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Kumbálaka, Váhata, Rattamálakaṇḍaka, Tissava, Velangaviṭṭhi, Mahágallaka, Círavápi, Mahadáragalla, and Kálapásánavápi: these were the sixteen tanks. He formed also the great canal called Pabbata, which was fed from the river.

He thus performed 1acts both of piety and impiety.

The conclusion of the Mahávansa.

ADORATION to him, who is the deified, the sanctified, the omniscient, supreme BUDDHA !

Thus this monarch Maháséna, by his connection with ill-disposed persons, having performed, during the whole course of his existence, acts both of piety and impiety, his destiny (after his death) was according to his merits. From this example, a wise man should avoid intercourse with impious persons, as if he were guarding his life from the deadly venom of a serpent.

His son Siriméghavanna, who was like unto the rájá Mandháta, Zendowed with all prosperity, then became king. Assembling all the priests of the Mahávihára, who had been scattered abroad by the measures of Maháséna, under the persuasion of his impious advisers, and reverentially approaching, and bowing down to them, he thus benevolently inquired: "What are these disastrous acts committed by my father, misguided by Sanghamitta?" The priests thus replied to the monarch: "Thy sire endeavoured to violate the consecration (of the Mahavihára), which he failed in accomplishing, by priests remaining within the consecrated limits; here a hundred priests established themselves, subterraneously, in the womb of the earth. Those impious characters, the minister named Sóna, and Sanghamitta, misguiding the king, caused this profanation to be done by him. Pulling down the superb Lóhapásáda, consisting of seven stories, and 4having apartments of various descriptions, he removed (the materials) thence to the Abhayagiri. These sacrilegious characters sowed the site of these sacred edifices, on which the four Buddhas had vouchsafed to tarry, with the másaka seed." "Ponder (continued the priests addressing themselves to the rájá) on the consequences of unworthy associa tions." On hearing this account of his parent's misconduct, appalled at the results of evil communications, he restored all that had been destroyed by his father there (in that capital).

In the first place, he rebuilt the Lóhapásáda, exhibiting in Síhala, the model of the superb palace of the rájá Mahápanáda. He rebuilt also the parivénas which had been demolished, and restored to the servants of those religious establishments the lands they had held for their services. The residence (of the priests) which had been destroyed by his father and the ill-judging minister, because they were separately built, he reconstructed in a row in restoring the vihára.

This ruler of men completed all that remained imperfect of the Jótivana vihára which had been founded by his father. Subsequently, this monarch having made himself fully acquainted with the particulars connected with the théra Mahinda, the son of the Muni of saints

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many works."

2" in conferring."

3" geven."

5 Lit.

4" other houses."

"The viháras which had been but sparsely inhabited by reason of his misguided father having stopped the supplies, he caused to be densely occupied."

• the work in."

7" left imperfect."




(Buddha); and the rájá glorying in the merits of him who had been the means of converting this island, thus meditated: "Most assuredly the théra has been a supreme (benefactor) of the land;" and causing a golden image of him to be made, and rendering it every honour,on the seventh day of the first quarter of the month of Kattika, he removed it to the edifice called the Théramba at Ambatthala; and leaving (there the image of) the théra during the eighth day, then on the ninth day assembling a great concourse of people, like unto the heavenly host, composed of the royal retinue and of the inhabitants of the capital leaving at home those alone requisite for guarding their own houses; and having, by despatching messengers throughout Lanká, called together all the priests, and keeping up during the period of their detention there the mahádánan, he celebrated a festival by the collective aid of all these people, never surpassed before. He himself led the procession of this (inspired) teacher of the island, the illustrious son of the divine teacher (Buddha), in the same manner that the king of dévas (Sakka) preceded the divine teacher in his progress to the Dévalóka. He had the city and the road to the cétiya at Ambatthala decorated, in the same manner that the road from Vésáli to Sávatthi was ornamented2 (in the above-mentioned progress of Buddha) ; and in order that he might exhibit to the people the procession of this théra-in the same manner that Asóka, the théra's father, sending a mission to the Ahóganga mountain, had conducted the théra Moggaliputtatissa to (Pupphapura) distributing alms in the way to the afflicted, to vagrants, and mendicants, and celebrated for the accommodation of the priests the four sacerdotal requisites--this gifted (monarch) also, in the presence of this immense congregation of people, lifting up the golden image of the théra, descended from the rocky peak (of Ambatthala); he himself leading the procession surrounded by a number of priests, and dazzling like the golden Mountain Méru, enveloped in the brilliant fleecy clouds of a bright season, in the midst of the khíraságara ocean. Such as was the entrance of the supreme of the universe (Buddha) into Vésálinagara, to expound the (1oRuvan) sutta ; this rájá made a similar exhibition to the people in the present instance. This monarch, thus rendering every mark of reverence to the festival, approached in the evening the Sotthiyákara vihára, which had been built by himself near the eastern gate. He there detained for three days the image of the son of the vanquisher. Having then ordered the city to be decorated, on the twelfth day, "1in the same manner that in aforetime the divine teacher entered the city of Rájagaha, bringing this image out of the Sotthiyakara vihára, he conveyed it in a solemn procession through the city, which was like unto a great ocean, to the Mahávihára; and kept it for three months in the precincts of the bó tree. With the same ceremonials12 (the multitude) conducted it to the city, and there, near the royal residence, in the south-east direction,

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3" throughout Lanká, and relieved the prisoners from the jails of the city, he gave a great almsgiving to all the people, and celebrated a festival with a pomp of power that was never surpassed before."

