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of Florence; Andrea Boldu to the court of Savoy.
The next volume consists of a series of embas
sies to the Ottoman empire. We shall conclude
with one more extract from the last volume.
"The importance of the grand signor would

parent from the above statement. This may give our readers an idea of the interesting contents of these volumes. The embassy of Nicolo Tiepolo to Charles V. 1523, follows, but we cannot give any more from it than a single extract on Luther. "Luther takes from the pope all pre-appear trifling if we were simply to estimate eminence and pontifical authority, condemns confession, gives the communion in both kinds, denies the merit of human works, removes all religious vows, allows priests and monks and nuns to marry, does not consider that Christians ought to observe fasts or festivals, destroys all images, and removes many other rites and institutions of the church, both in worship and practice." The next account is "La Relazione di Francia del clarissimo Marino Giustiniano tornato ambasciatore dal Christianissimo, 1535." Tommaseo has published this paper as well as the next, the embassy of Marino Cavalli, 1546. The paper following is of the same date, 1546, and is an account of the mission of Bernardo Navagero to Charles V. Two years after we have the embassy of Lorenzo Contarini to Ferdinand king of the Romans, which closes the first volume. The following description of Ferdinand is singularly characteristic of the age.

"As to intellect, this prince has fine and acute perception, speaks well Spanish, German, Latin, and Italian; replies fast and reasons well, knows a little about everything, likes to question people and to talk with them, and has a most capital memory. He amuses himself with mecha nics, especially artillery, and has a liking for it. He is a capital negotiator, does everything himself, everything passes through his hands, and no deputy from any country, be his business what it may, has anything to do save with the king. As to moral virtues, his Majesty is most religious; nor has he ever altered the true worship of God. Every day, as soon as he gets up, he tells his beads, hears the mass also daily, every feast day repeats the service from the breviary, attends vespers every evening, and at least one sermon, but often two. He confesses and communicates two or three times a year, and finally, we trace in his Majesty no leaning except to the true religion. He is so temperate in his passions that he is believed never to have had intercourse with any other woman than his wife, neither during her life nor since her death."

We must now terminate our notices of the valuable volumes of Signor Alberi, which contain facts of the utmost importance to all lovers of history; and in order to guide them to what they may require, we shall give the space of time the work at present embraces, and the localities where the embassies were directed. It begins with 1506, and extends in the present volumes in our hands (four) to 1579. The first is before our readers. The second contains embassies to Charles V., to the Convent of Nizza, to Ferdinand, King of the Romans; Matteo Dandolo to France; Marini Cavalli to Charles V.; Daniele Barbaro to England; Giovanni Cappello to France; Giovanni Micheli to England; Anonymous to England; Giovanni Sorenzo to France. These are followed in the next volume by the missions of Marco Foscari to the republic of Florence; Carlo Capello, three years after, to the same; Vincenzo Fedeli to the court

him from his low and mean palaces, but our
notions become altered when we see him on
horseback, as we do every Friday, going to the
mosque, and far more when he holds a horse
divan, for then he discovers the proud pomp of
his state, being accompanied by an infinite
number of horsemen and foot soldiers, who
sparkle in gold and gems; without a sound, in
uninterrupted silence he moves on; his people
evince a readiness to serve him-an obedience,
a devotion, that, as it is unexampled in any
court, confuses the spectators. But what still
more confounds and confuses them, is that in
that spot where military skill most flourished,
inventions of science, the reasoning arts, the
noblest writings, the finest laws, the most pru
dent sages, now there appears not a trace of
them. The miserable realms are in the hands
of barbarous and brutal chiefs. Grass covers
the most fainous cities; the finest buildings are
either buried, or destroyed, or ruined; brutal
violence has extinguished not only virtue, arms,
literature, obscured all liberty and nobility, but
uprooted even their memory.
These lovely
countries are so bare of all culture, that the
wretched inhabitants have a proverb, Where
the Ottoman steed puts his feet, the grass never
grows.'"

