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mour for freedom, at once to apostolize and re- kami, or "Ourselves Drawn from the Life by generate the French. The aim of the liberals, Russians;" similar in its plan to Les Français, on the contrary, is to humanize and secularize and the imitations of it. Having only a few of the clergy; to make them study with other professions in the same colleges; and bring them to be less dependent on the bishop and more on the parish or the minister of public worship. This is a very important struggle, though little attention be paid to it.

the numbers before us, and they having just reached us, we shall say nothing in regard to the execution and literary pretensions of Nashi at present, but reserve our remarks of that kind till we can speak of it more at length, and give some account of its contents,—of the principal In the department of moral and political sci- papers and their authors. In the interim we ence, as the New Section of the Institute is may observe that the work is got up in a supecalled, there is little worth record, except the rior style, both as to typography and paper,tilt against the Bonapartist literati and men of with more ostentation, perhaps, than was neceseminence, made by Tocqueville at his reception, sary or desirable for a publication of this class; and rebutted by Molé. This is a subject that re- and the illustrations and embellishments are quires more development than a letter can af- entitled to considerable praise: more especially ford. Blanqui has published a report respecting some of the vignette subjects. These illustrathe Mahometan and Christian races in Europe; tions, which are by Russian artists and en-. as M. Blanqui's knowledge of Turkey, however, gravers, will probably recommend the work to was gained merely in a ride from Belgrade to we will not say many, but some, to whom Constantinople by order of the Institute, much the graphic part alone is intelligible. To what dependence cannot be placed on his moral re- extent it will be continued, is not said in the searches. M. de Tocqueville has something si- prospectus. milar respecting Algiers; but he is a ruminating Kartinki Russkikh Narvov, or Vignette writer, qui nonum premit in annum. There is Sketches of Russian Manners," 16mo, St. Peone feature in Algeria that it is to be hoped will tersburg, 1842, may be classed with "Nashi," not escape Tocqueville, viz. that it is the most but is livelier, more playful, and more satirical thirsty colony on record. The 100,000 French withal; and far more copiously embellished, and on the shores of Africa, consumed or imported the illustrations themselves are exceedingly spifrom France, in 1840, no less than 22,000,000 rited. Two humorous articles by Bulgarin conquarts of wine! tribute to give zest to the literary part of this publication.

Of historical writing or research we see no trace in France. This branch of literature, so flourishing and so promising twenty years back, has been strangled by the prominence and allabsorption of contemporaneous history. Young writers have turned from the old Chronicle to the modern Journal, and abandoned history for politics. Even the historical chairs of the university have ceased to be well filled. The last of the eminent, Lerminier and Michelet, have withdrawn, the one from unpopularity, the other from ill health, and both had grown sadly mystic ere they did withdraw. Those who remain are young suppléants, too humble to attract crowds, or faire école.

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Of the Sto Literatorov, or “Hundred Modern Russian Authors," the third volume has not yet appeared-at least, has not yet reached this country. This is also an exceedingly handsome work, consisting of original articles by the more popular writers of the day, accompanied with their portraits; except, indeed, that of Marlinsky, which, it seems, the censorship would not allow to be published, for political reasons, or rather, no reasons; Marlinsky (Bestuzhev) having rendered himself obnoxious to the powers that be, some twenty years before! We are sorry that a gap is thus occasioned in this portrait-gallery, for it is really a very interesting one, and some of the subjects are admirably done. Conspicuous among them for beauty of execution, and for the look of truth impressed upon them,-as to actual likeness we can say nothing,-are those of the veteran Shishkov (lately deceased), Kukolnik, and Thaddeus Bulgarin.

