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inspired priests, to prevent the sinking of the thúpa itself (when completed); but now, O Mahárájá! it will not occur again. Without entertaining any further apprehensions, proceed in the completion of this undertaking." Receiving this reply, the delighted monarch proceeded with the building of the thúpa. At the completion for the tenth time up to the ledge on which flower offerings are deposited, ten kótis of bricks (had been consumed).

The priesthood, for the purpose of obtaining (méghavanna) cloudcoloured stones for the formation of the receptacle of the relic, assigned the task of procuring them to the sámanéras Uttara and Sumana, saying, "Bring ye them." They, repairing to Uttarakuru, brought six beautiful cloud-coloured stones, in length and breadth eighty cubits and eight inches in thickness, of the tint of the "ganthi" flower, without flaw, and resplendent like the sun. On the flower-offering ledge, in the centre, the inspired théras placed one (of the slabs), and on the four sides they arranged four of them in the form of a box. The other, to be used for the cover, they placed to the eastward, where it was not seen. For the centre of this relic receptacle, the rájá caused to be made an exquisitely beautiful bó tree 1in gold. The height of the stem, including the five branches, was eighteen cubits; the root was coral; the planted (the tree) in an emerald. The stem was of pure silver; its leaves glittered with gems. The faded leaves were of gold; its fruit and tender leaves were of coral. On its stem, eight inches in circumference, flower-creepers, representations of quadrupeds, and of the "hansa," and other birds, shone forth. Above this (receptacle of the relic), around the edges of a beautiful cloth canopy, there was a fringe with a golden border tinkling with pearls ; and in various parts garlands of flowers (were suspended). At the four corners of the canopy a bunch exclusively of pearls was suspended, each of them valued at nine lakhs: emblems of the sun, moon, and stars, and the various species of flowers, represented in gems, were appended to the canopy. In (the formation of) that canopy were spread out eight thousand pieces of valuable cloths of various descriptions and of every hue. He surrounded the bó tree with a low parapet, in different parts of which gems and pearls of the size of a "neli" were studded. At the foot of the bó tree rows of vases filled with the various flowers represented in jewellery, and with the four kinds of perfumed waters, were arranged.

On an invaluable golden throne, erected on the eastern side of the bó tree (which was deposited in the receptacle), the king placed a resplendent golden image of Buddha (in the attitude in which he achieved buddhahood at the foot of the bó tree at Uruvéla in the kingdom of Magadha). The features and members of that image were represented in their several appropriate colours, in exquisitely resplendent gems. There (in that relic receptacle, near the image of Buddha) stood (the figure of) Mahá Brahma, bearing the silver parasol of dominion; Sakka, the inaugurator, with his "vijayuttara" chank; Pañcasikha with his harp in his hand; Kálanága, together with his band of singers and dancers; the hundred-armed Mára (Death) mounted on his elephant (Girimékhalá), and surrounded by his host of attendants.

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5 "there were representations of the eight auspicious objects (attha-mangaliká flower-plants, and beautiful rows of quadrupeds and haṇsas.”





