The confided herdsman having explained to him the contents of his mother's letter, and 5putting him in possession of the thousand pieces and of the written instructions, (pursuant to these instructions) consigned him to the guardianship of Pandula.

The said Pandula, who was a wealthy brahman, and a proficient in the "védas," resided to the southward, in the village Pandula. The prince having proceeded thither, presented himself to that brahman Pandula: he inquired, "Child, art thou Pandukábhaya?" On being answered (in the affirmative), receiving him with every mark

166 remaining there for a long while."

26 Having put to death the rest of the boys and counted the number of the clothes (left on the bank, in order to satisfy themselves that none had escaped), they returned and reported to the uncles, saying."


guardian's house."

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sent him to Pandula.”
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of attention, he thus predicted (his fate): "Thou wilt be king. Thou wilt reign full seventy years"; and adding, "My child, thou shouldest acquire every accomplishment," he taught him those (his acquirements) simultaneously with his (the brahman's) son Canda, and he rapidly perfected his education.

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For the purpose of enlisting warriors, he (the brahman) bestowed on him (the prince) one hundred thousand pieces. When five hundred soldiers had been enlisted by the latter, he (the brahman) having thus addressed him : Should the leaves touched by any woman be converted into gold, make her thy queen-consort, and my son Canda your 'purohita' minister"; and having bestowed this treasure upon him, sent him forth with his warriors. Thereupon this fortunate prince, causing his name to be proclaimed, departed from thence.

At a town near the Kása mountain, the prince having been reinforced by seven hundred men, to all of whom (he issued) provisions and other necessaries, from thence, attended by his army of one thousand two hundred men, he advanced to the Girikanḍa mountain. Girikanḍasíva, the uncle of Paṇḍukábhaya, was governing that territory, having obtained it from Panduvásudéva. At that time this prince was superintending the reaping of a harvest of one hundred "karísa" of land: his daughter, named Pálí, was a lovely princess. She, radiant in beauty, attended by a great retinue, and reclining in a palanquin, was on her way, taking a prepared repast for her father and the reapers. The followers of the prince having discovered this princess reported it to the prince. The prince, quickly approaching her, 1parting her retinue in two, caused his palanquin to be conveyed close to her's. 3 He inquired of her," Where art thou going, together with thy retinue?" While she was giving a detailed account of herself, the prince became extremely enamoured of her; and in order to satisfy himself (in regard to the prediction), he begged for some of the prepared repast. The princess, descending from her palanquin at the foot of a nigródha tree, presented the prince with rice in a golden dish. To serve refreshment to the rest of the people she took the leaves of that nigródha tree. Those leaves instantly became golden vessels. The royal youth seeing these things, and recollecting the prediction of the brahman, thus exulted: A damsel has been found worthy of being a queen-consort to me."

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She feasted the whole party: the refreshment scarcely diminished in quantity. It appeared as if the repast of one person only had been taken therefrom.

Thus this princess, a pure virgin, endowed with supernatural good fortune and merit, from henceforth obtained the name of Suvannapálí (the golden Pálí).

The prince, powerful by the strength of his army, taking this princess with him, and ascending his palanquin, departed undaunted. Her father having heard of this event despatched all his men (after them). They went, engaged, and being defeated by them (the prince's army), that place was afterwards called Kalahanagara (the town of conflict). Her five brothers hearing of this (defeat) departed to make war. these persons Canda, the son of Pandula, himself slew. The field of battle obtained the name Lóhitaváhakhanda (the field of bloodshed).


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This prince Panḍukábhaya, together with his great force, crossing the river (Mahaveli-ganga), advanced to the Dola mountain. He kept his position there for four years. His uncles obtaining information of this circumstance, leaving the king (in the capital), repaired thither for the purpose of attacking him.

Throwing up fortifications near the Dhúmarakkha mountain, the uncles made war against the nephew. The nephew expelling the uncles therefrom, chased them across the river. Taking possession of their fortification, he held that position for two years.