In lighter works, also, this has been an unproductive season. Lamartine is mute, and Hugo has taken to prose, since they have become grave academicians. Beranger lets the world alone, though his fingers itch, it is said, to lash it. And except "Mathilde," there is not a recent work of imagination that people care to read. Scribe's entrance into the academy has not, indeed, stop- This last-mentioned clever, entertaining, and ped his steam-going fabric. Scribe has followed humorous writer, has just put forth, under the Jules-Janin's example in marrying, and marrying title of Komarie, Roi Pervoi, or "Goats, Swarm wealth; but neither marriage has stopped the the First," St. Petersburg, 1842, a series of stingflow of comédie feuilleton. The Mémoires du ing satirical papers, which have been exceedDiable, a nasty book to read, has nevertheless ingly well received, for it is one of those producfurnished forth a very pretty drama. But not tions that highly displease a good many indieven the Vaudeville has produced its usual chef-viduals, but are the reverse of disagreeable to d'œuvre this season.

RECENT LITERATURE IN RUSSIA.

the public.

"Finland and the Finns," by Th. Dertau, St. Petersburg, 1842, is a small work of considerable merit in point of interest, if not of literary pretension, as it communicates a good deal of fresh information in regard to the country and ONE of the most recent literary speculations, the people. "Among the learned societies," is the series of popular sketches and character- it is said, "the chief are, the Finnish Literary istics, entitled Nashi Spisannye s' Natura Russ-Society, having for its principal objects the

national language and history; and the Finnish Society of Arts, established in 1830, for the promotion of popular instruction in various branches of science. There are in all ten printing-offices in Finnland, viz. three at Helsingfors, two at Abo, two at Viasa, and the others at Borgo, Viborg, and Uleaborg; a lithographic printing establishment at Helsingfors, and thirteen newspapers and periodicals, ten of which are in Swedish.

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the study given to it by the artist: in arrangement it is most perfect, in colouring most brilliant and harmonious. Zeneida seems to dip ‘a pen of gold in the rainbow's hues.' She is a true poet, although she expresses herself in prosea prose far more perfect and elegant than that which the most eloquent poets seem capable of commanding. Pushkin in prose, for instance, will bear no comparison with Pushkin in poetry: as soon as he abandons verse all the magic of his colouring and expression is gone, and all that we obtain in exchange for it, is an artificial and na

but we may yet look forward to very much from him, since he has but just entered upon his career as a writer of prose fiction, in which, judging from his Evelina de Vallerol, he promises fair to become our Walter Scott." Instead of accompanying the critic any further in his remarks, we will only say, pray Heaven he prove a true one: but until we can actually verify, by perusal, how far the productions he so warmly extols are really entitled to the praise he bestows upon him, we dare not trust to the flattering anticipa tions he excites. We have our misgivings; we suspect he has dipped his own pen into the "rainbow," instead of the inkstand; for similar mystifications have been indulged in ere now. At all events, we shall make a point of reading Zeneida's Theophania Abbiaggio, and Kukolnik's Evelina.

Notwithstanding the very great change which has taken place in Russian literature within the last quarter of a century,-and that in conse-ked simplicity. It is the same with Kukolnik— quence of it, many poets and writers once considered eminent, are now nearly forgotten, or like Sumarokov, Kheraskov and others, enjoy only a traditional reputation,-the works, or rather the literary productions in prose and verse of Nakhimov, have been lately reprinted in a small volume at St. Petersburg; though, strange to say, Nakhimov himself is not even so much as mentioned either by Gretch in his History of Russian Literature, or by his translator, Dr. Otto, who nevertheless professes to make additions to the original. Their omission, in regard to Nakhimov, is all the more remarkable because he happens to be one of the very few Russian authors of whom there is any separate biography or literary memoir; and of him there is one by Maslovitch, published in 1818, just four years before Gretch's work appeared; so that, did not we ourselves happen to possess that piece of biography, we perhaps might never before have heard of Akim Nikolaevitch Nakhimov, the Kharkov Poet, who died, 1814, in his thirty-second year. Had he not been cut off almost at the very commencement of his literary career, he would probably have successfully completed his Pursoniak (a comic poem, A publication was commenced last year, unof which now only detached fragments exist) der the title of the Portrait and Biographical and have thereby enriched the literature with Gallery, which, according to its prospectus, is an original work, replete with satiric humour. entirely devoted to memoirs of those who have As it is, his literary "Remains" consist only of distinguished themselves in literature, the fine minor pieces, satires, fables, &c., which, how-arts, and science,—a class of persons whom Rusever, attest his power of wit and sarcasm and his talent for pleasantry and humour, and are, therefore, well entitled to the attention they have just received.

