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"melon flesh.” His having thus filled the dish procured for him the appellation of Ámaṇḍa Gámaní (his individual name being " Gámaní," and “ Ámaṇḍa" being another term for melon).

His younger brother, the monarch named Kaníjánu Tissa, putting him to death, reigned in the capital three years. This rájá decided a controversy, which had for a long time suspended the performance of religious ceremonies in the "upósatha" hall of the Cétiyagiri vihára, and forcibly seizing the sixty priests who contumaciously resisted the royal authority, imprisoned those impious persons in the Kaníra cave, in the Cétiya mountain.

By the death of this Kanírájá, the monarch Cúlábhaya, son of Ámaṇḍa Gámaní, reigned for one year. This ruler caused to be built the Cúlagallaka vihára on the bank of the Góṇaka river, to the southward of the capital.

By his demise, his younger sister Síválí, the daughter of Amanda, reigned for four months; when a nephew of Amanda, named Ilanága, deposed her and raised the canopy of dominion in the capital. On the occasion of this monarch visiting the Tissa tank, according to prescribed form, a great body of Lambakanṇakas (a caste who wore ear ornaments), allowing him to depart thither, assembled in the capital. The rájá missing these men there (at the tank) enraged, exclaimed, "I will teach them subordination;" and in the neighbourhood of the tank, at the Maháthúpa, for the investigation of their conduct, appointed a court consisting exclusively of (low caste) candálas. By this act the Lambakanna race being incensed, rose in a body, and seizing and imprisoning the rájá in his own palace, administered the government themselves. In that crisis, the monarch's consort (Mahámattá), decking her infant son Candamukha Síva (in his royal vestments), and consigning the prince to the charge of her female slaves, and giving them their instructions, sent him to the state elephant. The slaves conveying him thither thus delivered the whole of the queen's directions to the state elephant: "This is the infant who stood in the relation of child to thy patron; it is preferable that he should be slain by thee than by his enemies do thous slay him: this is the queen's entreaty." Having thus spoke, they deposited the infant at the feet of the elephant. The said state elephant roaring with anguish, breaking his chains, and rushing into the palace, burst open the door, although resisted (by the mob). Having broken open the door of the apartment in which the rájá was 10concealed, placing him on his back, he hastened to Mahátittha. Having thus enabled the rájá to embark in a vessel on the western coast, the elephant fled to the Malaya (mountain division of the island.)11

1" the prince."


sixty wicked priests who were engaged in a conspiracy against the king." 3" them." 4 Dele.


In the first year of this king's reign he visited the Tissa tank, when a great number of Lambakanņas (who had accompanied him as attendants) left him behind and returned to the city. The king, missing his men, was wroth; and (as a punishment) he laid on them the task of trampling down heaps of earth by the side of the tank to serve as a great thúpa which he intended to build; and he set overseers of the candála caste over them. This act of (indignity) incensed them; and they rose against the king in a body, seized and imprisoned him in his own palace, and themselves administered the government."

6" maid-servants."

766 thy master's son: he is now in prison:


8 Insert therefore."

9.66 through his stable."

better," &c.

10" confined."

11 Add" by the western coast."

This monarch having remained three years beyond seas, enlisting a great force repaired in ships to the Róhana division; and landing at the port of Sakkharasobbha, he there, in Róhana, raised a powerful army. The rájá's state elephant hastened to the said Róhana from the southern Malaya, and instantly resumed his former functions.

Having listened to the "kapijátaka" (or the discourse on the incarnation of Buddha in the form of a monkey) 1in the fraternity of the théra named Mahápaduma, who was a native of that division, resident at Túládhára; and being delighted with his history of the Bódhisatta, he (this rájá) enlarged the Nágamahá vihára to the extent of a hundred lengths of his unstrung bow, and extended the thúpa also (of that vihára) beyond its former dimensions. In like manner he extended the Tissa as well as Dúra tanks.

This rájá, putting his army in motion, set out on his campaign. The Lambakannas hearing of this proceeding, prepared themselves for the attack. Near the Kapallakkhanda gate, on the plain of Ahankárapiṭṭhíka, they maintained a conflict with various success. The king's troops being enfeebled by the sea voyage, were yielding ground, when the rájá shouting out his own name, threw himself (into the midst of the conflict). The Lambakanņas, terrified by this act, prostrated themselves on their breasts. He having caused them to be decapitated (on the spot), their heads formed a heap as high as the spoke of his chariot. When this exhibition had been made three times, the monarch, relenting with compassion, called out" Capture them, without depriving them of life." The victorious monarch then entering the capital, and having raised the canopy of dominion, set out for the aquatic festival at the Tissa tank (which had been interrupted on the former occasion by the insurrection of Lambakaṇņas).

At the close of the aquatic games, this monarch, having resumed his royal vestments, in the fulness of his joy, surveyed the splendour of his regal state. It then rose to his recollection that the Lambakannas had been the (former) destroyers of that prosperity. In the impulse of his wrath, he ordered them to be bound to the yoke of his chariot3 (with their noses pierced), and entered the city preceding them. Standing on the threshold of his palace, the rájá issued these orders: Officers decapitate them on the threshold." His mother being informed thereof, prevented the decapitation by observing: "Lord of chariots, the creatures that are yoked to thy car are only oxen; chop off only their noses and hoofs; " accordingly the king had their noses and the toes of their feet cut off.

