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"From the beginning," he says, "I perceived the utility of assigning a particular fund for granting recompences to indicators or revealers who only have to deal with the chief of the brigade; and who do occasionally for the police of security what the secret agents do for the political police."

"other individuals in almost constaut relation

he had left behind having become less man- be serviceable in protecting property and preageable in less experienced hands, presented venting crime, but were unavailable in detect. most of the inevitable evils of his system with ing criminals, or tracing all the tortuous proless of the benefits. Monsieur Gisquet judg- ceedings of the rogues of a great capital. ed, and judged rightly, that a better and more respectable force might be organized; but we cannot feel sure that the course he pursued was either prudent or just. After recalling Vidocq into activity for a few months he discharged him once more; and at once decided upon dismissing from the service of the police. every person who had suffered punishment He goes on to say, that these gentry are for any offence whatsoever. The whole either persons in communication with robbers, brigade of Vidocq, with, few, if any, excep- or robbers themselves, who are led by the cer tions, many of them men who, since they tainty of a high reward to betray their accomhad obtained a fixed employment, had con- plices; and in order to afford them that cerducted themselves with perfect propriety,-tainty, he spread abroad amongst them, as were cast idle upon the world again. The much as possible, the promise of large recom. motive assigned by Monsieur Gisquet for pences for services rendered to the police. It this very sweeping act was, that "a desirable would seem that there is not so much honour morality might be established in all branches among thieves as one might have expected, of the administration." A desirable morali- for these means were found to be very effi ty, after all that has been said of the spies cacious. But Monsieur Gisquet went further and secret agents, the treacherous swindlers, still. Besides the indicators, who were only whom Monsieur Gisquet has displayed as by accidental or occasional instruments, there turns betraying their friends, their masters, are, he tells us, and their party, and cheating even the police itself! Certainly, to see the use occasionally with the brigade of security, and who serve as made by Frenchmen of the word morality, auxiliaries to the inspectors of police for the we might believe that ethics are but a dream. watching of robbers, for the pursuit of the auThe next step of Monsieur Gisquet was alto- thors of any crime committed, and to observe gether an unexceptionable one; hitherto the and follow suspected individuals. The auxmen composing the brigade of security were to-iliaries are paid in proportion to their services on tally independent of the prefect of police; re- the same scale, and in the same manner, as the ceiving their nomination in the first instance, their capabilities." revealers. They are employed according to and their salaries afterwards, from the chief or captain of the brigade, the whole of the expenses of the body being charged upon the secret-service money. All this was at once done away with by the new prefect: the brigade was recomposed of men of good re- On the night of the 5th of November, 1831, pute, principally old soldiers, we believe; the cabinet of medals in the royal library was each was appointed by the prefect himself; broken open and robbed of its most precious the salaries were definitively settled, and car-contents. On visiting the spot, Monsieur ried into the public account of the prefecture, Gisquet found that the robbers had entered and an orderly and responsible body was a neighbouring house, proceeded through an formed and disciplined upon good principles empty room on the fifth story, over the roof for the protection of the peaceable citizens. | of the old building of the treasury, and along Nothing could be better than these measures a leaden gutter, to a part of the library, as far as they went, and a strong similarity whence, by climbing up the slates to a height will be observed between this force and our own establishment, which, notwithstanding a few errors that require correction, and a few oversights which may easily be amended, shows altogether, when compared with the old system, one of the most beneficial changes that have taken place in our times.

