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taken or misstated the object of the posthumous | another important matter-the conquest of the honours." civilized Greek dominions in the remote east by barbarians. The same cause which led to the Several points in this curious passage, which overthrow of the Roman empire by the northern is a fair specimen of the learned Professor's own barbarians in Europe, inflamed the people of volume, might be discussed with profit; but the Asia. Mutual injuries rendered the more civipassages in italics are connected with by far the lized and the less civilized furiously hostile to most interesting circumstance in the new learn- each other; and the latter-not suffering, as the ing recently brought to something like perfec- barbarian of modern times does, the evil of betion in regard to the East. These coins, and ing exposed in the conflict to gunpowder and the languages of the Asiatic tribes, compared very superior science-generally conquered. In with our own and the Chinese books, of which those days the Chinese were invaders of foreign improved translations of considerable extracts lands, as well as other nations; and they had so have lately appeared in France, not only estab-active an intercourse of various kinds with Cenlish ancient history upon indisputable foundation, so as to open altogether a fresh insight into the condition of very extensive portions of the whole globe in times heretofore utterly dark, but present the more important people of Asia under circumstances altogether novel and hopeful.

tral Asia, and towards the west, that when the Arabs pressed eastwards, the people of Afghanistan, who could not resist, appealed to the Chinese for aid. In the revolutions occasioned at an earlier period, by the progress of the more northern tribes towards the same country, the Chinese also took part against the invaders, and The first circumstance to which we allude is the transition from Greek civilisation to the the illustration of the Greek-Asiatic story by state of manners which ultimately settled down reference to the faith of Buddha: which Colo- into either Hinduism, or Mahometanism, with nel Sykes has put in an exceedingly satisfactory some exceptions of an obscurer faith, is distinctly point of view in a paper, or rather a volume, declared in the Chinese books, as it is distinctly published last year by the Royal Asiatic Socie-marked on the face of the coins recently found ty. In the year 399 A. D., a Chinese Buddhist so abundantly. In the present state of this priest, Fa-Hian, travelled through Afghanistan transit of knowledge the subject is somewhat and India; and in the years 502 and 650, other obscure, but enough is ascertained to gratify and Chinese frequented those countries. Their nar- excite curiosity. It is in the highest degree ratives are voluminous; and the translations of probable that the barbarians who, about the extracts, by the French principally, are consid-year 160 B.C. settled in the Greek kingdom of erable. Without attempting to analyze the full Bactria, "cultivated the arts of peace, and in account given of them by Colonel Sykes, we imitation of their predecessors struck coins of fer our tribute of applause to the able manner gold and silver, as the Chinese report of the in which he has performed his task; and we people of Ki-pin, on one side of which was a quote with entire approbation his concluding mounted horseman, and on the other the head words. These genuine documents show, says or the figure of a man." Mohammedan writhe, that Brahminism is not "unfathomable in its ers concur in these remarks; and the bowels of antiquity, nor unchangeable in its character;" the earth daily give forth witnesses to the exactand he infers, we venture to assert, most soundly, ness of both. A succession of dynasties and that "by proper means applied in a cautious, nations follows, Indo-Parthian, — Indo-Scykindly, and forbearing spirit, such further changes thian,---Sassanian,---Hindu,---and Mohammedan. may be made in their condition and character as will elevate and greatly improve them."‡

It appears, that Fa-Hian, the first of those Chinese teachers and missionaries, describes a Buddhist temple which he saw near the Indus, in terms that clearly explain the figures upon the numerous Buddhist coins found lately in Af ghanistan. This temple had two pillars before it, the pillar on the left hand had a wheel on it; that on the right hand an ox; both of which are to be seen on these coins. Colonel Sykes also remarks correctly that the Pali inscriptions on many of these coins, together with their Buddhist emblems, attest the truth of Fa-Hian. And some recent disinterments mentioned in the posthumous_volume of Sir Alexander Burnes, seem to confirm the opinion that the religion of Buddha is the parent stock of Indian faiths.|| The same coins and Chinese books concur in

• Ariana Antiqua, p. 280.