Insert" to meet (the image)."

566 proceeded to meet."

6" visit."

7 "like unto the théra's father, Asóka, in welcoming there the théra Moggaliputta, the king distributed."


provided." "milky."

10" Ratana"

11" like unto the city of Rájagaha on the occasion of the Master's first entry thereto." 12" he.'

he built an edifice for that image. This fearless and profoundly wise monarch, having caused images to be made of Iṭṭhiya and the other (théras who had accompanied Mahinda), placed them also there. He made provision for the maintenance of this establishment, and commanded that a splendid festival should be celebrated annually in a manner similar to the present one. 2 The rájá, as he had made this provision for the perpetuation of the festival, even unto this days it is kept up without omission. He instituted a festival to be held at "the paváraṇa (conclusion) of "vassa" anually, on which occasion (these images) were carried from the city to the Mahávihára. He built a protecting wall round the vihára called Abhayatissa, and added a stone cornice to the flight of steps at the bó tree.

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In the ninth year of his reign, a certain brahman princess brought the Dáthádhátu, or tooth-relic of Buddha, hither from Kálinga, under the circumstances set forth in the Dáthádhátuvansa. The monarch receiving charge of it himself, and rendering thereto, in the most reverential manner, the highest honours, deposited it in a casket of great purity made of" phalika " stone, and lodged it in the edifice called the Dhammacakka, built by Dévánampiya Tissa.

In the first place, the rájá, expending 'a lakh, in the height of his felicity, celebrated a Dáṭhádhátu festival, and then he ordained that sa similar festival should be annually celebrated, transferring the relic in procession to the Abhayagiri vihára.

This monarch constructed eighteen viháras; and formed, out of compassion for living creatures, tanks also, which should perpetually contain water; and having celebrated a festival at the bó tree, and performed other equally eminent acts of piety, in the twenty-eighth year of his reign fulfilled the destiny prescribed by his deserts.

His younger brother, prince Jetthatissa, then raised the chatta in Lanká. He was a skilful carver. This monarch having executed several arduous undertakings in painting and carving, himself taught the art to many of his subjects. 10 Pursuant to the direction of his father, he sculptured a statue of Buddha, in a manner so exquisite that it might be inferred that he was inspired for the task. For that statue, having also made a beautiful altar and a gilt edifice, he surmounted it with a chatta,

1 Insert "placed guards over it, and."

“And the kings of his house do up to this day maintain that festival in obedience to his command, without omitting aught of the ceremonial. He ordained that the image of (Mahinda) should be taken from the city into the Mahávihára on the pavárana day (the conclusion of the vassa), and offerings made thereto on the 13th day of the moon every year. And he built stone cornices and beautiful walls also at the Abhaya and Tissa-Vasabha viháras as well as at the bodhi tree."

3 The period Mahánáma flourished. This festival is not observed now. -[Note by Mr. Turnour.]

The relic now deposited in the Máligáva temple at Kandy; and at present in my official custody.-[Note by Mr. Turnour.]

This work is extant, to which two sections have been subsequently added, bringing the history of the tooth-relic down to the middle of the last century.— [Note by Mr. Turnour.]

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Add in the royal park. Thenceforward that house received the name of Dáthádhátu-ghara.'

7" nine lakhs."

"it should be taken every year to the Abhayagiri vihára and a similar festival celebrated in honour thereof."

Add" who, under his directions, did likewise."

He sculptured a beautiful likeness of the Bodhisatta, so perfect that it seemed as if it had been executed by supernatural power; and also a throne, a parasol. and a state-room with some beautiful works in ivory made therefor.”

and inlaid it with ivory in various ways; and having administered the government of Lanká for nine years, and performed many acts of piety, he also fulfilled the destiny due to him.

His son Buddhadása then became king: he was a mine of virtue and an ocean of riches. By the perfection of his policy he rendered this (capital) to the inhabitants of this land, like unto the heavenly Álakamanda, the city of Vessavana. Endowed with wisdom, piety, and virtue, and imbued with boundless benevolence; and thereby attaining the ten virtues of royalty, and escaping from the four" agati," he administered justice, and protected the people by the four means that that protection ought to be extended. This monarch exemplified to the people, in his own person, the conduct of the Bódhisattas; and he entertained for mankind at large the compassion that a parent feels for his children. The indigent he rendered happy by distribution of riches among them; and he protected the rich in their property and life. This wise (ruler) patronised the virtuous, discountenanced the wicked, and comforted the diseased by providing medical relief.