They, repairing to Upatissa, reported the result (of their campaign) to the king. The monarch secretly sent a letter to the prince, saying, "Rule over the country beyond the river; advance not beyond the opposite bank." The nine brothers having heard of this overture, and being highly incensed against the king, thus upbraided him: "It is thyself who hast at all times been a protector of this man: now thou art about to give up the country to him. On this account it is thee (not him) whom we should put to death." He thereupon abdicated the sovereignty to them. They, with one accord, conferred the government of the kingdom on their brother Tissa.

The monarch Abhaya, the dispeller of fear (in reference to his having rescued his sister from the horrors of a predicted death), reigned there, in the capital of Upatissa, for twenty years.

A certain yakkhiní named Cétiyá (the widow of Jutindhara, a yakkha, who was killed in a battle fought at Sirivatthupura), having the form and countenance of a mare, dwelt near the marsh of Tumbariyangana, at the Dhúmarakkha mountain. A certain person in the prince's retinue having seen this beautiful (creature), white, with red legs, announced the circumstance to the prince, saying, There is a mare of such a description." The prince set out with a rope to secure her.


She, seeing him approach from behind, losing her presence of mind from fear, under the influence of his imposing appearance, fled, without (being able to exert the power she possessed of) rendering herself invisible. He gave chase to the fugitive. She, persevering in her flight, made the circuit of that marsh seven times. 2 She made three

more circuits of the marsh, and then plunged into the river at the Kacchaka ferry. He did the same; and (in the river) seized her by the tail, and (at the same time grasped) the leaf of a palmyra tree which the stream was carrying down.

. By his supernatural good fortune this (leaf) became an enormous sword. Exclaiming, "I put thee to death," he flourished the sword over her. "Lord!" replied she to him, "subduing this kingdom for thee, I will confer it on thee: spare me my life." Seizing her by the throat and with the point of the sword boring her nostril, he secured her with his rope she (instantly) became tractable.

Conducting her to the Dhúmarakkha mountain, he obtained a great accession of warlike power by making her his battle-steed. There, at the Dhúmarakkha mountain, he maintained his position for four years. Departing from thence with his forces, he repaired to the mountain Ariṭṭha. There, preparing for the impending war, he remained seven years.

1" who dwelt at the Dhúmarakkha mountain was wont to walk about the marsh of Tumbariyangana in the shape of a mare."

A verse is inserted here in a few copies, which does not appear in most of the MSS. "Then, plunging into the great river and landing on the other side of it, she ran round the Dhúmarakkha mountain seven times."

Leaving two uncles (Abhaya and Girikanḍaka), the other eight uncles, uniting in hostility against him, approached that mountain Ariṭṭha. Throwing up a fortification at Nagaraka,1 and conferring the command (on the person selected), they surrounded the Ariṭṭha mountain on all sides.

The prince having consulted with the yakkhiņí, in conformity with her advice he sent forward a strong party (in the character of a deputation), placing in their charge his insignia of royalty, as well as the usual offerings made as tribute and his martial accoutrements; and enjoined them to deliver this message (from him): "Take all these things I will come to ask your forgiveness.'

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2 When this party had reached its destination, shouting, "I will capture them, forcing their camp," mounting his yakkha mare, and surrounded by his whole army, he (the prince) threw himself into the midst of the fight. The yakkhiní set up a loud shout. His (the prince's) army without, as well as (the deputation) within (the enemy's camp) answered with a tremendous roar. The whole of the prince's army having slaughtered many of the enemy's men, as well as the eight uncles, they made a heap of their (decapitated) heads. The commander (of the enemy's army) having fled, and concealed himself in a forest, from that circumstance that forest is called the Sénápati (commander's) forest.

Observing the skulls of his eight uncles surmounting the heap of heads, he remarked: "It is like a heap of lábu (fruit)." From this circumstance (that place) was (from Nagaraka) called Lábugáma.

Thus, this Panḍukábhaya, the victorious warrior, from thence proceeded to the capital of his maternal great uncle Anuradha.

The said maternal great uncle, giving up his palace to him, constructed another residence for himself, and dwelt therein.

