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about them some traces of the original phoenix in their relation to the sun, or sun-god with his lightning and dark thunderbolts, and always so accompanied by other myths and traces of a peculiar civilization of Turanian character, as to render it almost a certainty that at some remote period there must have been some admixture of the aborigines with Asiatic peoples of Turanian origin.




Legends corroborated by Monumental Evidence-Dr. Daniel Wilson's Routes of Migration-The Testimony of Canoes and other Boats-Implements and Utensils-Rock Sculptures of Peru-The Pottery of Peru and Hissarlik-The Symbol of the Protruding Tongue-The Winged Globe of Egypt in Yucatan and Palenque--The T and Swastika-The Mexican Pyramids, Dolmens and Rocking-stones-Cyclopean Architecture-Earth-mounds and Burial Customs-Monuments in Pacific Islands-Mr. Dall on Distribution of Masks and Labrets-Shell Ornaments.

HAVING pointed out in previous chapters the probability, from a similarity of legends and religious beliefs or superstitions, that an intercourse must have subsisted in very early pre-historic times between the eastern and western hemispheres, I will here endeavour to show from other sources, that such an intercourse is suggested not only by tradition, but by monumental evidence.

Dr. Daniel Wilson, in treating of this subject, points out three probable routes of migration from the eastern to the western hemisphere-1, through the Isles of the Pacific to South America; 2, an Atlantic Oceanic migration, via the Canaries, Madeira, and Azores, to the Antilles and Central America, and probably by the Cape Verdes to Brazil; and 3, via Behring's Strait and the North Pacific Islands to the Mexican Plateau. But he adds " The more obvious traces rather indicate the same current which set from Southern Asia to the Pacific shores of South America, moving onward till it

1 Journal of Anthropological Institute, February 1885.

overflowed by Behring's Strait and the Aleutian Isles, into the continent from whence it was originally derived." "1

It is obvious that as all these migrations necessitate a sea voyage of considerable length, they could only have been undertaken by peoples having some knowledge of the art of navigation; it is therefore desirable, in the first place, to ascertain how far the native vessels of the American continent support the theory of Professor Wilson.

Taking the very interesting and instructive paper of General Pitt-Rivers on Early Modes of Navigation 2 as our guide, we find on the American continent, first, the dug-out canoe, the earliest and simplest of all boats, the distribution of which is almost universal, and which probably played an important part in the very earliest migrations of the human race, enabling them to cross rivers and narrow seas; but we find that the Waraus of Guiana, and the Ahts of North America, fashion their canoes after the Burmese model, whilst the Fuegians, otherwise so low in the scale of civilization, sew planks together with thongs of raw hide, after the fashion of those in use in Africa and the Polynesian Islands. In California we see the papyrus float of Egypt; but the outrigger, so much used in the Pacific, does not appear to have found its way to America, although the Buccina, or shell trumpet, used on board the canoes of the Pacific, and known also in ancient Rome, is used in Peru. Rafts, like the Madras catamaran, were in use in Peru at the time of the conquest, and carried sails; one of these vessels having been met far out at sea, conveying both men and women, with provisions and articles of commerce, to the great astonishment of the

1 Pre-historic Man, D. Wilson, p. 384.

2 See Early Modes of Navigation, Colonel Lane Fox (General Pitt-Rivers) (Journ. Anthrop. Inst., April 1875).

3 Mr. Walhouse says the chank shell bored is very generally used as a trumpet not only in India, but also in China and Japan to announce religious observances, and in India it is a distinguishing attribute of the god Vishnu, who holds it in one of his hands.

Spaniards, who had never before seen sails used on the American continent. From this slight sketch it will be seen that the art of navigation had made some advance on the American continent before the Spanish conquest, and that the forms of the vessels used can be traced to various parts of the world, although the absence of the outrigger, and the general absence of sails, would seem to show that whatever connection there might have been with Asia and the Polynesian Islands must have ceased before the invention of those two important improvements in primitive navigation.

Turning from navigation to the implements and utensils in use among the American nations before the conquest, we are again met by the fact that their congeners may be traced to many parts of the world. It would be impossible to point out all these, but I may note one or two weapons which, from their peculiar shape, have struck me as particularly useful by way of comparison. And first, an axe-head, probably of metal, which seems to have been regarded as sacred. This axe, called champi, with a handle more than a cubit in length, was given to princes on the occasion of their initiation into manhood, as a mark of honour. It is described in the Royal Commentaries thus-" The metal part had a blade on one side, and a sharp point on the other." This probably represents the wedge of gold said to have been carried by Manco Capac, and which sunk into the earth at Cuzco.

In the remarkable rock-sculptures in the Yonan Pass, Peru, engraved in Hutchinson's Two Years in Peru, we find a rudely-designed figure bearing this axe with a long handle, and having the head adorned with an axe-blade of a similar shape: this was probably an emblem of authority, for we find this same axe-blade attached to the helmet of the curious and unique figure portrayed on a vase found near Trujillo, Peru, which Bollaert looks upon as representing the god of war, and which certainly has a strong affinity with Hanuman, the monkey-god of India. Bollaert also points out the similarity between the vase bearing this figure and some

of those of Etruria, and further remarks that the flying insect resembles a figure on the Athenian vase of Electra at the tomb of Agamemnon. To this I would add that there is a remarkable resemblance between the ornaments round the girdle of this figure, and those singular Chinese or Japanese ornaments, called magatamas, and would also call attention to the similarity existing between the Peruvian figure holding the long-handled axe and the sculptured figure of a man holding a similar axe at the entrance of a dolmen in Brittany. There are innumerable axes sculptured on the monuments of Brittany, but the axe-head is not of the same shape as the Peruvian, although in many it would appear to be similarly hafted.

This axe-head appears again as an ornament on the head of the Mexican god of hell, and it is also worthy of remark that the same squareness of face, and the pointed ornaments surrounding the faces, which apparently represent the sun-god in the Yonan Pass sculptures, and which appear so prominently in the figure on the great central gateway of Tiahuanaco, are seen in this Mexican figure. I have not been able to trace this axe-head ornament in Egyptian, Greek, or Etruscan sculptures, although it appears to me that the ornament on the Greek helmets which holds the plume may have been derived from it; in fact, on some of the vases the form seems well defined. Two bronzes in the British Museum, labelled "Parts of Assyrian Helmets," are of precisely the Peruvian form, and it appears also on two horses among the Assyrian sculptures. It is seen also on some of the monuments from Halicarnassus now in the British Museum, and on the Hercules from the same place, and is figured by Wilkinson as forming an ornament on the Persian horses, whilst the axe from which this ornament seems to have been derived appears in India, and in the 1 Antiquities, &c. of South America, Wm. Bollaert, F.R.G.S., p. 203.

2 See Smithsonian Contributions, 1879-80.

The horses bearing this ornament are said to be foreign.

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