ART. XV.-Guida dell' Educatore. 1838-9-40.
Firenze. 1841.

THE above is a compendium for Italian educa-
tion, and we perceive with great pleasure that
the author has selected principally English
works for this object. He appears in some re-
spects to have very just ideas of education, and
we quite agree with the principle he lays down,
that amusement is too little intermixed with
instruction in elementary schools. The false
methods pursued in education have prevented
many persons from becoming educated. The
following scheme of schools in the Lombardo-
Venetian kingdom seems to comprise an im-

mense course.

In elementary schools they teach, 1st. The principles of the Catholic Faith; 2d. Reading; 3d. Writing; 4th. Arithmetic; 5th. Tables of weights and measures; 6th. Rules to express ideas in writing. The higher elementary schools are taught in the three first classes besides the above, and a continuation of the arithmetic, 1st. The principles of the Roman Catholic Faith, with a compendium of sacred History and an Exposition of the Gospel; 2d. Calligraphy; 3d. Orthography; 4th. Italian grammar; 5th. Instructions for composition; 6th. Reading and writing Latin under dictation. In the 4th upper class, which is divided into two portions, they teach the principles of architecture, geometry, mechanics, stereometry, desigo, geometry, natural history, and physics.

In the elementary technical school, in addi

tion to the above, history, commerce, book keeping, mathematics, history of the arts, che mistry, German, French, and English.

this opportunity of saying that a paper has been prepared by us on the Roman Law of Signor Forti, a most valuable work, and in it we have endeavoured to combine all that has been done recently in England and Germany on that sub

The Guida dell' Educatore is full of valuable information on the state of Italy, but our limits will not allow us to extract more. We take ject.

MISCELLANEOUS LITERARY NOTICES.

AFRICA.

ALGERIA. The French press in this country, which is actively employed in printing various oriental works, has received orders from the Minister of War to deposit in the Bibliothèque du Roi at Paris, copies of all works printed in the colony since its conquest.

LEIPZIG.-Bibliopolisches Jahrbuch für 1841, fünfter Jahrgang. 8vo. Leipzig, 1842. (Bibliopolic Annual for 1841. fifth year.)

The present volume, like all the former ones of this useful annual, not only claims the atten tion of booksellers, but of all persons connected with the different branches of literature in Germany. It commences with the law of the press in Germany during the year 1840, and first pubCOPENHAGEN. The society of Northern Anti-lishes the Bavarian law of April 15, for the proquarians have just published a new volume of tection of literary property, and the treaty betheir Annals, and also of their Memoirs.

DENMARK.

EGYPT.

In April the Prussian Egyptian expedition is likely to start for Egypt, Dr. Lepsius being at the head of it.

FRANCE.

The Court of Assize of La Seine has condemned M. Auguste Luchet, author of a romance entitled Le Nom de la Famille," to two years imprisonment and 1000f. fine, for of fences in the above-named work against public morals, for an attempt to bring the government into contempt, and an outrage on the Roman Catholic religion.

GERMANY.

BONN.-Two new editions of Gaius have recently been published here. The first new edition commenced by Goeschen, and completed after his death by Lachmann; the second, after Goeschen, Huschke, and Lachmann's text by Boecking.

The new periodical edited by Fichte continues to excite a great deal of interest. Three volumes of the new series have already appeared. A new edition of Juvenal by Heinrich, the late professor at our university, is claiming that attention among philologists which it so justly merits. Heinrich devoted a great part of his life to the editing of this author, and it was not till after his death that it was found how much new matter he has furnished for the illustration of this classic. The bookseller Koenig, already so well known as the enterprising publisher of some of the best Sanscrit works lately produced in Germany, has added another to his list of oriental publications; it is "Kammura, liber de officiis sacerdotum Buddhicorum," in Pali and Latin, edited with notes by F. Spiegel.