The rájá gave unto his (hatthi) state elephant the province in which he had secreted himself. From that circumstance that district obtained the name of Hatthibhóga. In this manner the monarch Ilanága reigned in Anuradhapura full six years.

On the demise of Ilanága, his son, the rájá Candamukha Síva, reigned for eight years and seven months. This monarch, having caused the Manikáragáma tank to be formed, dedicated it to the vihára named Issarasamaņa; and the consort of this rájá, celebrated under the appellation of Damila Déví, dedicated the village which supplied her

1" explained by."

3 Insert" in pairs."

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2 Dele.

4 Insert the garden gate of." I think the word mahávatthu, used several times in this part of the work, is meant for the palace garden.

5" horns."

"profits accruing to her from the village (Manikára).”

personal retinue to the same vihára. His younger brother, known by the name of the rájá Yasalálaka Tissa, putting the said Candamukha Síva to death at an aquatic festival at the Tissa tank, reigned in the delightful city of Anuradhapura, which is the lovely countenance of Lanká, for seven years and eight months.

There was a young gate-porter, the son of the porter Datta, named Subha, who in person strongly resembled the rájá. The monarch Yasalálaka, in a merry mood, having decked out the said Subha, the messenger, in the vestments of royalty, and seated him on the throne, putting the livery bonnet of the messenger on his own head, stationed himself at a palace gate, with the porter's staff in his hand. While the ministers of state were bowing down to him who was seated on the throne, the rájá was enjoying the deception. He was in the habit, from time to time, of indulging in these (scenes). On a certain occasion (when this farce was repeated), addressing himself to the merry monarch, the messenger exclaimed: "How does that balattha dare to laugh in my presence ? and succeeded in getting the king put to death. The porter Subha thus usurped the sovereignty, and administered it for six years, under the title of 1Subha.

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This Subha rájá constructed at the two viháras (Mahá and Abhaya) a delightful range of buildings (at each) to serve for parivéņas, which were named Subharája parivéņas. He also built Valli vihára near Uruvéla ; to the eastward (of the capital) the Ekadvára vihára (near the mountain of that name); and the Nandigamaka vihára on the bank of the (Kacchá) river.

A certain Lambakanṇa youth named Vasabha, resident in the north of the island, was in the service of a maternal uncle of his, who was a chief in command of the troops.

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It had been thus predicted (by the rájá Yasalalaka): "A person of the name of Vasabha will become king; and the (reigning) king was consequently, at this period, extirpating throughout the island every person bearing the name of Vasabha. This officer of state, saying to himself, "I ought to give up this Vasabha to the king," and having consulted his wife also on the subject, early on a certain morning repaired to the palace. For him (the minister) who was going on the errand, she (his wife) placed in the hands of Vasabha the betel, &c. (required by him for mastication), omitting the chunam, as the means of completely rescuing (Vasabha) from his impending fate. On reaching the palace gate, the minister, discovering that the chunam for his betel had been forgotten, sent (the lad) back for the chunam. The wife of the commander revealing the secret to Vasabha, who had come for the chunam, and presenting him with a thousand pieces, enabled him to escape. The said Vasabha fled to the Mahávihára, and was provided by the théras there with rice, milk, and clothing. In a subsequent stage of his flight, having heard the rumour undisguisedly repeated,The Kutthi will become the king," and publicly asserted he will turn traitor"; elated thereat, enlisting enterprising men in his service, he reduced (the neighbouring) villages to subjection; and thence hastening to the Róhana division, progressively subdued the whole country, commencing from Kappalapúva. This rájá, at the


1 Subha Rájá.

"the words of a leper (who was a fortune-teller) to the effect that he would one day attain sovereignty, he was elated, and determined to become a marauder. Having secured enterprising men," &c.