We will give one instance of the skill of these agents, and the accurate judgment which their experience enables them to form from any slight indications.

of eight or nine feet, they had reached the garret window of a room just under the roof. They had then opened a number of doors with false keys and picklocks, till at length, proceeding direct to their object, they reached the great hall. The cabinet of medals, separated by a strong oaken door bolted within, Monsieur Gisquet, however, did not stop and a glass-door from the great hall, had now here he found that the new police, having to be entered, and their purpose was speedily no relations whatever with the men against effected by an auger and a hand-saw. They whom they were called upon to act, might made their exit and carried off their booty by

one of the great windows looking into the Rue steps of the robbers: notwithstanding numede Richelieu, and when Monsieur Gisquet rous other cases in which we find that all arrived at the library with his agents, a dark Monsieur Gisquet's acuteness and that of his lantern and a peculiarly fine and compact agents was put at fault by audacious criminals, cord were still on the spot. The agents and the ex-prefect contends that his system works auxiliaries proceeded by the prefect's orders better for the detection and prevention of to examine the door which had been forced crime than that of Vidocq. We may be perand the implements with which the crime mitted to doubt the fact, though we cannot had been committed, and they at once inform- but feel that the substitution of a body of men ed their chief that they only knew three men of good repute to watch over the safety of in all France capable of having executed such the capital, in place of a body of convicted a robbery. 1st, Fossard, a convict condemn- felons, gave a certain degree of dignity to an ed to hard labour for life, but who had escaped institution to which every addition of respecfrom Brest; 2d, Drouillet, one of Fossard's tability, however small, was of no light imfriends, who had been condemned to the gal-portance. leys for twenty years but pardoned; and 3d, Toupriant, supposed to be in England. The two first proved to be the robbers, and were subsequently condemned; the first to hard labour for life, the second to the same punishment for twenty years.

One fact regarding this curious transaction we cannot pass over in silence, though it is time to terminate this long article. After his arrest, which took place by mere accident, Fossard continued to deny the crime with a determined calmness which was more likely to prove convincing, inasmuch as being already an escaped convict, and the robbery not bringing his life in danger, he could but little aggravate his punishment by confession. Under these circumstances, M. Gisquet, eager to recover the invaluable medals and antiquities which had been stolen, did not scruple not only to offer the criminal a commutation of his sentence, but also a large pecuniary reward if he would acknowledge his guilt and restore the stolen property. We fear that justice in England would have pursued a sterner course. However, Fossard persisted in denying his guilt, and as there appeared no means of proving it, he was sent to Brest to undergo the execution of his former sentence. He had not been many days in that port when he had the audacity to write two letters in the argot, or slang tongue of France, to two of his friends, desiring them to send him a sum of twentyfive thousand francs, and pointing out to them a church which he thought might easily be robbed. He moreover fixed the day for the attempt, and promised to be upon the spot at the time appointed. By various means better information was eventually gained, and a part of the stolen objects recovered; but alas, before this result was obtained, many of the medals had lost the character which gave them their antiquarian value, and only appeared in the shape of ingots.

Notwithstanding the difficulty of obtaining conviction in this instance, and the perfect ignorance of the police regarding the first

The discovery of criminal purposes is undoubtedly a legitimate object of a good police; but how to arrive at it by legitimate means is one of the most difficult questions of a difficult inquiry. We do think our system in this country might be improved in this respect, and we are inclined to believe that we have lost something by the change from the old Bow-street officer to the new police force, both in that point and in the detection of criminals after commission; but we know that the loss has not been in any degree equivalent to the gain, both in the maintenance of general order and the prevention of crime. We do not by any means despair of seeing the benefits of the old system without its faults grafted upon the new; for we know that the time for all steady and rational, though not hasty and rash, improvement is now arrived, and that anything which can be done will be done by the hands now intrusted with power.

It may not seem impertinent here, however, to suggest one or two alterations which might be attended with much advantage. The police of prevention, as we may be permitted to call it, is organized upon the very best footing: it is the police of detection that we are deficient in; and perhaps, if, in addition to that large force which we have watching the streets day and night, a certain number of persons were appointed exclusively to direct the operations necessary for the detection of criminals, each having a certain district under his superintendence, we might avoid for the future those difficulties and embarrassments which had well nigh frustrated the ends of justice in a late lamentable case of murder. Besides the police of the metropolis, the establishment of order and security in country districts may well call the attention of government, as we all know that the present system of parish constables is most inefficient. Some counties have adopted a rural police, some have not, and some are very much dissatisfied with it where it has been

put in force; but we cannot help thinking | Neither can any reliance be placed on the that infinite advantages would result from the statements of historical facts, as we shall proappointment in all parishes of a regular constabulary force proportioned to the extent of the district, to be placed under the direction of the local magistrates, and paid by a legally

levied rate.