tween Austria and Sardinia with the same laudable object, and then proceeds to a history of the press for the past year, including biographies of eminent booksellers and librarians that have died since the publication of the last volume. Then follow, arranged according to the towns, a list of all the booksellers, with short statistical notices of the towns and adjacent districts or provinces, and the most interesting and most laborious part of the book, a catalogue of all political papers, appearing either daily, weekly, or monthly, with the number of circulation, prices of advertisements, &c. After this, we find a list of all public libraries in Germany, which, we confess, is not so complete as could have been wished; and we have detected several errors in the names of the librarians and other persons appointed in them; and much unnecessary labour has been bestowed on the libraries in Saxony, where we find almost every public collection of books in such places as Plauen enumerated, while considerable and valuable collections in many towns of Austria are entirely omitted. The work concludes with a literature of bibliography and books relating to the press, its branches arranged systematic ally; and under the head of "Gutenbergiana," we find 134 books, four typographic tableaux, six lithographs, and five medals, all occasioned by the celebration, in the year 1840, of the fourth centenary of the art of printing.

The whole arrangement of the work shows great care and application, and we hope it will meet with the encouragement that it will need to make every new volume more perfect. We trust that in its first section it may before long have to record such advancement in this class of legislation, that may justify a hope that in all civilized nations the necessary protection will be afforded to literary productions of all nations.

HAMBURG. The posthumous works of Peter the German language. Gries lived for the greatOtto Runge have here excited universal atten- er part of his life at the university of Jena, but tion, not so much because he was a fellow-citi-retired several years ago to conclude his days in zen, but from his having been the intimate his native town. He was upwards of 67 years friend of the most celebrated literary charac- of age. ters of the age, among which Niebuhr stands FRANKFORT. Very shortly, it is anticipated, pre-eminent. Many of his writings are de- the commission created for the purpose of revoted to his art (he was a painter,) but the vising the laws of authors and publishers will greatest part are literary subjects, and his cor- be called together. The international law rerespondence forms the most interesting part of specting the works of literature and art, we unthe book. His principal work is on the theory derstand, is to be taken into consideration, and of colours, already printed, but this reprint of it is to be hoped that it may lead to some more it is illustrated by his correspondence with satisfactory results than have generally hitherto Goethe on the subject. These works can be with followed resolutions on this subject. The foljustice recommended, and we may add that they lowing persons have been eleected commissionare published for the benefit of his orphan ers to arrange the details: Dr. Hitzig and Mr. grandchild; the father, who inherited the ta- Reimer, the publisher, of Berlin; Mr. Perthes, Tents of Runge, having, while painting the publisher from Hamburg; Barth, Winter, and ceilings of the winter palace in Petersburg, Campe; also booksellers from Heidelberg and been killed by the excessive heat by which the Nurnberg. plaster in the apartments was ordered to be dried.

THE RHINE.-A storm in the course of last winter carried away the arch of the ruin of Rolandseck, which every traveller to this romantic river will well remember; but Freiligrath the poet was anxious to restore this relic, and has collected all the romances written in German and English relating to Rolandseck and its immediate vicinity, Drachenfels and Nonnenwerth; and it is curious to see how many poets have chosen the legend of Roland for their subject-we need only mention Byron and Campbell; and Schiller's "Ritter Toggenburg," a version of the same story, will be known to almost every reader of German poetry as one of the most simple and beautiful romances in that language. Simrock has added a dissertation on the legend, in which he considers it in connection with the similar incidents in Romeo and Juliet, Pyramus and Thisbe, Tristan and Ysolda, and others. We may bere at the same time mention that the beautiful little church above Remagen, on the summit of the Appolinarisberg, built by the orders of the Count von Fuerstenberg, is nearly completed, and that Professor Kugler, who saw it some weeks since, pronounced it the most complete specimen of a pure style that this country has produced.

