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Why Aris.

other poems; therefore said by Aristotle to be of power, by raising pity and fear, or terror, to purge the mind of these and such like passions: that is, to temper and reduce them to just measure, with a kind of delight, by seeing those passions well imitated." Milton could not fail to be confirmed in this judgment by the course of his meditations and studies. Next to the Bible and to Homer, Euripides was the book which he most delighted to read 52: and among all dramatic writers, Euripides is pre-eminent in what Aristotle regards as the characteristic excellence of tragedy. 53

In the comparison made by Aristotle of the two noblest totle gave the preferkinds of poetry, he assigns to the epopee the first place ence to tra- in grandeur and variety, in a wider scope for the margedy above the epopee. vellous in thought, and the splendid in diction. But these advantages are balanced or surpassed in tragedy, by its more close unity, more accelerated progression, more compressed action, and more perfect illusion. 54 "In all these, tragedy is superior, and still farther" he says "in its tendency to purify and refine the passions 55;

52 See all Milton's Biographers.

53 See my History of Ancient Greece, p. i. vol. ii. p. 143. 6th edit.
54 De Art. Poet. c. ult.

53 Το της τέχνης εργον, the work of the art. The last editor of the "Poetic," Mr. Buhle, says rightly, in a note, "Quid sit hoc opus patet ex ipsa tragediæ definitione." What is that work is plain from the definition of tragedy. Animadvers. ad Librum de Poetic. p. 441. He refers to a note of Mr. Twining's, (p. 560.) where that elegant scholar makes the "ends of epic and tragic poetry to be the same; both being intended merely to please." Compare Twining's Translation, p. 233. 4to. edit. I also think that their ends are the same, because both are intended to instruct by pleasing. That epic poetry does this, Horace employs a whole epistle to prove. (Epist. ii. 1. i.) And Aristotle tacitly admits the fact, when he says, that tragedy attains this end more completely. But I should not wonder, if many modern poets should still relish and approve Mr. Twining's interpretation, when he says, "I do not see any reason to think that the moral lesson of the drama, and the effects it might have in moderating the passions, through the reflections it excites in us, were at all in Aristotle's thoughts." p. 233.

its great and principal end." But these noble kinds of poetry, indeed, mix instruction with pleasure; but tragedy, as it instructs more impressively, is entitled to the preference.

his rules,


I shall now dismiss this Appendix, believing that And why enough has been said to prove Aristotle's conclusions both genenot less sound in matters of taste, than in those of ral and parpure ticular, are reason. It will, therefore, be wise to follow his rules, to be foltill a critic shall arise to concentrate, on the same subject, a comprehension, acuteness, and vigour of mind, acquired by more unwearied and successful diligence in the study of universal nature, and until that critic's decisions shall be reflected from nobler archetypes of art, than the productions of Homer, Pindar, Euripides, Pericles, and Phidias.

Learn hence for ancient rules a just esteem ;
To copy nature, is to copy them.


In vindicating my author's philosophy, which, think- Conclusion. ing it the best, I have laboured to explain and recommend, it was my reluctant task to controvert the doctrines of many eminent men, some of them my contemporaries. But I have never been forgetful of the respect due to their characters; nor ever suffered, I hope, a word to escape me, acrimonious, or sarcastic, or inconsistent with good manners. In me, indeed, the contrary conduct would be wholly inexcusable; for I have no quarrels to maintain, no reprisals to make, no resentments to gratify; and, on the score of external goods, continuing, as I have long been, contented with my lot, and only anxious to deserve it, I am exempt from all irritation or uneasiness with regard to those gifts of fortune, which philosophers have agreed to assign for the causes of envy.



ACTION, human, seven causes thereof, 112. 211. Its
connection with pleasure, 140. Rhetorical, treated by
Glaucon of Teios, 364. Wherein it consists, 365.
Adages, nature, and kinds thereof, 322. et seq.
Esop, his Fables, why called African tales, 319.

Agathon, the poet, cited, 315.

Alcæus, his proposal to Sappho, 203.

Alpharabius, a luminary of the Arabs, 19.

Amasis, king of Egypt, why he wept not on seeing his son
dragged to execution, though his tears flowed for a
slighter evil, 289.

Amplification, where it is proper, 208, 209. Its sources, 315.
Amplification and compression, how to be produced, 385.
Analysis, method of, 139. Modern, indefinite in improve-
ment, 147.

Analogy, topic thereof, 345.

Anaximenes of Lampsacus, 8. His rhetoric, ibid.

Ancestry, noble, 176.

Anger, the passion of, wherein pleasant, 218. Defined, 255.
Excited by disdain, offence, or insult, 256. Its subjects,
259. Its objects, 260. Circumstances which aggravate
it, 261. How to be appeased, 264.

Animation, of style, 405. et seq.

Antigoné pleads the law of nature against king Creon, 231.
Antimachus, his mode of amplification, 386.

Antiphon, his reproach to his fellow-sufferers who muffled
their faces, 284.

Apophthegms, what? 408.

Appetites, their nature and use, 116. When right, ibid.
Arbuthnot, Dr., cited, 109.

Areopagus, tribunal of, its constitution, 153.
Argumentation, how to be conducted, 442. 445.

Arguments, the best, those that are natural, but not obvious,
352. Why less convincing than replies, 351.
Ariosto, cited, 326. note.

Aristotle, his advantages for treating rhetoric, 7. His writ-
ings neglected, and why, 15. Early perverted, 17.
Studied and admired in the age of Cicero and Augustus,

His logic explained and vindicated, 27. et seq.
His metaphysics explained and vindicated, 71. et seq. His
doctrine of sensation supersedes the distinction of primary
and secondary qualities, 85. His warning against the
abuse of syllogism, 65. Anticipates and refutes scepti-
cism, 91. His account of the invention of nouns appel-
lative, 129. Anticipates, or corrects, the modern remarks
on that subject, ibid. His rules too rigidly explained by
some critics, 449. Ignorantly despised by others, 460.

Explained and vindicated, 469. 477.

Arts, imitative, 221.

Athenians, their merits and demerits, 331.

Attention, how to be excited, 425.

Assemblies, national, guided by different principles from
those which influence courts of justice, 155.

Association, of ideas, 135.

Averroes, a luminary of the Arabs, 19.

Avicenna, 19.

Axioms, what? 41.


Bacon, Lord, his merits, 98. Wherein his philosophy agreed

and differed from Aristotle's, 99.

Beauty, relative to different periods of life, 179. Moral,
definitions of, 199.

Berkeley, a reformer in philosophy, 79, 83.

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