If we may trust the exceedingly high literary character given of her by a St. Petersburg journalist, Zeneida Ralias Made Helena

Andræevna Han (née Phadaeva), is one of the most brilliant and eloquent prose writers that have ever appeared in Russia. "Zeneida," says the critic, "is the George Sand of our literature, -even something more, and entitled to rank higher. In their talent for invention, in the art of awakening and sustaining powerful interest, both writers are on the same level, and both indulge alike in bitter sarcasm, and in the eloquence of intense feeling; but the Russian is very far superior to the French writer in moral sentiment and purity, to say nothing of what constitutes the highest æsthetic charm of literary production considered as the work of an artist,namely, style. Now, George Sand has, in fact, no style at all, either good or bad; while Zeneida, on the contrary, displays consummate mastery of style,-unless we choose to impute its beauty rather to the instinct of genius than to

Although no complete Russian translation of Shakspeare has yet appeared, several of his pieces have been, either partly or entirely, transferred into that language by different writers; and a Russian version of the Midsummer Night's Dream, has lately been produced by Ivan Roskovshenko of Tiflis.

sian biographical works have hitherto taken very little notice of. Among the characters already given are Pushkin, Bruilov (artist,) Krilov, Bortiniansky (composer), Platon (metropolitan), and Zhuskovsky.

MUCH ADO ABOUT NOTHING-OR-THE
MANUSCRIPTS OF GUSTAVUS OF SWE-

DEN.

[From a Correspondent at Stockholm.] IT was very generally known in Europe that certain chests had been bequeathed by king Gustavus III., to the university of Upsala, on condition that their contents were not to see the light till 50 years, reckoned from the king's death, had passed away; whereupon not only all Sweden but all Europe argued thus: half a century is a long time to wait; that which is kept so long must be worth keeping; king Gustavus was a man of letters as well as a king;-something great may certainly be looked for in 50 years time. Along with this reasoning the tragical end of the testator threw a deep shade of pity

over his whole life. His failings were forgotten. | trashy collection of "trifles" were never heaped All that was seen was the legacy and the mur- together for the purpose of cheating two geneder, and in the 50 years since the king's decease rations of men. It is ludicrous to think of the time enough had elapsed to mix up these two taste of a man who could treasure up such abcompletely distinct facts (the first being four surdities, and then solemnly bequeath them to a years at least before the last), till it was firmly venerable body like the University of Upsala, believed, that the king, finding himself mortally which is now repaid for the pains she has taken wounded, made his bequest while lingering in in the incubation of this monstrous wind-egg, by torment; and, surrounded by conspirators, con- being made a spectacle and laughing-stock to signed to the safe custody of the university a Gods and men. His majesty should have had mass of documents calculated to throw the an adviser, like the curate in Don Quixotte, greatest light on the secret history of his reign. when he was packing up his bequests. "Out And thus the world, allowing itself to confound of the window with them"-into the fire with two separate circumstances and fancying that them. One thing seems clear from the whole antecedent in date to be the consequence of the transaction-that his majesty was by no means latter, was most illogically wrought up into a the great or the learned man he has sometimes high state of curiosity. passed for. A better proof of this could not be desired than in his deliberate instructions about his treasures. Seldom has such careless Swedish, or such a hideous French orthography, greeted the eyes of men. Judging from this specimen of his majesty's grammatical accuracy, one would be tempted to believe he must have procured some other hand to write his printed works, poor though they be. As to the guilt of the Duke of Sudermania, and the story of his having removed papers from the chests, it is to remarked, that there is nothing in the bequest be which warrants the conclusion that the chests ever contained more than the trash found in them.