Corresponding with this altar on the eastern side, on the other three sides also (of the receptacle) altars were arranged, each being in value a "kóti." In the north-eastern direction from the bó tree there was an altar arranged, made of the various descriptions of gems, costing a "kóți” of treasure. The various acts performed at each of the places at which (Buddha had tarried) for the seven times seven days (before his public entry into Báránasí), he most fully represented (in this relic receptacle); as well as (all the subsequent important works of his mission, viz.): Brahmá in the act of supplicating Buddha to expound his doctrines; the proclamation of the sovereign supremacy of his faith (at Báránasí); the ordination of Yasa; the ordination of the Bhaddavaggiyá princes; the conversion of the Jațila sect; the advance of Bimbisára (to meet Buddha); his entrance into the city of Rájagaha ; the acceptance of the Véluvana temple (at Rájagaha); his eighty principal disciples there (resident); the journey to Kapilavatthu, and the golden" chankama there; the ordination of (his son) Ráhula and of (his cousin) Nanda; the acceptance of the Jéta temple (at Sávatthi); the miracle of two opposite 3results performed at the foot of the 'amba tree (at the gates of Sávatthi); 5his sermon delivered in the Távatiņsa heavens (to his mother Máyá and the other inhabitants of those heavens); the miracle performed unto the dévas at his descent (from the heavens, where he had tarried three months expounding the " abhidhamma "); the interrogation of the assembled théras (at the gates of Sankapura, at which he alighted on his descent from the Távatiņsa heavens, and where he was received by Sáriputta at the head of the priesthood); the delivery of the " Mahásamaya "discourse (at Kapilavatthu, pursuant to the example of all preceding Buddhas); the monitory discourse addressed to (his son) Ráhula (at Kapilavatthu after he entered into priesthood); the delivery of the Mahámangala discourse (at Sávatthi, also pursuant to the example of preceding Buddhas); the assembly (to witness the attack on Buddha made at Rájagaha by the elephant) Dhanapála; the discourse addressed to Álavaka (at Álavipura); the discourse on the string of amputated fingers (at Sávatthi); the subjection of the nága rájá Apalála 7at * * * * * * * * *; the (series of) discourses addressed to the Páráyana brahman tribe (at Rájagaha); as also the revelation of (Buddha's) approaching demise (communicated to him by Mára three months before it took place at Pává); the acceptance of the alms-offering prepared of hog's flesh (presented by Cunda at Pává, which was the last substantial repast Buddha partook of); and of the couple of "singivanna" cloths (presented to Buddha by the trader Pukkusa on his journey to Kusinárá to fulfil his predicted destiny); the draught of water which became clear (on the disciple Ananda's taking it for Buddha from the river Kukuta, the stream of which was muddy when he first approached it to draw the water) ; his " parinibbána " (at Kusinárá); the lamentation of dévas and men (on the demise of Buddha); the prostration at the feet (of Buddha on the funeral pile) of the théra (Mahákassapa, who repaired to Kusinárá by his miraculous powers from Himavanta to

1 "There was also a bed (representing that on which Buddha rested immediately after he had attained enlightenment) with its head towards the bodhi tree, adorned with," &c.

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7 There is no omission in the text here, as the asterisks would indicate.


8" relinquishment of Buddha's full term of life (three months before his death)."

fulfil this predestined duty); the self-ignition of the pile (which would not take fire before Mahákassapa arrived); the extinction of the fire, as also the honours rendered there; the partition of (Buddha's) relics by the (brahman) Dóna. By this (monarch) of illustrious descent, many of the "Játaka" (the former existences of Buddha), which were the best calculated to turn the hearts of his people to conversion, were also represented. He caused Buddha's acts during his existence as Vessantara rájá to be depicted in detail; as well as (his history) from the period of his descent from Tusitapura to his attaining buddhahood at the foot of the bó tree. At the farthest point of the four sides (of the relic receptacle) the four great (mythological) kings (Dhataraṭṭha, Virulha, Virúpakkha, and Vessavana) were represented; thirty-three dévas and thirty-two 1princes; twenty-eight chiefs of yakkhas; above these again, dévas bowing down with clasped hands raised over their heads; still higher, others bearing vases of flowers; dancing dévas and chanting dévas; dévas holding up mirrors, as well as those bearing bouquets of flowers; dévas carrying flowers, and other dévas under various forms; dévas bearing rows of boughs made of jewels; and among them (representations of) the "dhammacakka "; rows of dévas carrying swords; as also rows bearing refection dishes. On their heads, rows of lamps, in height five cubits, filled with aromatic oil and lighted with wicks made of fine cloth, blazed forth. In the four corners of the receptacle a bough made of coral, each surmounted with a gem. In the four corners also shone forth a cluster, each of gold, gems, and pearls, as well as of lapis lazuli. In that relic receptacle on the wall made of the cloud-coloured stone, streams of lightning were represented illuminating and setting off (the apartment). The monarch caused all the images in this relic receptacle to be made of pure gold, costing a "kóți." The chief théra Indagutta, master of the six branches of doctrinal knowledge, and endowed with profound wisdom, who had commenced the undertaking, superintended the whole execution of it himself. By the supernatural agency of the king, by the supernatural agency of the dévatás, and by the supernatural agency of the arhat priests, all these (offerings) were arranged (in the receptacle) without crowding the space.

