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Batavia, 1877. One of these (p. 21, No. 132) is entitled "The History of Ghulām, son of Zād-bokhtān, King of Adan, in Persia," and the frame agrees with that of our version, as already sketched in the present section, excepting that the robber-chief who had brought up Ghulam (our Bakhtyar),* "learning that he had become a person of consequence," says Van den Berg, came to his residence to visit him, but finding him imprisoned, he was much concerned, and asked the King's pardon on his behalf, telling him at the same time how he had formerly found Ghulam in the jungle; from which the King knew that Ghulam was his son," and so on. The other version (p. 32, No. 179), though similar in title to the Persian original, "History of Prince Bakhtyar," differs very considerably in the frame, which is thus analysed by Van den Berg: "This Prince, when his father was put to flight by a younger brother, who wished to dethrone him, was born in a jungle and abandoned by his parents. A merchant, Idris (Enoch), took charge of him and

* Mr J. W. Redhouse has kindly furnished me, as follows, with the various meanings attached to the word Ghulām; which in the Malay romance seems to be employed as a proper name: "Gulām (not Ghulām), an Arabic word, signifies 'a boy,' 'a lad.' The Persians have made it, in their language, signify ‘a slave,' and thence ‘a life-guardsman,' and ‘a king's messenger ;' whence any post-messenger who travels on horse-back '--or by rail, now, in some places: all these really mean 'a lad.' The Turks use the word in the first and last senses-'a lad,' a Persian post-courier.

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brought him up.

Later on he became one of the officers of state with his own father, who had in the meanwhile found another kingdom, and decided with fairness the cases laid before him. He was, however, put in prison, on account of a supposed attempt upon. the King's life, and he would have been put to death had he not stayed the execution by telling various beautiful stories. Even the King came repeatedly to listen to him. At one of these visits Bakhtyār's foster-father Idris was likewise present, who related to his adopted son how he had found him in the jungle. The King, on hearing this, now perceived that it was his son who had been brought up by Idris, recognised Bakhtyar as such, and made over to him his kingdom.”

So far as I am aware, there are but two translations of the Persian version in European languages; one in English, by Sir William Ouseley,* which is reproduced in the present volume; the other in French, by M. Lescallier.+ In his Preface, Sir William Ouseley states that he selected for translation a text composed in the least ornate style, and he seems to have con

* The Bakhtyar Nameh, or Story of Prince Bakhtyar and the Ten Viziers. A series of Persian Tales. From a Manuscript in the Collection of Sir William Ouseley. London, 1800.-This edition includes the original text; in 1801, according to Lowndes' Bibliographer's Manual, an edition was published without the Persian text.

† Bakhtiar Nameh, ou Le Favori de la Fortune. Conte traduit du Persan. Par M. Lescallier. Paris, 1805.

tented himself with a rather free rendering (see prefatory remarks, Notes and Illustrations, page 121 of the present work). M. Lescallier takes care to inform his reader that he adopted another plan: picking out passages from two different manuscripts, and amalgamating his selections into a work which, it is safe to say, does not find its original in any single Persian text extant: his object, indeed, seems to have been to present an entertaining romance to French readers, rather than to produce a translation of any particular Persian original; and it must be admitted that many of the lengthy conversations which occur in his volume are quite as well omitted by Ouseley.

The name of the author of this romance and the precise time when it was composed are not known. Ouseley states that none of the manuscripts of the work which he had seen appeared to be much older than the end of the 17th century. But we are now able to place the date of its composition at least three .centuries earlier, since the manuscript of the Turki version, already referred to, bears to have been transcribed A.H. 838, or A.D. 1434; and it is not unlikely that the translation was made several years before that date. And as well-known or popular works are usually selected for translation, we may reasonably conclude that the Persian Romance of Prince Bakhtyar was composed not later than the end of the 14th. century. That it is posterior to the end of the 13th century might be supposed from the circumstance

that the author in two instances* employs maxims which are found in the writings of the great Persian poet Sa'di, if we were sure that these maxims are really Sa'di's own. It has struck me as rather singular that I can recognise only two of the nine stories which

* See third note, page 184, and first note, p. 195.

Mr Platt would date the work a century earlier; he writes to me, as follows, on this question: "First, be it observed, the only titles of Kings mentioned in the Persian text are, Shāh, Pādishāh, Malik, and Kaisar; nowhere do we find the sovereign title of Sultan, but it occurs in Habicht's Arabic text. This title was first borne by Mahmood ibn Sabuktakeer, A.D.. 1002 (A.H. 393), and did not exist in Egypt until A.D. 1171 (A.H. 567). At page 184 of your Notes and Illustrations reference is made to the Gulistan of Sa'di: now that work was published A.D. 1257 (A.H. 655), and it is as well to bear in mind that the poet was born A.H. 1175 (A.H. 571), and by some said to have attained the advanced age of 102, by others 116 years. The work, therefore, is more likely to have been written towards the close of, rather than after, the 13th century. Next may be considered the arms of defence and offence, which required the appointment of an armour-bearer (see page III, line 6), viz., bow, quiver-containing broad-bladed arrows sword, scimitar, mace, or bludgeon, shield, and a spear, or lance; all of which were employed by the Crusaders. Now the first of the eight crusades dates A.D. 1096 (A.H. 490), and the last A.D. 1270 (A.H. 669). These considerations are connected with the Seljukian kingdom of Rum, of which the capital was Koniah (Iconium), founded A.D. 1074 (A.H. 467), and lasted until A.D. 1307 (A.H. 707); in all, 233 years. Much confusion arises from the Ruler of the Eastern Empire being called Kaisar-i Rūm, a title also assumed by the Seljukian dynasty. The

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Bakhtyar relates as existing in another Eastern work, namely, the Tūtī Nāma, or Tales of a Parrot, of Nakshabi. This work, according to Pertsch, was written in A D. 1330, and was preceded by another Persian book on the same subject, by an unknown writer, which was based on an older Sanskrit book (now lost), of which the Suka Saptati, or Seventy Tales of a Parrot, is only an abstract. Nakshabi's work (adds Pertsch), copies of which are rare, has been greatly superseded by Kāderï's abridgment, which was written in India, probably about the middle of the 17th century.* The "Story of the King of Abyssinia" (pp.

Kaisar-i Rūm of Chapter III may allude to any occupant of the Constantinopolitan throne between the years A.D. 1257 and 1434.

* In this entertaining book a Parrot is represented as relating stories night after night, in order to prevent a merchant's wife from carrying on a criminal intrigue during her husband's absence. Nakshabi's work has not yet been wholly translated into English- -see foot note, page 197. Of Kāderī's abridgment (which is very clumsily done) a translation, together with his Persian text, was published at Calcutta, and reprinted at London in 1801. Kāderī has certainly done Nakshabi's literary reputation no small injury, by the manner in which he has cut down the stories, and by substituting his own inexpressive and bald style for the graceful composition of the original. It is to be hoped that ere long some competent scholar will present English readers with a fair translation of Nakshabi's excellent work, which would prove of considerable service to those interested in tracing the migrations and transformations of popular tales.-Besides the Suka Saptati, above mentioned, there is another Indian book, in

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