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head of an efficient force, in the course of ten years attacked the capital. This all-powerful Vasabha, putting the rájá Subha to death in his own palace, raised the canopy of dominion in the capital. His uncle fell in the conflict, and the rájá Vasabha raised 1 Chetthá, the wife of his uncle, who had formerly protected him, to the dignity of queen-consort. Being desirous of ascertaining the term of his existence, he consulted 2a fortune-teller, who replied, "It will last precisely twelve years." The monarch presented him with a thousand pieces to preserve that secret inviolate; and assembling the priesthood, and bowing down to them, he inquired: "Lords! is it, or is it not, practicable to extend the term of human existence?" The priesthood replied: "Supreme among men! it is practicable to preserve human life from the death which results from violence (or accident). It is requisite to make 'parissávana' offerings; to endow sacred edifices; and to provide institutions for the refuge of the distressed it is also requisite to repair edifices that have fallen into dilapidation; and having undertaken the vows of the 'pansil' order, to preserve them inviolate it is requisite on the 'upósatha' days that the prescribed 'upósatha ceremonies should be observed." The rájá, responding "sádhu," went and did accordingly. Every third year he conferred on all priests throughout the island the three sacerdotal garments. To those priests who were unable to attend, he directed their robes to be sent he provided also milk, sweet rice for twelve establishments, and the ordinary alms-offerings for sixty-four places. In four different places he kept up an illumination of a thousand lamps at each; and at the Cétiya mountain, at the Thúpáráma, at the Maháthúpa, at the bó tree, 5and on the peak of Cettala mountain, at these several places he constructed ten thúpas; and throughout the island he repaired dilapidated edifices. Delighted with the théra resident at Valliyéra vihára, he built for him the great Valligotta vihára. He built also the Anurá vihára near Mahágáma, on which he bestowed Heligáma, in extent eight karissa, as well as a thousand pieces. Having constructed the Mucéla vihára "on that vihára he conferred the moiety of the abundant waters of the canal of irrigation supplied from the Tissavaddha mountain. He encased the thúpa at Galambatittha in bricks; and to supply oil and wicks for 1oits "upósatha" hall, he formed the Sahassakarísa tank, and dedicated it thereto. At the Kumbhigallaka vihára he built an "upósatha hall; as also at the Issarasamaṇaka vihára; and this monarch constructed also the roof over the Thúpáráma here (at Anuradhapura). At the Mahávihára he built a 11most perfect range of parivéņas, 12and repaired the Catusála hall which had become dilapidated. He caused also exquisite images to be formed of the four Buddhas 11of their own exact stature, as well as an edifice (to contain them) near the delightful bó tree.

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* Fresh sentence: "On the peak of the Cittala mountain ('Situl-pauwa ') he built ten beautiful thúpas."

6 64 eight thousand karisas' extent of land in Heligama."

7" at Tissavadḍhamánaka, he conferred thereon the moiety of the waters of the Alisára canal."

8" He made a covering of tiles for the thúpa."


9" and the upósatha hall also."

10" it."

12 Add" facing the west."

11 Dele.

The consort of this monarch constructed a beautiful thúpa, to which she gave her own name, as well as an elegant roof, or house, over it. Having completed the roof over the Thúpáráma, this monarch, at the festival held on that occasion, distributed the mahádána; unto the bhikkús who were in progress of being instructed in the word of Buddha, the four sacerdotal requisites; and to the bhikkús who expounded the scriptures, clarified butter and curds; at the four gates of the city he distributed alms to mendicants, and medicinal drugs to priests afflicted with diseases. He formed also the following eleven tanks :The Mayetti, Rájuppala, Kólambagáma, Mahánikavițți, two called Mahágáma, Kéhála (near Mahátittha), Kélivása, Cambuṭṭhi, Vátamangana, and Abhívaḍdhamána. For the extension of cultivation he formed twelve canals of irrigation; and for the further protection of the capital, he raised the rampart round it (to eighteen cubits). He built also guard-houses at the four gates, and a great palace (for himself). This monarch having formed also ponds in different parts of the royal gardens within the capital, kept swans in them; and by means of aqueducts conducted water to them.

Thus this sovereign Vasabha, incessantly devoted to acts of piety, having in various ways fulfilled a pious course of existence, and thereby escaped the death (predicted to occur in the twelfth year of his reign), ruled the kingdom, in the capital, for forty-four years; and celebrated an equal number of Vésákha festivals.


The (preceding) rájá Subha, under the apprehension produced by the prediction connected with the usurpation of Vasabha, had consigned his only daughter to the charge of a brickmason bestowing on her the vestments and ornaments of royalty suited to her rank. (her father) being put to death by Vasabha, 5she gave up these articles to the mason (to preserve her own disguise). Adopting her as his daughter, he brought her up in his own family. This girl was in the habit of carrying his meals to this artificer (wherever he might be employed). On one of these occasions, observing in the Kadamba forest (a théra)6 absorbed for the seventh day in the "niródha" meditation, this gifted female presented him with the meal she was carrying. There dressing another meal, she carried it to her (adopted) father. On being asked the cause of the delay, she explained to her parent what had taken place. Overjoyed, he directed that the presentation of this offering should be repeated again and again. The théra, who was gifted with the power of discerning coming events, thus addressed the maiden: "When thou attainest regal prosperity, recollect this particular spot; and on that very day he acquired " parinibbuti.”

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The rájá Vasabha, when his son Vankanásika attained manhood, sought for a virgin endowed with the prescribed personal attributes. Fortune-tellers, who were gifted with the knowledge of predicting the fortunes of females, discovering such a damsel in the mason's village, made the circumstance known to the king. The rájá took steps to have her brought to him; and the mason then disclosed that she was

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3 64 Having laid out the park he kept swans in it, and built many ponds for them in the city, into which he caused water to be aqueducts."

5" the mason took the child, and adopting her," &c. Insert" who had been."

"that suited him. Judges of female beauty, maiden."

conducted by means of 4" his robe."

7" Then."

discovering a (beauteous)

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