Having consulted a fortune-teller versed in the advantages (which a town ought to possess), according to his directions, he founded an extensive city in that very village. On account of its having been the settlement of Anuradha (both the minister of Vijaya, and the brother of Baddakaccháná), and because it was founded under the constellation Anuradha, it was called Anuradhapura.

Causing his uncle's canopy of dominion to be brought (from Upatissa) and having purified it in the waters of a naturally formed marsh-with the water of that very marsh this Pandukabhaya anointed himself at his inauguration. He raised the princess Suvannapálí to the dignity of queen-consort. He conferred on Canda the office of" puróhita" in due form; on the rest of his officers (he bestowed) appointments according to their claims.

Sparing the life of his eldest uncle Abhaya, who had befriended his mother and himself, the monarch assigned to him the sovereignty over the city. He (thereby) became a " Nagaraguttika," conservator of the city. From that time there have been Nagaraguttikas in the capital.

1 Nagaraka may also mean a small city.

2" And they (the enemy) were lulled to security, thinking 'We will seize him when he enters our camp'; then the prince.” 3 Dele. 4" and also an expert in the science of sites." 5" their."

6" excellent."

7" the Anuradhas (one, the minister of Vijaya, and the other the brother of Bhaddakaccháná).”

"washed it in the natural tank that was here, this Paṇḍukábhaya caused himself to be anointed king with the water of that very tank."

Add "at night."

Sparing also the life of his father's cousin Girikanḍasíva, he conferred on that maternal uncle the territory Girikanḍaka.

Having deepened the above-mentioned marsh, he made it contain a great body of water. By his having been anointed with that water as a conqueror (Jaya), it obtained the name of the Jaya tank. He established the yakkha Kálavéla in the eastern quarter of the city; and the chief of the yakkhas, Cittá, he established on the lower side of the Abhaya tank.

He (the king) who knew how to accord his protection with discrimination, established the slave, born of the yakkha tribe, who had formerly rendered him great service, at the eastern gate of the city. He established within the royal palace itself the mare-faced yakkhiņí, and provided annually demon offerings and every other requisite for these four (yakkhas).

In the days of public festivity, this monarch, seated on a throne of equal eminence with the yakkha chief Cittá, caused joyous spectacles, representing the actions of the dévas as well as of mortals, to be exhibited; and delighting in the happiness and festivities (of his people) he was exceedingly gratified.

He formed the four suburbs of the city and the Abhaya tanks, and to the westward of the palace the great cemetery, and the place of execution and torture. He provided a nigródha tree for the (dévatá) Vessavana, and a 10temple for the Vyádha-déva; 11a gilt hall for his own use, as well as a palace distributed into many apartments. These he constructed near the western gate. He employed a body of five hundred candálas (low-caste people) to be scavengers of the city, and two hundred candálas to be night men; one hundred and fifty candálas to be carriers of corpses, and the same number of candálas12 at the cemetery.

He formed a village for them on the north-west of the cemetery, and they constantly performed every work according to the directions 13of the king. To the north-east of this candála village he established a 14village of Nichichandálas, to serve as cemetery-men to the low-castes. To the northward of that cemetery, and between it and the Pásána mountain, a range of buildings was at the same time constructed for 5the king's huntsmen. To the northward of these 15(he formed) the Gámaní tank. He also constructed a dwelling for the various classes of devotees. To the eastward of that 18(Nichichandála) cemetery the king built a residence for the "brahman Jótiya 5(the chief engineer). In the same quarter, a Nighantha devotee, named Giri, and many Pásandaka devotees18 dwelt. In the same quarter the king built a temple for the Nighantha Kumbhanda, which was called by his name. To the westward of that temple, and the eastward of the huntsmen's 19buildings, he provided a residence for five hundred persons of various

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7" and enjoyed himself exceedingly in sexual pleasure."

"the western Rájini (a palace ?).' 966 (as an altar)."

3" southern.'

10" tála tree."

11 The original words thus translated are of very doubtful meaning: they are sonnan sabhága-vatthan and pabheda-gharan.

12 Add 66 to be watchers."


13 46


a cemetery called Níca-susána (low-caste cemetery') for the use of the


is" Nica-susána."

18 Add" and Ṣramaņas."

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