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The late Colonel Tod and Mr. Masson seem to have been the most persevering and successful collectors of these coins. The former gentleman obtained the enormous quantity of upwards of 20,000; and so long ago as in 1833, the latter, as we find in his own report in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, published in Calcutta, made in the first four months of his explorations on one spot, a most abundant harvest.

Two other Englishmen deserve special mention on the subject; Mr. James Prinsep, already quoted, one of a family distinguished for talent, and eminent in station in India, who was the first who introduced this study with effect to the literary world; and Mr. Moorcroft, whose melancholy fate has not yet excited sufficient sympathy, nor his merits had a fitting recompense. Among the many other objects to which the latter paid attention when travelling in Central Asia, he did not neglect coins and antiquities; and he found Greek relics in the heart of the

† Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, May, 1841. soil as well as Russian copecs in the hands of

+ Ibid, p. 450.

§ Ibid, p. 295.

260.

Cabool, in 1836, 7, and 8, by Sir A. Burnes, p.

the population. Mr. Moorcroft was our real pioneer to the commerce of the vast regions,

*Ariana Antiqua, p. 306.

interest than those of Holland. "From the similarity of their commercial pursuits, of many of their institutions, of their municipal governments, and even of their habits and language," the history of the Netherlands "may afford more practical instruction than almost any other. Links the brightest and strongest, ties the most holy, woven by patriotism and hallowed by time, bind together these two great and enlightened nations: from England the light of Christianity first shone on Holland; from Holland England imbibed her first ideas of civil liberty and commerce; with the Netherlands she made her first commercial treaty; side by side they have fought for all the dearest rights of mankind; side by side they have struggled against the tyranny of Spain, against the bigotry of the Stuarts, against the ambition of the most powerful monarch of France; when the clouds of despotism and superstition hung dark and louring over England, it was in William of Holland that she hailed her deliverer; when Holland writhed under the lash of Alva and the Inquisition, she looked to England as her trust and consolation." Commercial rivalry may occasionally have driven the two countries into hostility; but such a state of things has been of rare occurrence, and never of long duration; and even when the governments have been arrayed against each other, the commercial intercourse between the two nations has at no

where it is plain England is destined to play a
great part; and it will not detract from the hon-
our due to others, to place him worthily at their
head. This is not an occasion upon which we
enter upon the subject in the way it deserves;
but we cannot help expressing regret that the
learned and eminent editor of his and Mr. Tre-
beck's travels, did not vindicate them from some
hasty misrepresentations made by another Asiatic
traveller of high reputation, Victor Jacquemont.
Jacquemont charges Moorcroft with having in
the Himalayas mischievously assumed a false
character; whereas we apprehend his views
were as sagacious as his conduct was honourable.
Whilst those researches have been thus pur-
sued with zeal and success, it is not surprising
that an advantage should be sought to be made
of the anxiety of collectors of "rare" coins; and
already are we told by Professor Wilson, some
"Brummagem" people in Hindustan have begun
to increase the supply by a false coinage. This
trade is an old one in Europe; and as the late
labours in this field in the east are certainly but
beginnings of a multitude of disinterments of
antiquity from Hindoo Koosh to Bokhara, it
would be an acceptable assistance to the lovers
of oriental research and science to furnish them
with some good tests for the detection of fraud.
Another great aid in the familiar application of
this new learning will be to frame numismatic
maps, exhibiting to the eye the localities of sub-time altogether ceased.
terranean stores, when ascertained by the num-
bers and sort of coins found there, as the geolo-
gical maps show upon the coloured surface the
real characters of the soils.

But the most effectual means of promoting these, and all other good pursuits in the east, will be to let our career be one of peace; and in order that it may become so, we call for the adoption of a wise, humane, and active system of intercourse with all the people of Central Asia open to our trade and our civilisation. It is well known that they will eagerly receive both, if offered without covert designs of domination. Science and enterprise have already brought us in this quarter, upon the borders of a people that comprise nearly a quarter of the whole human race, the Chinese. A better policy is wanted to enable us to derive from them all those benefits which their wealth may impart.