On a certain day, the rájá, while proceeding along the high road, mounted on his elephant to bathe at the Tissa tank, saw in the neighbourhood of the Puttabhága vihára a 2mahánága, on a white ant's hill, 3stretched out straight as a pole, and extended on his back, suffering from some internal complaint. Thereupon, on perceiving this, the monarch thought, "Surely this nága is suffering from some disease;" and descending from his state elephant, and approaching the distressed mahánága, thus addressed him: "Mahánága, it is only on the road that I became aware of thy case. Thou art unquestionably highly gifted; but as thou art also addicted to fits of rage, on sudden impulses, on that account it is impossible for me to approach thee and treat thy complaint. Yet without approaching thee, I can effect nothing. What is to be done?" On being thus addressed, the hooded monarch (cobra de capello) thoroughly pacified, inserting his head alone into a hole in the ant-hill, extended himself. Then approaching him, and drawing his instrument from its case, he opened the nágá's stomach; and extracting the diseased part, and applying an efficacious remedy, he instantly cured the snake. (The rájá) then thus meditated: "My administration must be most excellent; even the animal creation recognises that I am a most compassionating person." The snake finding himself cured, presented a superlatively valuable gem of his, as an offering to the king, and the rájá set that gem in the eye of the stone image (of Buddha) in the Abhayagiri vihára.

A certain priest, who had constantly subsisted as a mendicant, in the course of his alms pilgrimage through the village Thusavaṭṭika, received "some boiled rice which had become dry. Procuring also milk which had already engendered worms, he ate his meal. Innumerable worms

166 By every means in his power he ensured the happiness of the inhabitants of the island, and took as great care of the city as Vessavana, the god of wealth, took of his city, Álakamandá."

24 great cobra."

346 lying on his back (as if) to expose his ailment, which was a tumour on the belly. The great and good king concluded that the nága was suffering from some disease," &c. This verse (65) contains a play on the word mahánága, which is applied to the elephant, the king, and the cobra. Anágavá mahánága, here means a harmless and excellent person, and are epithets applied to the king. 4" I know the reason of thy coming."

"touch." touching."

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7 Delc.

being produced thereby, they gnawed his entrails. Thereupon repairing to the rájá he stated his complaint to him. The king inquired of him, "What are thy symptoms; and where didst thou take food?" He replied, "I took my meal at the village Thusavaṭṭika, mixed with milk." The rájá 1observed, "There must have been worms in the milk." On the same day a horse was brought, afflicted with a complaint, which required his blood vessels to be opened. The rájá performed that operation, and taking blood from him administered it to the priest. After waiting awhile he observed, "That was horse's blood." On hearing this, the priest threw it up. The worms were got rid of with the blood, and he recovered. The rájá then thus addressed the delighted priest:3" By one puncture of my own surgical instrument both the priest afflicted with worms and the horse have been cured; surely this medical science is a wonderful one!"

A certain person, while drinking some water, swallowed the spawn of a water serpent, whence a water serpent was engendered, which gnawed his entrails. This individual, tortured by this visitation, had recourse to the rájá; and the monarch inquired into the particulars of his case. Ascertaining that it was a serpent in his stomach, 'causing him to be bathed and well rubbed, and providing him with a well-furnished bed, 2he kept him in it awake for seven days. Thereupon overcome (by his previous sufferings) he fell sound asleep with his mouth open. (The rájá) placed on his mouth a piece of meat with a string tied to it. In consequence of the savour which exhaled therefrom, the serpent rising up, bit it, and attempted to pull it into (the patient's) stomach. 'Instantly drawing him out by the string, and carefully disengaging (the serpent) therefrom, and placing it in water, contained in a vessel, (the rájá) made the following remark: "Jívaka was the physician of the supreme Buddha, and he knew the science. But what wonderful service did he ever render to the world? He performed no cure equal to this. In my case, as I devote myself without scruple with equal zeal for the benefit of all, my merit is pre-eminent."


Similarly (by his medical skill) he rendered a Chandála woman of Hellóligáma, who was born barren, pregnant seven times, without submitting her to any personal inconvenience. There was a certain priest 10so severely afflicted with rheumatic affections, that whenever he stood he was as crooked as a gopánasi" rafter. This gifted (king) relieved him from his affliction. In another case, of a man who had11 drank some water which had the spawn of frogs in it, an egg, entering the nostril, ascended into the head, and being hatched became a frog. There it attained its full growth, and in rainy weather it croaked, and gnawed the head of the priest. The rájá, splitting open the head and extracting the frog, and reuniting the severed parts, quickly cured the wound.

1" then knew that."

"Add" in the impulse of his joy."

4" he caused him to fast for seven days; and." "exhaustion."

7" Then dexterously."

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"what greater skill than this did he exhibit to the world although he also, in all loving-kindness, performed similar acts. Oh, how great is my good fortune." "Likewise he attended on a Chandála woman of Hellóligáma, who, for the seventh time, was in great travail, and saved her together with the child that was in the womb." The original word mulhagabbha means a bad presentation of the foetus causing difficult delivery.

10" whose limbs were stiffened with a rheumatic affection, and while he was laid up as straight as a rafter, this gifted king," &c.

11 Insert hurriedly."

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