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ren to such a height of enthusiasm as to powered it by their bulk, are broken off induce them to give us the following into small colums having for capitals bizarre but brilliant éloge on the Gothic.

groups of little angels which sustain a canopy on which are the images of differIt appears to us that the Gothic is more in ent saints; these images are varied in atharmony with Christian belief, that its construc- titudes and physiognomy, the profuse and tions conduce more to piety than the Classic lavish details of art perfectly confuse and style. The sweetly melancholy mysteries of the bewilder the conception, and give us a Gospel symbolize better with the complication and run of its curves and of its capricious orna- notion only of a series of enchanting ments, than with the classic lines, whose sym-images, like fairy land, without a dismetrical disposition supposes far more convic- tinct impression. But on examining the tion and reasoning than sensation and sentiment. details, the marvel at the wonders effectThe pillar, the bold curves of the arch which ed by the sculptor's chisel, becomes ra. part from its upper extremity, the light which ther increased than diminished. The two penetrates into the cloister through the graceful carvings of the lateral openings of the arch- couchant statues in front of the altar are es, and that which the different quarters of the those of the constable Don Pedro Herarch throw on the embrowned pavement, the nandez de Velasco and of his wife Doña long suite of grave immovable statues which Mencia Lopez de Mendoza y Figueroa. seem placed there to pass eternally in review These tombs, which are of white marble, of endless generations succeeding each other with frightful rapidity, the ensemble finally of the is the delicate character in which the deappear as though covered with lace, such mass of the edifice, its lone internal quietude, all tails of the cushions, the armour of the conthese details conduce to the beauty of the general effect without the law of this effect de- stable and his lady's dress are given. The veloping itself, or even being suspected until af high altar in this chapel is one of the ter deep meditation. All this, in our opinion, most curious and excellent works of the maintains a visible analogy with the Christian period, but the designer is not known. religion, in which the mysteries of its doctrines He has passed like many a noble Gothic and the simplicity of its precepts, the obscurity artist, content with the notion probably, of causes, and evidence of facts, marvellously that what he had done was for the good of his soul, to which consideration only many a matchless edifice owes its rich and elaborate detail. Was that age quite wrong when men did these things?

unite."

Though we are far from thinking that Gothic buildings thus discourse, we do think there is some truth in much of this. The Gothic churches of Spain are always the most admired, says our author.

"When will architecture come back to Spain as she stood at the epocha in which the ' Claustro del San Juan de los Reyes' was built?" he demands, and he answers the question well and nobly. "When the nation shall march as then from victory after victory to greatness, when the Castilian shall recover that noble pride which seven centuries of incessant war-strife had inspired, when her artists shall unite feeling and faith."

Eight of these magnificent numbers are already issued, and we freely own that they more than equal the best designs of our English artists. The work will of course be of immense extent, since Granada would alone occupy far more room than has been as yet consumed, and numerous other portions of equal interest to the present must appear. We must again regret that the letter-press is not more competently executed, it is evidently composed by persons of very confined We shall now proceed to the "Capella powers, and written for one medium, the del Contestabile" at Burgos. A noble most bigoted Roman Catholic opinions. work, and to the artist the highest praise Artists should consider themselves like should be awarded, for the extent of his freemasons, of no country, but bound to labour must have been amazing. In a discharge the high duties of their calling very brief space we have every possible without regard to national bigotry or seccombination of the highest points of the tarianism. They are of all countries and florid style of the art. This chapel looks should exhibit a cosmopolitan spirit. It more like an exquisite dream of ideal is natural for a Spaniard gazing on the beauty than a living reality. The com- glorious creations of the past and pressplications of figures, foliage, screens, &c., ed down by an humiliating present, to and of the sculptor's highest excellences think that monastic periods were good, combined with architectural skill in their from the highly varied excellences of arrangement, are most astonishing. The their style. But the same reasoning massive central pillars, which if permit- would revolt him if it was applied to ted to rest upon the eye would have over-Egypt, and yet it might, with as fair a 17

VOL. XXIX.

deduction to her merit, as he makes in moves, the greater sympathy he experifavour of monkery. Motives of exertion ences for either Christina or Carlos, and of a higher character and tendency than that his only hope is in the great naval ordinary are not borrowed from the power that can in an instant aid him, monks, but from the system of which either at Gibraltar, Cadiz, Bilboa, or any they were then the only expounders. other points of his regency. Well does There must be to the full as much im- he know this, and is neither sufficiently pulse now for artistic glory as then-nay mad nor foolish to neglect a power that more, for the mind runs round a larger as to Spain is nearly ubiquitous. The circle of objects. Why then, it may be throne too of his neighbour he is fully demanded, are modern artists inferior to aware cannot be reckoned on as subsistthe ancient? Why have we, for exam- ing for an hour, and the succession of ple, in England no living artist that can give us the splendid frescos with which Cornelius and various German artists are enriching Germany?