Popular freedom is a plant of slow growth. It is not to be conjured into existence by new codes artistically designed by political philosophers, but must be cherished into maturity by institutions suited to the habits and even to the prejudices of a people. When, therefore, we find the Netherlands rousing themselves against their Spanish tyrants: when we see the Dutch people, by a bold defence of their religion, by endurance of adversity, and by forbearance in the hour of triumph, proving their title to the immunities of a nation of freemen; we may rest assured that the previous history of such a nation well deserves to be studied: nay it must be examined, if we would learn the course of training by which men were prepared and fitted for the struggle. Nor was the struggle one of short duration. The Dukes of Burgundy had laboured long and perseveringly to reduce the Netherlands to a state of thraldom, but the bravery of the people, and their attachment to the institutions bequeathed to them by their forefathers, baffled the designs of these would-be despots. Municipal freedom was the school in which these sturdy citizens had been trained; and when at length they rose in one general insurrection against the tyranny THIS writer is well entitled to the thanks of the of Spain, it was not to conquer but to retain English reader for the compilation of a work freedom,-it was not to pursue a speculative adof which our historical literature stood much in vantage but to preserve for their children the need. Of the noble struggle maintained by rich inheritance of their ancestors. Religion Holland against Spain, in the sixteenth century, hallowed the cause but it was in the defence popular narratives are not wanting; but it is re- of long existing municipal rights, rather than markable that of the previous history of the of any particular mode of faith, that the Dutch country scarcely anything is known, except to rose against their Spanish oppressors; and it the diligent searcher into ancient chronicles, may even be doubted whether the Reformation books rarely looked into by general readers. Yet would have made in the Netherlands the prothere is, perhaps, no country whose annals ought|gress it did, had not the Catholic Church inconto be read by an Englishman with more deep siderately ranged itself on the side of tyranny.

ART. XII.-History of Holland, from the Be ginning of the Tenth to the End of the Eighteenth Century. By C. M. DAVIES. Vols. I. and II. London: Parker. 1842.

The less the ministers of religion mingle in poli- | and the numbers of marriages, deaths, &c. The tical strife, the more will they be respected by population of the entire kingdom is estimated at their flocks. There are times, indeed, when 4.677,900 souls. We are among those who none but a moral dastard can hold aloof; but on sympathize with Raumer when he talks of the such occasions it is with the people, and not "mute eloquence of these dead figures. What against them, that churchmen should side, if the a long tale of departing glory is told by the tacause of their church is dear to them. Much of bles that refer to Venice! The climate has of the existing unpopularity of our own church is late years been repeatedly lauded, yet the deaths owing to its connexion with the aristocracy rather annually exceed the births by nearly a thousand! than with the people in the struggle that has The young and enterprising, to whom the state been going on for some time between the two looks for the rearing of embryo citizens, quit the great elements of our constitution. In such a sorrowing city; the aged alone remain to die struggle, the only place of safety for the church amid the monuments of former splendour. How is in the ranks of the people. In Holland the different are the fortunes of Milan, where the Catholic church perished because the church births exceed the deaths by more than 600. banded with tyrants to rob the people of their freedom; in France the church was humbled to the dust because it sided with those that would keep the people from freedom: and it is only since the French church has ceased to lend itself as a mere tool to tyranny, that it has recovered a portion of its former influence.

It was not our purpose, at present, to take more than a rapid glance at the work before us, of which it would not be easy to speak more highly than it deserves. Our few points of disagreement are points of minor importance, bearing upon the rivalry of England and Holland in India. In every more prominent matter connected with the history of Holland, the most praiseworthy research is displayed; the style is easy and correct; and the narrative occasionally invested with more than the interest of fiction.

Upon the whole it would not appear from M. Schmidl's work that the climate of Lombardy can be healthy, since the total number of deaths equals 1 in 26 of the whole population The criminal statistics are not favourable to the peo ple of this part of the Austrian dominions. The annual average gives 254 acts of murder or homicide, 780 wounds and personal injuries, 136 condemnations for rape, 112 for coining, and 736 for minor acts of personal violence.