LEIPSIC.-Dr. Lepsius, already well known by several works on Paleography, has translated Henry Gally Knight's work on the development of architecture among the Normans, and added an introductory treatise of the application of the pointed arch in the architecture of] the tenth and eleventh centuries in Germany.

Since the commencement of the 19th century the following sovereigns have either resigned their crowns voluntarily, or been forced to abdicate;

Gustavus Adolphus IV., king of Sweden was forced to resign, 1809, and died, 1837. Louis Napoleon, king of Holland, resigned, 1810.

Joseph Napoleon, king of Spain, was forced to resign, 1813.

Jerome Napoleon, king of Westphalia, was forced to resign, 1813,

Joachim Murat, king of Naples, was forced to resign, 1815, and died in the same year. Napoleon, Emperor of the French, forced to resign, 1815, and died, 1821.

The Dey of Algiers was forced to resign, 1829, and died soon after.

Charles X., king of France, forced to resign, 1830, and died 1836.

Charles, duke of Brunswick, forced to resign, 1830.

Peter, Emporor of the Brazils, resigned voluntarily, 1831, and died, 1834.

William I., Elector of Hesse, resigned voluntarily, 1831.

Gunther, Prince Schwarzburg, voluntarily, 1835, and died, 1837.

William, king of the Netherlands, voluntarily, 1840: being the second of only three kings of Holland, who has resigned his crown of his own free will.-Gottschalk's Geonol. Taschenb.

PRUSSIA.

BERLIN.-The commission for the publication GOTTINGEN.-A new history of Rome, from of the works of Frederic the Great have just rethe fall of the Republic to Constantine, by Dr. ceived, through the Russian embassy, copies of Carl Hoek, a professor at the university, claims the essays, letters, and poems, which were writthe attention of all lovers of history. It is written for to Petersburg. There are in all thirtyten with a view to illustrate its constitution and administration.

five different parts all of high interest, and among them the celebrated dream of the king about the various forms of religion, which is indeed the dream of a great genius.

HAMBURG. On the 19th of February died, after a severe and lingering illness, Dr. J. D. Gries, privy councillor to the King of Saxony, Another step has been taken towards the pubwell known in the literary world as the trans-lication by laying before his majesty the report lator of several Italian and Spanish classics. His of the details of publication. The expense of translation of Calderon is not only considered the the splendid edition in 4to with plates, will best German version of this dramatist, but to rank amount to at least 60,000 dollars, or very nearly among the best adaptations of foreign poetry to 10,000. The expense of the small edition has

not yet been calculated, but it is expected that more will be lost by this edition than by the larger.

Dr. Lepsius has been appointed Professor of Archæology, and he is on the eve of publishing his work upon the Egyptian antiquities and Oscan inscriptions.

M. Panofka is at Berlin. He is likely to succeed M. Koehler in the office of the keeper of the antiquities at St. Petersburg.

BERLIN" Die bedingte Pressfreiheit, historisch-kritisch entwickelt und beleuchtet von Theodor Heinsius," is a work which at this moment is attracting attention in Prussia. It advocates a much greater freedom of the press than at present exists in that country, but fears that a complete liberty would lead to so much abuse that it would become dangerous to the welfare of the state.

the more especially as his whole position here as a missionary to the Swedes is, whatever else may be its merits, perfectly illegal. Herr Cavallius, one of the officers of the royal library in Stockholm, has sent forth a Reply to Mr. Scott's Sermon-defence. This formal reply is perfectly withering, and abounds in eloquence, patriotism, and the purest and noblest sentiments. It concludes with an exposé of the mass of crime, misery, and heathen ignorance to be met with in Great Britain, and recommends Mr. S. to lose no time in returning to a land which he never ought to have abandoned, for the sake of seeking "moneys" and proselytes in a land far more moral, religious, happy, and enlightened than suffering Ireland, sanctimonious Scotland, and gold-worshipping, psalm-singing, missionary sending, hunger-bitten, poor-persecuting England! We quote from the author. He also hints that a Swedish mission ought to be established for supplying the starving British artisans and pauperThe most valuable work which has appear- labourers with-bread and Bibles. Surely we ed here for many years is Dr. Nordstrom's shall awake, ere long, to a knowledge of the un"Bidrag till den Svenska Samhällsforfallnin- christian spirit so rife among many of our sects! gens Historia, efter de äldre lagarne till sednare Their machine propaganda societies are drainhalften af sjuttonde seklet." This profound ing the country of hundreds of thousands of composition traces the development and varia- pounds sterling every year, while a whole poptions of the laws and constitution of Sweden, from the period of the oldest written codes, down to the latter half of the seventeenth century, and is full of instructive learning and Scandinavian law-research.