any Bourbon branch is more than questionable. Were he to seek for northern alliances they could not aid him. How is Russia to get to Spain, save through We think the secret of want of talent in France, which country would give her as arts attributable to want of patronage. As firm a denial for a passage through her to fresco painting the climate may possi- territory, as ever Cæsar did the Helvetii bly prove an insuperable objection. We through Provence? The Russians cannot trust, however, that it will not be so, and fly nor swim down from the Baltic, so that that if we have no English fresco painter, all succour from them, with England on Cornelius will be allowed to show us the seas and France on the mainland, the way. England should not be above were a vain expectation. The regent his teaching, for she has no master that therefore looks to an ally not only the is fit to be named as an historical painter strongest in the world, but the best enasince the grave has closed upon Hilton. bled to serve him. Spain has now the Our artists are pretty, but nothing beyond opportunity of using the power of Engit, save in a few instances, and English land, which has preserved her in the map art does not improve, as the last Royal of Europe, to ennoble her spirit not simAcademy exhibition fearfully evidenced. ply in war but in peace. An alliance ofSpain is quite our equal in architectural fensive and defensive between her and drawing, as these beautiful plates prove, England, restrains France within her barand we trust that she will see that her rier, west; and though Victor Hugo and true interest is to be found in a firm alli- his countrymen are for pushing her conance with Great Britain. Espartero, if quests again to the Rhine, they will find he can stand against the force of intrigue, enough to do in the spirit of awakened will redeem the ruined honour of the Germany to keep their hands employed country, and indemnify the Spanish bond-for many a year. We perceive it is the holder: but who feels any confidence in policy of the conservative government to the bigotted Carlos, or the beautiful but conciliate France, and to admit her again lustful Christina. France has been long into the Oriental Question. We do not labouring to effect an exclusive commer- wish to wound her pride, but we are cercial treaty with Spain. While Espartero tainly disposed to subdue her insolence. is in power she cannot do this; he is de Neither do we think she can long be kept facto regent, and not very likely to con- in check, however her present ministry cede much to a country that has made it may feel inclined to conciliate England. her policy to get up commotions in Spain, The worst is provided against by mainin order to keep them down at home. taining Espartero where he is, and he He values France at its services to him, will neither feel any disposition to quietly which may well excuse him for the slight witness French armies crossing the Pyreappreciation in which he holds her. He nees, nor permit any exclusive treaty knows that the Pyrenees are worn down with that nation. England will have an with the perpetual incursions of the immense preponderance for her manufacFrench, and that even that mighty natu-tures in Spain, and we need not point out ral boundary suffices not to rein in his the game that France and Belgium, nay incursive neighbours. He further knows even Austria, are playing to exclude her the full amount of the exports from Xeres produce. In the event too of the national to England, and that it mates the world's consumption of Spanish vineyards. He also well knows that the more north he

honour of Spain being redeemed by the mortgage, or cession of Cuba, or any other means, money and English capital