The different dialects of northern Italy, the costumes, the local usages, the habitual diet, and the various occupations of the inhabitants, are described with much care, and are illustrated by 88 engravings on steel, and by a multitude of very elaborate tables. We have a detailed ac count of the much-vaunted system of agriculture, which, the author says, "would produce very different results, if the industry and intelligence of the German peasant could be brought to bear upon the country." At present nearly all this part of Italy is cultivated "by farmers who can scarcely obtain an existence from their locations," and have neither courage nor capital to attempt

The two volumes now before us bring the annals of the country down to the year 1660, a peiod at which De Ruyter had raised the naval glory of Holland to its highest point. The third volume, we believe, is intended to bring the history down to 1795, when the United Provinces were subjugated by the arms of the French re-improvements. public, and ceased for nearly twenty years to hold their place among the independent states of Europe.

ART. XIII.-Das Lombardish-venezianische Königreich. (The Kingdom of Venetian Lombardy.) Von A. A. SCHMIDL. Stuttgard. 1841. THIS Volume forms a portion of a larger work, now in course of publication, under the general title of Das Kaiserthum Oesterreich, &c. (the Empire of Austria), of which seven parts, we believe, have now been published. This statistica! and topographical description of Lombardy will be found not only a useful guide-book to the traveller, but a valuable work of reference to all who take an interest in the development of that part of Italy which is subjugated to the Austrian sceptre. Mountains, rivers, and plains; lakes and rivers; climate, productions, &c., are minutely described in the first 54 pages; and as the book is very closely printed in a large octavo form, a great deal of information is brought within the space of 54 pages. Next follow a multitude of statistical tables, showing the amount of population in the several provinces, 36

VOL XXIX.

The book contains an interesting description of the system of irrigation adopted for the ricefields. Of wine the average annual produce is stated at 2,500,000 eimer (the eimer, according to Mac Culloch, equals 12 1-2 imperial gallons), but "the treatment of the vines is slovenly, and that of the grapes even more slovenly." The Parmesan cheese appears to form an important branch of trade, no less than 28,000 cwt. being annually exported. The rearing of silkworms is on the increase, but we were hardly prepared to hear that from 1832 to 1837 no less than 34 bears and 155 wolves had been killed in Lombardy. The Alpine regions were probably the scenes of their offences and death.

The sums expended by Austria upon the construction and improvement of roads have been immense, and indeed few intelligent Italians will deny that the happiest and best governed portion of Italy is that which is subject to the Germans. Yet are the Germans not loved there, much as they have done for the improvement of the country; while the French, ruthless and destructive as was their domination, have still numerous and zealous admirers in Italy.

Mr. Faber proceeded by the way of Paris to Avignon, and thence by Nismes to Genoa. A page here and there is made descriptive of things as they are, but the greater part of the book dwells on matters connected with the Church during the middle ages. The thought that appears to have marred, throughout, the enjoyment of our Oxford divine, was his regret that, while wandering through Roman Catholic lands, he was not in the Roman Catholic communion.

ART. XIV.-Römische Briefe aus den letzten | the occasional elegance of style we have here: Zeiten der Republik. (Roman Letters of the few display the scholarship and reading which latter period of the Republic. Von OTTO VON are lavished upon nearly every page of the book MIRBACH. Vols. III. and IV. Mittau. 1841. before us. To the Puseyite enthusiast, we have little doubt these "Sights and Thoughts" will THE two first volumes of this work appeared furnish matter to be conned over with delight; in 1836, and treated of the years 690 and 691 and to the wavering Protestant, whom the Trac from the building of Rome. The two volumes tarians have all but weaned from the faith of lately published are entitled to the same favour- his fathers, the book may serve as a help to able notice as those that went before them. smoothe the way back to the bosom of Rome. They introduce the unlearned to a very fair notion of Roman manners at the period in question. All existing authorities have been carefully and conscientiously turned to account, and not only the political interests of the republic, but the domestic manners and the state of public morals are described with as much accuracy as may be looked for in what cannot wholly divest itself of the character of a work of fiction. To paint the manners of ancient Rome, the epistolary form has been judiciously selected. A narrative would not have allowed the same fragmentary style, without which minute but important points must have been passed over in silence. M. von Mirbach has been guilty of some rather striking anachronisms. Thus in letters supposed to have been written during the republic, he unhesitatingly quotes from Virgil and other authors belonging to the empire; and even weaves into his own text the epigrams of Martial, who did not appear at Rome till more than a century after the death of Julius Cæsar.