3By the truly wise man, sincerely endowed with faith, the presentation of offerings unto the deity of propitious advent, the supreme of the universe, the dispeller of the darkness of sin, object the worthy of offerings when living, and unto his relics when reduced to atoms, and conducing to the spiritual welfare of mankind, being both duly weighed; each act of piety will appear of equal importance (with the other); and as if unto the living deity himself of felicitous advent, he would render offerings to the relics of the divine sage.

The thirtieth chapter in the Mahávansa, entitled "The Description of the Receptacle for the Relics," composed equally for the delight and affliction of righteous men.

1: princesses."

2 Insert "solid."

344 Offerings presented in (sincere faith) by a lover of mankind unto the blessed, the adorable, the supreme, and the enlightened Buddha while he yet lived, and those offered unto his relics which were dispersed (at his death),-are both equal in merit. Bearing this in mind, let the wise man, adorning himself with the ornaments of faith and virtue, make offerings unto the relics of the Sage as unto the living Lord himself."


THE vanquisher of foes (Duṭṭha Gámaní) having perfected the works to be executed within the relic receptacle, convening an assembly of the priesthood, thus addressed them: "The works that were to be executed by me in the relic receptacle are completed; to-morrow I shall enshrine the relics. Lords, bear in mind the relics." The monarch having thus delivered himself, returned to the city. Thereupon the priesthood consulted together as to the priest to be selected. to bring the relics; and they assigned the office of 1escorting the relics to the disciple named Sóņuttara, who resided in the Pújá parivéņa, and was master of the six departments of doctrinal knowledge.

During the pilgrimage (on earth of Buddha), the compassionating saviour of the world, this personage had (in a former existence) been a youth of the name Nanduttara, who, having invited the supreme Buddha with his disciples, had entertained them on the banks of the river (Ganges). The divine teacher, with his sacerdotal retinue, embarked there at Payágapaṭṭana in a vessel; and the théra Bhaddaji (one of these disciples), master of the six branches of doctrinal knowledge, and endowed with supernatural powers, observing a great whirlpool (in the river), thus spoke to the fraternity: "Here is submerged the golden palace, twenty-five yójanas in extent, which had been occupied by me in my existence as king Mahápanáda (at the commencement of the "kappa ").3 The incredulous among the priests (on board), on approaching the whirlpool in the river, reported the circumstances to the divine teacher. The said divine teacher (addressing himself to Bhaddaji) said, "Remove this scepticism of the priesthood." Thereupon that individual, in order that he might manifest his power over the Brahmalóka heavens, by his supernatural gift springing up into the air to the height of seven palmyra trees, and stretching out his arm, brought to the spot (where he was poised) the Dussathúpa (in which the dress laid aside by Buddha as prince Siddhattha, on his entering into priesthood, was enshrined in the Brahmalóka heavens, for its spiritual welfare), and exhibited it to the people. Thereafter, having restored it to its former position, returning to the (vessel on the) river, by his supernatural powers he raised from the bed of the river the (submerged) palace, by laying hold of it, by a pinnacle, with his toes; and having exhibited it to the people he threw it back there. The youth Nanduttara, seeing the miracle, spontaneously (arrived at this conviction): "It will be permitted to me to bring away a relic appropriated by another."