ceed to show as briefly as possible. We shall not content ourselves with pointing out the puerile absurdities of some of the tales--of twenty-six murdered men's heads kept in a cupboard on twenty-six plates of silver by a band of robbers; of borrowed lights at the height of a man's head, made apparently on purpose, in the chambers of ladies of intrigue, that valets might look through and report all that passed, &c. &c. &c.; but we will take one story, and point out, in the space of two or three pages, errors so gross, in regard to matters which every tyro in French history knows, as to give the book its true character at once. The author, after informing us that he is going to quote from some papers found in a pasteboard case, which had been forgotten, behind one of the busts in the hall of passports, (does he mean undiscovered through the whole French revolution ?) proceeds to say that the Cardinal de Richelieu, wishing some information regarding Anne of Austria and the Duke of Buckingham, had "brought into play two men, greatly celebrated at that epoch, and whose memory is not yet extinct, both men of wit and intrigue, the physician Bois Robert and the Marquis de Bautru."

In our remarks upon the "Mémoires" of M. Gisquet we have merely dealt with the general subjects to which those memoirs refer, without giving any attention to that gentleman's personal interest in the various questions brought under review. That he has been somewhat hardly treated we believe, both by the press and by others; and that he has felt that harsh treatment keenly, is evident from every page of his work. It is very natural to suppose that any man writing what is in fact a defence of his administration, may take more credit to himself than is due, and allow less to others; but though we cannot often agree in Monsieur Gisquet's views, and see occasionally contradictions in his reasonings, we remark a spirit of order, and a high sense of the duties and responsibilities of the station he held, which could not fail to render him a very useful officer. The publication of his "Mémoires" has been, we believe, and we fear will be, very detrimental to himself. No man's memoirs ought to be pub lished till he is dead; and the public man Poor Bois Robert, in the author's hands, has who prints them during his own life generally acquired a new dignity. No physic did ever places himself among the dead from that mo- he practise. Every one knows, but this aument at least, as far as public existence is thor, that he was first a soldier, then a merry concerned. To society in general--and we ecclesiastic, much attached to Richelieu, and think more especially in this country-the endowed with many of the best benefices in publication will be greatly beneficial; for we France. What has misled the author into have now a clear idea of what the French this unfortunate mistake, is probably the folpolice really is, and we have seen the best lowing old anecdote: Richelieu, who endefence that can be made for it. That de- joyed Bois Robert's wit and humour, even in fence is well calculated to clear the eyes of his most melancholy moods, having on some any Englishman of all predilections in its offence banished him from the court, was takfavour. en ill a short time after; and Citois, the cardinal's physician, after prescribing for him, told his patient, in handing to him the prescription, "All our drugs, my lord, will do you no good, unless you add a drachm or two of Bois Robert."

The literary merit of the work it is by no means necessary for us to enter inte; but its clearness, its regular distribution, and the spirit of order observable in the manner that every subject is treated, are of course pleasant to the reader, and strongly characteristic of the author's mind.

Should the reader wish to inquire more deeply into the organization of the French police, and the rules that govern it, he will find a vast fund of useful information in the Nouveau Dictionnaire de Police, by Messieurs Elouin, Trébuchet, and Labat, a work in two volumes, published in 1835. In any case let him avoid the work called Archives de la Police par Peuchet, which contains details of gross and infamous debauchery beyond description revolting and disgusting.