SWEDEN.

A new review (now the only one in all Sweden) has lately appeared, and promises to become an important guide to the lover of Swedish literature. Its name is "Frey," and its contents are almost exclusively short notices and opinions of the new publications, &c. Three numbers have already been published.

The (fair?) anonymous author of "The Cousins," has just given us a new work in two volumes, entitled "Sketches;" some of them, especially "The Two Friends' Counsel" (Tvenne vänners råd), and "The Soldier and his Wife" (Soldaten och hans hustru), are charming indeed.

The popular German abridgment of Strauss's "Leben Jesu," has appeared in a Swedish dress, and has caused a great sensation. An ill-advised attempt to confiscate the whole has happily failed, and the enemies of liberty of conscience and the liberty of the press have had the satisfaction of seeing a highly respectable and impartial jury return a verdict of not guilty. Several answers have appeared or been announced, and the whole discussion will, out of the intended evil, undoubtedly bring good. To suppose that any great success of infidelity and neology can result from a book so thinly disguising a scarcely even philosophic deism is quite out of the question. The whole thing will soon be universally estimated at its proper worth.

ulation is growing up in our own country of heathen, savage, suffering, despairing, malconteat, socialist unfortunates!

The second volume of Bishop Tegnér's "Speeches and Addresses" is at length pub lished. Some among them are literally crowded with everlasting poetry-the brilliant flashes of his imperishable genius. The bishop himself, we regret to say, still lies dangerously ill.

Bishop Franzen has lately given us a volume of Sermons, full of simplicity, poetry, and love. Franzen is the St. John of Scandinavia.

Among the mass of translations published hete, we notice with pleasure versions of "Low's Agriculture," Bulwer's "Richelieu," and "L'Education des Mères de Famille, par Aimé-Martin."

Fruit and flower gardening here are advanc ing rapidly into favour. Not less than two or three magazines are devoted to these questions alone.

ROME.

M. Welcker, the distinguished archeologist, is now at Rome.

The Marquis of Northampton, P. R. S., is here examining the Fali collection of vases.

SWITZERLAND.

GENEVA.-In Paris almost every month brings some new work or other written against Calvin and the Swiss Reformers, and the well-known professor Saint-Priest says, in one of his latest writings of Luther, "Ce moine ivre de bière et de licence, avait fait brûler Zuinglé." We Methodism and its character have also lately have produced one work here which we hope engaged a large share of public attention here. may in some degree counteract the bad effect of Mr. Scott, the Wesleyan missionary, who has these writings; it is an excellent book, by our lately returned from a money-hunting crusade townsman Sargons, on the French authors of in America, for help to convert the Heathen the Reformation, now in the course of publicaSwedes, and who since his return has published tion. Of Calvin he has already spoken in sevea defence of his campaign, has naturally been ral of his earlier writings, and in this he treats met by a unanimous burst of public indignation; principally of the works of Farel, Froment, Vi

In the second volume the author will introduce Henri Etienne, Mornay, La Noue, Aubigné, and others.