The author has given in his third volume a historical narrative of public events from 691 to 703. The three succeeding years which preceded the war between Caesar and Pompey, are described by the supposed correspondents, the war itself forming the subject of fifteen letters. The events in the East are related by C. Cassius; those in Rome, including the domestic politics of the republic, by P. Servilius; the Spanish campaign is described by Q. Cassius, and with Casar's arrival in Egypt the work closes.

The book is accompanied by two maps, one represents the country round Herda, the other that between Dyrrhachium and Pharsalus.

ART. XV.-Sights and Thoughts in Foreign
Churches and among Foreign Peoples. By
FREDERICK WILLIAM FABER, M. A. London:
Rivington. 1842.

"The traveller of the middle ages," he says, "rose with the religious men beneath whose roof he had found shelter for the night; with them he sought first of all, the house, oftentimes the altar, of God, and joined in the matin service of the Western Church. He went forward on his road with prayer and benediction. A cloud of good wishes accompanied and guarded him from monastery to monastery, while the courts of bishops and the cloisters of learned men were opened to him, by the commendatory letters of his native prelates. The traveller of those times had solid advantages which a churchman nowadays may be allowed to regret, and for which he would be modern facilities. They who are accustomed to bewilling to exchange no inconsiderable portion of our lieve and act as if there were a church, and one church only, and to deem each little fact and symptom connected with her as of more importance than political statistics, or the critical observations of the artist, will acknowledge both their profit and their pleasure to have been marred, in no slight degree, by the absence of those privileges of Christian communion, so richly dealt out of old to travellers."

sume,

These lamentations, these yearnings after a reunion with Rome, are constantly renewed throughout the book; and where Mr. Faber is desirous to put forward extreme opinions, the responsibility of which he is yet unwilling to ashe places them in the mouth of an ideal personage, a ghostly interlocutor from the middle ages, who appears to have burst his cerements travelling companion to the learned Puseyite from for the express purpose of engaging himself as Oxford. These two theologians, he of the spirit and he of the flesh, engage from time to time in a kind of friendly discussion on the merits of the Church of England, on which occasions the gentleman of the middle ages is always politely allowed to have the best of the argument. The following may be taken as a specimen of the meek humility with which our Oxford Puseyite allows himself to be schooled by this imaginary champion for Roman supremacy :—

THIS is an almost uninterrupted rhapsody of 645 pages, inspired by the author's journey through France, Italy, and Greece, on his way to Jerusalem. He carries his reader only to Athens, but promises a continuation in case the present work should be favourably received; that is to say, if it should sell readily, and not leave the "You forget,' said I, that we are not brought up expense of publication on the author or his bookseller. We cannot say that we wish it any such Rome is not as other churches. She is not a comto reverence Rome.' That is not well,' he answered; success, but we are far from apprehending that mon city: she has no common chair.' 'Alas,' said I, the book will want readers. There is a large I cannot grant-Who bade you grant anything?' class among whom there prevails a morbid taste he interrupted; answer me not; I was speaking, as for these religious ravings; and to do Mr. Faber it were, out of the bosom of my own centuries, forjustice, few works of the kind are written with 'getting your hindrances; but when I do speak, answer

184 2.

Excursions along the Shores of the Mediterranean.

283

me not. Yet, believe me, Rome will be permitted to | author to begin upon; and a little industry alone lie grievously on those that will not reverence her; is wanting to turn them to account. In this, she is marked, not by her own hand, for reverence.'

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Mr. Faber takes his ghostly confessor at his word, and allows him to rail in good set terms at the rebellious church of Oxford and Cambridge, without offering a word in reply, except an occasional "I should hope," or, "we may expect," always nipped in the bud by the testy old gentleman, who very consolingly tells his young penitent he has nothing to hope for, till he shall have effected his reconciliation with the parent church. A favourite scheme of our Puseyite traveller is the establishment of monastic orders in England. His ancient friend has a plan ready cut and dry for the purpose, and recommends particularly the location of little colonies of monks and nuns in the manufacturing districts. As Mr. Faber says nothing against the scheme in his imaginary dialogues, he must be supposed to agree in its propriety. If so, why has he not the courage to say so? Why, rather, has he not the honesty to throw up his Oxford fellowship at once, and avow himself the zealous devotee to the faith of Rome, which every page of his book shows him to be? Why does he remain in even ostensible communion with a church of which he speaks in these terms?