This piece of ignorance in the author is not the only one; for shortly after, he fixes the marriage of Charles I. of England and Henrietta of France in 1627, when there is scarce a schoolboy who does not know that the marriage by proxy took place in May, 1625, and was consummated in June of the same year. This mistake is of some importance, inasmuch as we are assured that the first paper found in this pasteboard case behind one of the busts at the prefecture was the report of Bautru and Bois Robert, in regard to all that took place between Bucking

his own peculiar one; as anybody knows who has read the memoirs of the Vicomte de Chateaubriand, or the speeches which M. de Lamartine is continually in the habit of delivering in the Chamber of Deputies.

ham and Anne of Austria at the very time of this marriage. The paper is given at full by Monsieur Peuchet and in it Bautru is made to say, that full twenty long years before (i. e. before May, 1625), a young Englishman, "Sir Hamilton, finding himself without a second in an affair of honour, his friend having And, as might be expected from persons broken his leg the very morning that the of their genius, it is not on subjects of meeting was to take place, very courteously mean detail or dry domestic economy, entreated me to go out with him." Now that they waste what the French papers Bautru was born in the latter part of 1558, call their parole riche et puissante, but so that he must have been sixteen at the time they look to vaster themes on which their of this imaginary duel. This Sir Hamilton eloquence may dissert, and especially deis so much obliged to Bautru (of sixteen) for light to speak on questions of foreign going out and getting himself wounded in his policy. On Turkey, on Poland, on the behalf, that he promises spontaneously to do designs of Russia, on the noble and anything that he asks him. Twenty years touching reminiscences which make after, he goes back to France with the Duke Greece a sacred country; on Spain, of Buckingham, and in compliance with his storm-stricken, endeavouring to right itpromise betrays all the secrets of his master self in the tempest; on Egypt and Palesthe ambassador. Bois Robert likewise finds tine, especially, this sort of statesmen another British acquaintance: he also is at- love to discourse: when such countries tached to Buckingham, and he also betrays are in distress they font entendre words of him. This is all really too bad; and the sympathy and consolation, and no doubt eternal blunders, such as introducing Baradas the countries so apostrophized must be as the favourite of the king at the time of very much flattered and relieved by thinkBuckingham's visit, when he never was nearing that Réné has a word in their favour, the king's person till after the death of Chalais, which happened long after, show that these papers found behind a bust in the hall of the prefecture must have been put there by somebody very ignorant indeed of French history. The work is altogether unworthy of further comment, and we shall only express our wonder that a government which possesses and exercises so extensive a power over the press in political matters should be so impotent or so indifferent, where public morality is concerned, as to suffer the sale of a work which depicts even the minute details of scenes exceeding in foulness and turpitude the darkest abominations of Rome in her decrepitude. Let no one hope much from any system of police so long as the press is silenced in the free expression of political opinion, but suffered to sap the very foundations of social order by befouling the mind, corrupting the heart, and destroying the moral sense of the people.

ART. V.-The Rhine. By VICTOR HUGO.

Ir has been rather the fashion of late in France for the poet to take upon himself the profession of statesman in addition to

• We more particularly allude to a scene in which

the regent Duke of Orleans is represented as an actor, but there are many others,

and Jocelyn a tearful eye fixed upon them.

The above-named nations being patronised by MM. de Lamartine and Chateaubriand, crowded as it were already, Monsieur Victor Hugo has looked to other lands where his vast genius might find room to reign, and has discovered the River Rhine. Over this large and fertile district, from Cologne to Strasburg (nay possibly on the Dutch banks too, for why should anything less than the Ocean stop him), Victor Hugo, then, has established his sway, and he has chosen his ground with some adroitness too, for it is clear that the other two Rois de la Pensée, Lamartine and Chateaubriand before mentioned, can have no business in this terri tory, which both, in their quality of legitimate statesmen. have consented to sign away. It is all Victor Hugo's, he may do with it as he likes. He looks at it from some towering pinnacle of thought, and says-It is a fair country and good to conquer it has stately towns and castles, meadows and goodly vineyards, the people look happy, but they are not-I see they are not-they are pining to become Frenchmen,-I will go among them and conquer them, with the mild sword of genius I will penetrate them. I will appear before their strong places, and by blowing a little on my trumpet, behold! their walls shall fall down: I will ride into my cities preceded by loud shouting me