will be poured into that country. At polluting influence of jesuitism and inquipresent a company is forming which will sitions. A soldier will prove no bad do more for Spain, if it can realize its ruler for her, the most unlikely to put up schemes by purchases of property and with the oft-repeated French aggressions. throwing land into cultivation in that Their bayonets of bristling on the Pyrecountry, than, with their present habits, nees may be met by more than one Berthe Spaniards themselves can effect for nardo, and the tomb of Roland bear on it centuries. The relations will thus be masses of his countrymen. The spirit drawn closer, English industry will be- that is struggling forth in Portugal, which come infused into the Spaniard, and the is really producing scientific journals, country of Cervantes and Lope de Vega will soon move up the Tagus to Madrid, and Calderon become again as illustrious and English capitalists, settling in the as in the period of the chivalric, high- calm of peace on her rich and fertile bred, proud-spirited Rodrigo di Bivar. plains, will make the land give out the Where at present is the literature of benefit that God designed it to bestow, Spain? Who reads a Spanish book? though not on the present soul-impoverwho can get one? Nothing from her ished nation. Barbarous she is, as when reaches us, and we have embraced the the Goths had rule over her, and her preopportunity of the present splendid work, sent is worse than her ancient barbarism, to which we shall again revert when it is for the wild savages that then trod her further advanced, to say something on plains were a race that, like the Moorish, other points and on her literary stagna- only wanted to see the beautiful to like it, tion. Her late provinces on the other to combine with it their own notions, to continent have partaken of the same dull imitate and to originate. But what porspirit, and nothing has emanated from tion of this character at present pertains them worthy of notice. Yet over what a to her? Not a particle. From her invast space does her language extend! It glorious sleep of centuries, civilisation is assuredly the second language in point and glorious ancient reminiscences alone of extent in the world, counting English can wake her; and the battle song of as the first, and what thoughts and images Riga scarce contains more soul-arousing might not burst out from the pure and strains than the minstrelsy of the Cid, noble and manly tones of Castile. The though it is sung in the ears of men conexclusiveness of her ecclesiastic spirit, tented to be the prey of France, and or we should rather say, the narrow sunken into inglorious trammels that views and bigotry of her church, must would almost lead us to wish the Goths now become amended by its fusion with or the Moors were again leading down other interests, nay even the armed and their serried thousands to rouse the dorGuerilla leading curés that have been mant chivalry of Spain. The public is coursing her lands must at least, however recently indebted to Mr. Lockhart for the they denaturalized the ecclesiastic, have introduction in a new and beautiful form in some respects improved the knowledge of the Spanish and Moorish ballads; of the man. War is a fierce teacher of surely such a minstrelsy ought to have other things as well as bloodshed, and is correspondent chords in the heart of a often the parent of civilisation. Influ- nation, if there arose a spirit strong ences have pervaded Spain that must enough to touch them again, and to rouse bring about her regeneration; she cannot in the people the lost pride and patriotgo on in the ignorance and the supersti- ism that are developed strikingly in partion that she has done, and the light that ticular characters, but fail in the national is breaking in on her, whether from whole. France or England, must dissipate the

CRITICAL SKETCHES

OF RECENT CONTINENTAL PUBLICATIONS.

ART. IX.-Tavole Cronologiche e Sincrone questo magistrato fu mutato in quello di Priori della Storia Fiorentina, compilate da Alfredo Reumont. Florence, Vieusseux. 1841.

We have to acknowledge the receipt of many valuable works by a recent consignment from the house of Messrs. Vieusseux, and amid the many of which we shall furnish notices the present is not among the least interesting. Its value to the Florentine student (and who is not a Florentine student that merits the name of student?) from its synchronizing history, and enabling him to put his hand instantaneously on the portion of information required, is immense. In the learned introduction the patriotic name of Count Litta receives most honourable mention; a writer who has recently been reviewed in this Journal, and on whom we have prepared a second paper, to bring down his illustrious work, in its present state of advancement, to the notice of our readers. The Medici also maintain in the introduction their inseparable connection | with all that graced and dignified Florence; we have a valuable table of the principal authorities of that city, the character of their functions, institutions, duration, &c. The Gonfalonieri follow in chronological arrangement; and the rise of the Signoria is briefly and clearly described in the following extract:

"Signoria. Quel magistrato il quale ottenne in Firenze una stabilità che in certo modo può recar maraviglia, portò il nome di Priori delle Arti (vedi 1282.) Venne creato dai popolani, quando questi ebbero ottenuto forma e forza politica coll' istituzione delle Compagnie del popolo, alla quale seguì poi quella delle Arti; talche infine poterono pensare a togliere il gov. erno della città ai nobili, le cui fazioni s' indebolivano sempre più nelle loro gare. Tre arti delle piu potenti, quelle di Calimala, del Cambio e della Lana, furono le prime ad accordarsi per eleggere 3 Priori. Poi, prendendo a ciò parte alcune altre, il numero ne fu accresciuto a 6, il che faceva uno per ogni sestiere; in appresso a 12, ovvero due per sestiere. Qualche volta ve n' erano anche 14; ridotti però di nuovo a 12 subito dopo la cacciata del Duca d'Atene, quando i Grandi parteciparono al governo; e tinalmente, dopo la caduta di questi, stabilmente ristretti a soli 8, cioè 2 per ciascun quartiere. Troviamo anche 8 priori col gonfaloniere di giustizia incluso; com nel 1343. Il nome di