On account of this occurrence (which had taken place in a former existence) the priesthood selected Sónuttara a (samanéra) priest, sixteen years of age, for the execution of this commission. He inquired of the priesthood, "From whence can I bring relics?" The priesthood 'thus replied to this théra: "The relics are these. The ruler of the universe,

146 244


(Now at one time), during the pilgrimage of our Lord on earth for the benefit of mankind, a certain youth, by name Nanduttara, who dwelt on the banks of the Ganges, invited the supreme Buddha with his disciples and entertained


Insert" The stream of the Ganges comes in contact therewith at this place (and thus creates this whirlpool)." 4 Dele.

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made this aspiration, namely, May I (in a future existence) be endued with the power of bringing away a relic that is in the possession of another.'" 。 “ "the monk Sónuttara, albeit he was only sixteen years old."

"" then described the relics to the théra in this wise: The Chief of the world, while lying on his bed of final emancipation,'" &c.

when seated on the throne on which he attained ‘parinibbána,' in order that he might provide for the spiritual welfare of the world by means of relics, thus addressed himself to (Sakka) the supreme of dévas, regarding these relics: Lord of dévas, out of eight dónas' of my corporeal relics one 'dóņa' will be preserved1 as an object of worship by the people of Kóliya (in Jambudípa): it will be transferred from thence to Nágalóka, where it will be worshipped by the nágás; and ultimately it will be enshrined in the Maháthúpa, in the land Lanká.

"The pre-eminent priest, the théra Mahákassapa, being endowed with the foresight of divination, in order that he might be prepared for the extensive requisition which would be made (at a future period) by the monarch Dhammásóka for relics, (by application) to king Ajàtasattu caused a great enshrinement of relies to be celebrated with every sacred solemnity, in the neighbourhood of Rájagaha, and he transferred the other seven dóņas of relics (thither); but being cognizant of the wish of the divine teacher (Buddha), he did not remove the 'dóņa' deposited at Rámagáma.

"The monarch Dhammásóka seeing this great shrine of relics, resolved on the distribution of the eighth dóna also. When the day had been fixed for enshrining these relics in the great thúpa at (Pupphapura, removing them from Rámagáma), on that occasion also the sanctified ministers of religion prohibited Dhammásóka. The said thúpa, which stood at Rámagáma on the bank of the Ganges, by the action of the current (in fulfilment of Buddha's prediction) was destroyed. The casket containing the relic being drifted into the ocean, stationed itself at the point where the stream (of the Ganges) spreads in two opposite directions (on encountering the ocean), on a bed of gems, dazzling by the brilliancy of their rays. Nágás discovering this casket, repairing to the nága land Mañjérika, reported the circumstance to the nága rájá Kála. He proceeding thither attended by ten thousand kóțis of nágás, and making offerings to the said relics, with the utmost solemnity removed them to his own realm. Erecting there a thúpa of the most precious materials, as well as an edifice over it, with the most ardent devotion he with his nágás incessantly made offerings to the same. is guarded with the greatest vigilance; (nevertheless) repairing thither bring the relics hither: to-morrow the protector of the land will celebrate the enshrining of the relics."


Having attentively listened to the address thus made to him, and replying" Sádhu," he returned to his own parivéņa, meditating as to the period at which he ought to depart on his mission.


The monarch (Duṭṭha Gámaní), in order that all things might be prepared in due order, caused proclamation to be made by beat of drums: To-morrow the enshrining of relies will take place," and enjoined that the whole town, as well as the roads leading (to the Mahávihára), should be decorated, and that the inhabitants of the capital should appear in their best attire. Sakka, the supreme of dévas, sending for Vissakamma, had the whole of Lanká decorated in every

1" at Rámagáma."

240 seeing that an extensive diffusion of relics."

3 Dele.

4" collection of relics for enshrinement."

366 procuring."

"But the sanctified priests who were there dissuaded Dhammásóka, saying, 'It has been reserved by the conqueror (Buddha) for enshrinement in the great thúpa (Ruvanvṛli).'

"Now the."

8 "rested on a bed of gems."

964 and remained there covered with a halo of rays."

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