In Sweden, just before the opening, numberless reports were afloat concerning the contents. On the one point all agreed: that some very weighty state secrets had been given over to the keeping of the university by the king; but there unanimity ceased, and two great parties arose. One was positive the documents were yet safe, that the locks and seals had not been tampered with, and if they only lived long enough they should see with their eyes what they had so long believed in on faith; the other were sure that though the papers in question were once in the chests they were there no longer; that the Duke of Sudermania (afterwards Charles XIII.) and others implicated in the supposed disclosures, On opening the large chest, one bag was found had made away with the evidence of their guilt. lettered thus: "All papers marked with a cross, These last, it may be observed, were on much or inscribed, Freemason Packets, must not be the safer side of the two. Nothing more easy opened by any other than the reigning king of than to join in the cry "we said the papers were my race." This injunction threw the university there," if they were found; while their oppo- into another fever; it being quite impossible, for nents if they were not forthcoming must leave the field completely worsted.

reasons obvious enough, to fulfil the command. At last it was resolved to lay the case before his As the day approached public curiosity became majesty, and await his pleasure. A communicarather feverish. The university appointed a tion to this effect was accordingly made to King grand commission of high functionaries, who, Charles John, through the Crown Prince, the assisted by the Governor of the Province on the Chancellor of the University. In the mean part of the Crown, were to superintend the so- while many absurd notions were advanced, of lemn opening. On the 29th of March the com- which the most ridiculous perhaps was,—that mittee first repaired to the consistorium, and the papers could only be given over to the Prince there broke open, at last, a box containing the Vasa, a wanderer and vagabond on the face of keys of the chests, and the autograph instructions the earth, though his wanderings and vagabondof king Gustaf dated 1788, giving a general ac- ism were plainly against the injunction as to count of what was to be expected. To wit: "the reigning king of my family." However, "Letters, memoirs, trifles, projects, plans for all speculation was cut short very properly by court festivities," gossiping letters from kings the appearance of a royal decree, directing that and ladies of the court of Louis XV.-all which, the sealed packets in question should be handed containing, as his majesty was pleased to think, over by the university to the Society of Freema"curious and interesting anecdotes of his reign," sons in Stockholm, there to be opened by the "his respect for living personages would have officers of the said society, in the presence of a induced him to destroy," had not the thought occurred to him that after 50 years they could hurt no one-and therefore he bequeathed them as a token of his affection to the university of Upsala !!

It is not said how the committee looked when they learned what a mouse had crept out of the mountain that had been gathering over it for half a century; but on repairing to the library and breaking open the chests, his majesty's description was found perfectly true. A more

member of the university, who was himself a freemason, and whose duty it should be to take care that no papers were passed over but such as related strictly to masonic affairs. And so for the present ends this Much Ado. The university are busy cataloguing their new treasures, which will doubtless be of the greatest service to any one who is ready to wade through an Augean stable of nonsense and filth, and not unwilling to write "a scandalous history" of Sweden during the last century!

MISCELLANEOUS LITERARY NOTICES. '

AUSTRIA.

FRANCE.

THERE are in Austria 25,014,267 Roman Ca- Marshal Soult has appointed a Commission tholics, 3,855,298 members of the United Greek | composed of Messrs Amédée Jaubert, the translaChurch, 2,790,901 of the Schismatic Greek tor of Edrisi's Geography; Delaporte, late conChurch, 1,234,574 Protestants of the Augsburg sul-general at Magadore; Eugene de Nully; Confession, 2,193,117 Protestants of the Helvetic Confession, 43,750 Unitarians, 699,057 Jews, and 1736 individuals belonging to other sects. In 1837 the Catholics in the German provinces were to those of other sects, as 11 to 2; in the Hungariau, as 73 to 74; in the Italian, as 258 to 1. In Carinthia, not a single Protestant was known to be a resident. In Gallicia, the Greek Church was the predominant.

In a recent number of the Diario di Roma, a complete list is given of all the monastic establishments within the Austrian dominions. From this it appears that there are within that empire 766 monasteries for men, and that there reside in those establishments 10,354 monks of twentyseven different religious orders. The convents for women amounts to 157, of twenty-nine different orders, and contain 3661 nuns.