taphor clad in rich attire and scattering and why not add to one's harmless sum of similes for largesse among the people. pleasures by being proud of one's century, If they must rebel I will hammer them or anything else? down with historic facts, and crush them "As for M. Hugo," continues the critic, with such baltering-rams of argument,"his works are the great street [again the that they must needs fall down and obey! powers of translation fail]-the great And so he has gone and taken possession of street, which traverses the ideas, the inthe Rhine, the two volumes of Lettres à terests, and the passions of our age. un Ami are like bulletins of the campaign, Henceforth we shall await with impaand a strange production at the close of tience, and receive with gratitude, every them entitled "Conclusion," may be liken one of the manifestations of his thoughts. ed to a huge windy castle in the air, *** Let us speak of the Rhine at our which he has erected and garrisoned, and ease, with faith and with joy; let us dewhich commands the conquered country. scend this royal river, this sovereign inIt must be confessed that our lively tellect. But how to begin!-how to reneighbours across the channel are not call all our reminiscences, sad or charmchary of their praises to one another, and ing, smiling or severe ! Shall we fol if we have occasion to wonder sometimes low the thinker, the artist, or the archæ. at the extraordinary opinion which M. ologian ?-for the Rhine has a triple asHugo entertains of himself, at least there pect: it is true, it is beautiful, it is useare others who profess a still higher ad- ful. It goes from the past to the present; miration of him. "During three days," from the present to the future: it relates, writes one critic of the book, "three days it recalls, and it divines. Science in it of solitude and retirement he has been translates itself into poetry-poetry into living and thinking in Victor Hugo's new prophecy: history comments nature; and work. Three days is but little time to nature stammers destiny. Very often, understand it, not enough to appreciate when people have talked before us of it. And the article he publishes must not Nôtre Dame, it has been asked, 'Which be considered as an account of the book, Nôtre Dame-the poet's or the archi still less, grund Dieu! as a criticism, but tect's?' Now, when friends of an evesimply as a first impression rapid but pro- ning talk to each other about the Rhine, found, felt rather than reasoned, of a it will be said, 'Which Rhine-THAT OF journey made into a magnificent nature, THE POET, OR THAT OF GOD?"" into a fruitful history, into a noble poetry." We have then two volumes of new The literal translation of such fine revelation; neither more nor less. M. words is always unfortunate in English, Hugo is a poet, a prophet, a divinity, acwhere words are used with somewhat cording to the critic's opinion; and inmore precision, and where such sounding deed to judge him by his own, his critic phrases as une magnifique nature, une is not very far wrong. A poet, cela va noble poësie, une féconde histoire, appear sans dire-a prophet he has been three or very ba'd indeed. Perhaps it would be a four times; and if not a divinity as yet, good precaution for imaginative writers he has certainly a divine mission, and a to take in general, and whenever they series of qualities that are pretty nigh cehave produced a sentence peculiarly dig. lestial. He says of himself and book, nified and sonorous, to try how it would look in another language, and whether the sense will still bear the transplantation. But our purpose here is not to instruct authors, so much as to apologize for not being able to render their thoughts properly. Both M. Hugo and his critics must suffer very greatly at the hands of translator who has no means of expressing many of their beauties. The critic says that Hugo is one of the glories of the age, and that the age itself is so glorious that he wonders people do not glory in belonging to it, and nobly asks "Why one has not one's country in time as in space, why but capricious, gave a centre to his studies; one is not a contemporary as one is a made him pass, in a word, from revery to concitoyen ?" Indeed there is no reason, thought.

a

"Some years since, a writer-he who pens these lines-was travelling for no other purpose, than to see the trees and the sky, two things that one cannot see at Paris.

"This was his only object, as those of his readers will acknowledge who may please to look through the first pages of his first volume. arrived on the banks of the Rhine. Wandering thus, on chance, as it were, he

66

"The sight of this grand river produced on him an effect with which, as yet, no other incident of his journey had inspired hima wish to see and to observe for a fixed purpose: it settled the wandering train of his ideas, impressed almost a certainty of sig

nification to an excursion which at first had been

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