ret and Theodore de Bèze. He has met with first sermons, the elegant and courtly Theodore great difficulties, for not only was it necessary | de Bèze, who seemed so little suited to Calvin's to consult and study the numerous printed vehemence and harshness, and the sensual liberworks of those men, but also the numerous tine populace of Geneva, drunken with joy at manuscripts that the libraries of Geneva possess, its recent liberation, and jealous of its indeand many other works written about that time, pendence, who for a long time only regarded the and now almost forgotten; a troublesome and Reformation as a medium by which to get rid generally unthankful labour, for the theological of their monks, and the surveillance of the works of that period contain little that is still bishops. attractive. But among the many dark and often repulsive paragraphs there is still much to admire, and much that throws great light on the literature of the period. Those mighty champions who in that age helped Luther, Calvin, and Zuingle to tear down the mighty Colossus of Rome, and to establish a new church, who made the little Geneva, hardly rescued from the tyranny of Savoy, a rival of Rome, could scarcely be men of common natures. Calvin derived his eloquence chiefly from the energy of his frigid character; his orations were less adapted to awaken the sympathies of his hearers than to penetrate into their mind and undrstanding. He represents himself as the lawgiver of the Reformation, and his "Institutes" is one of the most remarkable productions of that period; it may be considered the code of the Swiss reformation, to which his pupils and followers only contributed their commentaries. And only through the preponderance of his genius was it possible to unite under his banner men of such different characters as the vehement Farel, that French noble who was so passionate even in his

Our "Bibliothèque Universelle" every year becomes of more importance. It is the oldest of all reviews in the French language. It was first published in 1796, and was founded by Pichet and Maurice, and from their hands passed into hands quite as competent, who conducted it safely through a period when all other French reviews were given up. For the last five years it has been the property and under the editorship of Professor Delarive, who, being a man of considerable property, has sacrificed large sums for the advancement of science and to conserve to his native country this valuable organ. Many of the first literary characters of Switzerland are contributors to the review, but till very lately it has been exclusively devoted to science; but in some of the last parts a considerable alteration seems to have taken place, and several articles on belles lettres have been introduced, written by Töpfer, and other celebrated authors of the French Switzerland. i

MUSIC IN ITALY.

IN taking a survey of the present state of mu- the greatest contrapuntists in the world; and sic on the continent of Europe, we naturally the divine strains of Palestrina are to this hour turn our eyes, in the first place, to Italy-so long as unrivalled for their profound harmonies as for and so pre-eminently "the land of song." The their beauty, energy, and expression. Nor do decay of music in that country appears to have the political reasons, assigned for the decline of proceeded from causes of a more general nature music and the other arts in Italy, seem sufficient than such as could affect only the state of that for the purpose. Poetry, painting, and music particular art. Music flourished in Italy simul- flourished in the worst times of Italian historytaneously with literature, poetry, and painting, under the profligate tyrants of the small repub and has declined along with them. Musical lics, and under the boundless ascendency of the writers have speculated largely on the circum- papal priesthood: and the melancholy stories of stances which are supposed to have stamped some of the brightest ornaments of those artsthe Italian music with its peculiar features as of Tasso, who languished in a prison; of Corcontrasted with that of Germany and other reggio, who died in abject poverty; of Palestricountries; its essentially vocal character, its na who, while the acknowledged head of the sweet and voluptuous melody, and its want of musical world, was allowed to starve on a pitthose intricate combinations of harmony for tance which hardly furnished bread to his famiwhich the German music is distinguished. All ly-show how little they were indebted to the this has been ascribed to physical causes; to munificent protection of the great. It is neither "the influence of the sunny south" on the chain the quantity of its production nor in the racter and habits of its people. But if this is the cause of these effects, it ought to have operated equally at all times; whereas the fact is, that Italy has been the cradle of musical harmony as well as melody. The Italian masters of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were

amount of its reward, that music has declined in Italy. The very reverse is the case. But the taste for the profound and lofty music of the olden time is extinct. The music of the stage has, "like Aaron's serpent, swallowed all the rest." 'It has taken possession of the chamber, the

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