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BELGIUM.

Charles Brosselard; and Sidi Akhmet Ben el Haggi Ali, imaum of the mosque of Bougia. This Commission is charged to draw up and prepare for publication a grammar and dictionary of the Berber or Kabyle language. The Moniteur, in announcing the appointment of this commission, observes, "It has hitherto been supposed that the various dialects of Africa were more or less corruptions of the old Arabic. This error has now been satisfactorily removed. It has been ascertained that the majority of the tribes scattered along the interior of Africa, from the Oases of Egypt to the Atlantic, and known by the names of Kabyles, Berbers, Showya, Beni M'zab, Amazigh, &c.; speak dialects that vary from each other only in a very slight degree. Their language bears no similitude either to the Arabic, the Coptic, or the Hebrew, but is a language perfectly distinct from any other that is known to us, though a few Arabic roots have been admitted into it." The influence which the various rulers of northern Africa may, during a series of centuries, have exercised over the language of the Aborigines, will form an inter

The Phoenicians, the Carthaginians, the Romans, the Vandals, the Arabs, the Turks, and lastly, the French, may all have left traces of their presence, in at least some of the local dialects. The Imaum of Bougia has already been invited to repair to Paris.

The Brussels papers of the 12th ult. announced the death of one of the most prominent personages in the Polish revolution of 1830, and who, since the disastrous termination of that revolution, has been known as one of the most dis-esting subject for inquiry for this commission. tinguished Sclavonian scholars. "Just as we are going to press," says the Courier Belge, we hear of the death of Lelewel, the Polish exile, who, when banished from Paris, found shelter in Brussels, where he lived in the most indigent circumstances. Several winters, spent without fire and almost without clothing, had gradually impaired his sight and undermined his health. In this condition, very recently, not having the means of paying his place in a public vehicle, he was obliged to walk from Charleroi to Brussels, the rain falling heavily all the time. A complaint of the liver, and the want of all suitable attendance, contributed to shorten his days. He had just concluded an important numismatic work, which would have formed about the hundredth volume of his complete works. M. Lelewel lived like a philosopher of antiquity, submitting to every species of privation. During the last twelve years the Ex-President of the Polish Diet has seldom been able to expend more than nine sous a day.”

M. Villemain, the Minister of Public Education, has applied to the Chambre des Députésfor a grant of money to publish the works of Laplace. Most of them have become so scarce as to be almost inaccessible to private individuals, and the sale would be too limited, and the expense too great, to induce a publisher to reprint them as a private speculation. He proposes to obtain the copyright from the widow of Laplace, and to print 1000 copies of his three principal works in seven quarto volumes, part of the edition to be presented to all the public libraries and institutions of the kingdom, and the remainder to be sold.

A commission has been named to prepare for publication the works of l'Hote, to form a sup

plement to those of Champollion. He travelled | It remains for the Austrian government to deto Egypt twice at the expense of the govern- cide whether the work is to be continued to ment, and has left behind him many valuable Trieste, an undertaking of too great magnitude drawings of Egyptian antiquities and copies of for the company to enter upon, unless supported hieroglyphic inscriptions. by the state.

In the Royal Library at Paris, a Bohemian manuscript was lately discovered, containing several theological essays by John Huss. It had long been looked on as a Croatian manuscript. It is supposed to have been written in the early part of the fifteenth century.

The Parisian press produced, in the year 1841, 6300 works, 1163 engravings and lithographs, 145 plans and maps, and 428 pieces of music.

GERMANY.