"Am I then to believe, what I have been told on many sides, that your church is but a dream, and your churchmen dreamers, with an unrealized theology, not a branch of the Catholic vine, true, healthy, strong, vigorous, growing, pliable, gifted, tangible, substantial? Have you not made an illuminated transparency, a soothing sight for quiet times, and sat before it so long and so complacently, that you now venture to call it a Catholic church? While you talk so largely of your own church, you put no faith in her. This it is which angers me. It is a kind of hypocrisy. You do not believe that she dare loosen the pegs of her tent-cords, in order to enlarge it, lest a rough wind should blow it over in the mean while."

These words, it is true, are put into the mouth of the resuscitated personage of the middle ages; but the worthy Puseyite has not a word to say in reply, but that he is determined never to leave his church, be her sins what they may. In this prudent determination the whole spirit of Puseyism is concentrated. The revenues of the Anglican are to be held conjointly with the tenets of the Roman church.

however, Colonel Napier is wanting. His are left in too unfinished a state. He has hitherto sketches are spirited, but, for the most part, they been little known in the world of literature, except as an agreeable writer of light articles for have appeared in the United Service Magazine, periodicals. Some excellent papers from his pen and in several of the sporting magazines; but something more solid and connected is required in a work of two volumes. The reader who takes up these Excursions, however, merely with The colonel is a lively travelling companion, a view to amusement, will not be disappointed. mixes familiarly with all classes, and has a quick eye for the beautiful, whether it presents itself in the shape of a southern landscape or a comely hostess. He is at all times ready for fun, aud relates his frolics with a zest which shows how entirely he enjoyed them in the acting, and how willing he is that his readers should share the enjoyment;-but in the course of excursions that extended along both sides of the Mediterranean, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Bosphorus, much and valuable information might have been collected, for which we look in vain in his pages.

It was at first his intention, he tells us in his preface, to have brought the work out in its "original shape of letters from the Mediterranean, addressed to Lady Napier. The confidential correspondence with a kind parent, however, necessarily containing many particulars void of interest, he was induced, whilst retaining the familiar epistolary style, to throw the narrative into the form of a journal."

It was towards the close of 1837, that he aecompanied his regiment to Gibraltar, and while stationed there, he found means frequently to relieve the tedium of garrison duty by excursions into the territories of Morocco and Spain. The greater part of the present work is occupied by an account of the author's adventures during these excursions. When the "Old Commodore" arrived at Gibraltar in the Powerful, on his way to join the Mediterranean fleet under Sir R. Stopford, the colonel accepted an invita tion to go on to the Levant with his step-father, and the latter part of the work gives us an account of his cruise in the Levant, in the course of which he visited Malta, a number of the Greek islands, the site of ancient Troy, Constantinople, Athens, &c. In the course of such a varied tour, he could hardly fail to see and observe much; much more indeed than could possibly be brought within the compass of two octavo volumes: and it is perhaps in attempting to compass too much that a fragmentary tone has been given to his narrative. Yet we will not be captious with so good-humoured a man. His excursions affect not to be scientific travels, or ethnographical disCOLONEL NAPIER is, we believe, the stepson of quisitions. He introduces his reader in rapid the gallant commodore whose achievements at succession to the practical humours of the messCape St. Vincent, and more recently in Syria, room, the jovial hospitality of the monastery, have placed him among England's naval heroes. and the somewhat lawless life of Spanish stuThe colonel has inherited some admirable qual-dents; he wanders gaily with the muleteer over ities from the commodore-a flow of spirits, an energy of purpose, a frankness of speech, and a hearty contempt for cant and affectation of every kind. These form a good stock in trade for an

ART. XVI.-Excursions along the Shores of the Mediterranean. By LIEUT.-COL. E. NAPIER, 46th Regt. 2 vols. Colburn. 1842.

the Sierras of Andalusia and Grenada, and seems to realize at times the adventurous excursions of the Manchan knight; he shows us the way to the haunts of the gipsies, and the camp of the

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