BERLIN.-Dr. Reinold Schmid, so well known to all students of Anglo-Saxon from his contributions on that subject to the German periodicals, and by his Gesetze der Angelsachsen, of which the first volume was published at Leipsic in 1832, at length announces the second volume of that work. In this he is understood to have made great use of the Collection of Anglo-Saxon Laws, edited by our accomplished countryman, Mr. B. Thorpe. We may take the opportunity of adding that it is our intention at no distant period to bring under the notice of our readers a short view of the most recent English and Continental publications connected with Anglo-Saxon literature. In the mean while we may mention that a new society, entitled "The Elfric Society for the Illustration of Anglo-Saxon and early English History and Philosophy," is now in the course of formation, and already numbers among its members many of the most distinguished scholars of Europe.

While our London theatres are rivalling each other in the splendour of decoration, Ludwig Tieck is about to try the opposite extreme at Berlin, where he is preparing to bring out a series of Shakspeare's pieces, with all the simplicity of costume and scenery that prevailed in the time of Queen Elizabeth.

Wilhelm Schlegel, whom we had almost considered as lost to the literary world, seems to have again awakened from his lethargy. He not only announces a series of lectures on Ancient and Modern India, but has just brought out the first volume of a collected edition of his French writings, hitherto very little known. They contain, we understand, several highly interesting papers, and are written with great elegance.

The commission that is to publish the works of Frederick the Great at the expense of the gov. ernment, (we mentioned it in a former number,) continues to collect many valuable materials. Much of his correspondence, hitherto not only never printed, but even kept secret, has been placed at the disposal of the commissioners. The Letters of Frederick to the Landgrafinn Caroline of Hesse Darmstadt, one of his favourite correspondents, preserved with the records of the court in Darmstadt, have, however, hitherto not been obtained, as this princess by a clause in her will desired them to be kept secret for ever. But it is to be hoped that a request, which certainly never can have been seriously meant, will be disregarded.

The University of Tubingen was agreeably surprised a few weeks ago by a present from the Directors of the English East India Company, of sixty-seven Oriental works, chiefly in Sanscrit, printed at Calcutta.-Prussian State Gazette.

Some very inaccurate statements relative to German railroads, made by M. Thiers, in a somewhat self-sufficient manner in the French Chamber of Deputies, have provoked a severe but well-merited castigation from a writer in the Prussian State Gazette. "It is to be lamented," says the writer in question, "that M. Thiers, before he ventured to speak upon the subject in public, should not at least have informed himself of the relations of his own country." The writer then proceeds to say that there are now in France, not as M. Thiers says, 200 lieues of railroads completed, but 173 lieues only, even including all the small railroads constructed for the use of individual mines and colleries. Besides these, there are in France seventy-five lieues of railroads in a course of construction. In Germany, 350 lieues of railroads are now complete, and 332 lieues are in course of construction.

HAMBURG.-In the painful feelings awakened by the fearful calamity by which this city has been lately visited, literature has her share. The "Archiv" of the city was blown up with the "Rathhaus," and with it many most valuable documents connected with the history, not only of Hamburg, but of all the other principal cities and states of Europe, more particularly of England, have perished. Those who know the "History of England" by the keeper of those Archives, Dr. Lappenberg, and still more those The Sixth Annual Meeting of the Agriculturwho enjoy the acquaintance of that accomplish- ists of Germany is to be held at Stuttgardt in ed scholar, will learn with regret that his valu- September, when the presence, for the first time, able collections for the "History of the Northern of a great number of wine and fruit growers, is States of Europe," have also been entirely de- likely to make this year's meeting of greater instroyed. Art, too, has had her losses. M. Haa-terest than those of former years. The first sen, a gentleman well known to all lovers of engravings, who has devoted upwards of forty years to the gathering together of materials for a "History of Engraving," lost the whole of them, the result of a life's labour and of a large fortune devoted to their collection.

public day is to be the 21st of September.

The Wurtemberg Chambers have increased their yearly grant to the University of Tübingen by 18,000 florins (15007.), with which the university proposes to cover the expense rendered necessary by the appointment of six new professThe railroad from Vienna to Raab was opened ors, the number of whom is to be raised from on the 5th of May, as far as Glucknitz, being a thirty-one to thirty-seven. The Chambers have distance of ten German (forty-five English) miles. | likewise voted 12,000 florins for additional build

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