della libertà nel 1458. Per essere eligibile a priorato, bisognava avere anni 30 compiti e trovarsi ascritto ad una delle Arti: e siccome i nobili, a fine di partecipare ai magistrati, adempivano questa formalità senza poi fare verun' altra cosa, Giano della Bella, mediante la sua mutazione (v. 1293, e Introd. p. 12), procurò di escluderli interamente, ampliando codesta condizione fino a ricercarsi l'esercizio effettivo, e non solamente l'esser descritto alla matricola di un'Arte. Nell' istessa mutazione venne aggiunto ai priori il Gonfaloniere di giustizia, il quale era allora specialmente incaricato di vegli are sull' esecuzione degli ordini di guistizia fatti da quell' istesso Giano della Bella (vedi Esecutore.) Il gonfalone de lpopolo, fatto di zendado colla croce vermiglia in campo bianco, veniva sempre custodito nelle camere del Gonfaloniere, ed esponevasi al pubblico sol quando questi voleva intorno a se radunare il popolo stesso. Col progredir del tempo, codesto uffizio fu riguardato come la suprema dignità della repubblica."

The Pedigree of the Medici, Albizzi, Strozzi, follows. The work then divides into eras:1st. From the foundation of Florence to the battle of Campaldino, 1290. 2d. From the government of the Guelphs to the exile of the Duke of Athens, 1291-1343. 3d. From the fall of the nobles to the tumults of the populace (Ciompi), 1344-1378. 4. From the contest between the new nobility and the people to the return of Cosmo de' Medici from exile, 1379-1434. 5. From the rise of the Medici to the fall of the Republic, 1531-2. 6. The Principality. 1st. Medicean dynasty, 1532-1737. 2d. Lotharingian-Austrian dynasty, 1737-1840. A copious index, that most valuable appendage, but sadly omitted by English writers, follows. The Thu cydides of Dr. Arnold, for example, is rendered nearly useless to the student by this omission. We shall now indicate our author's plan, which is both systematic and elegant. Each page, with its corresponding opposite one, is divided into six heads:-1. Imperatori: 2. Papi; 3. Storia Politica; 4. Storia Letteraria; 5. Storia Artistica; 6. Avvenimenti Contemporanei.

We collect from a page that we have opened accidentally, the following illustration of the treatment of the subject, under the several heads, for the year 1543.

IMPERATORI.
1.

Emperor Maximilian.

PAPI.
2.

cana.

STORIA POLITICA.

3.

Pope Pius IV., 3d and 4th December. Il Concilio di Trento concluso colla xxv Bianca Cappello VeneSeduta. ziana arriva in Firenze. Papa Pio IV. confermò il Concilio e i suoi Scorrerie dei pirati Algedecreti mediante bolla del dì 27 Genn. 1564. rini sulle coste della TosGli atti furono sottoscritti da 255 Padri tra i quali 4 Legati, 2 Cardinali, 3 Patriarchi, e 25 Vescovi. (Il Concilio Tridentino venne accettato in quasi tutta l' Italia, nell' Impero, nella Polonia e nel Portogallo, senza restrizione; nella Monarchia Spagnuola, con riserva dei diritti della corona. In Francia il Concilio non fu mai formalmente pubblicato.)

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La storia del Concilio di Muore Francesco Salviati, 4. (Decembre), Il Concilio di Trento fu scritta dal Sarpi v. pittore Fiorentino. Il palazzo Trento concluso dopo venticin1552, dal Pallavicini v. 1607, e dell' Escuriale presso Madrid que sedute generali. Revisione da molti autori moderni; ultim- cominciato. amente poi da J. H. de We berg, insieme colla storia dei Concilj di Costanza e di Basilea (1840.)

essen

The history of Italy being nearly an artistic history, we warn our readers that the fifth column often reads to a page beyond the others. Neither must they imagine that contemporaneous art is at all neglected, as the brief notice of the Escurial in the above article clearly evinces. As a catalogue of art it is of great value: take the following notices, however brief, of Marc Antonio and Sebastian del Piombo.

del dogma, riforma delle pratiche e della disciplina. La congregazione per la spiegazione dei decreti del Concilio fu istituita nel 1588.

vanquish Raphael. We here close our notice of Signor Reumont's work, of which, were the merits fully known, the sale in England would undoubtedly be large, since it is an excellent book of reference.

ART. X.-Curiosités et Anecdotes Italiennes, par M. Valery. London, Tilt & Bogue, 1842.

mindedness of the author rather add to its charm.
The following anecdote, which has evidently
even the author's credence, appears highly
amusing as well as characteristic.
It only
furnishes fresh argument in our notion for the
abolishment of the confessional, of which Passa-
vanti, who tells the anecdote, admitted that it
led to numerous evils, and it furnishes a very
clear corollary to the assertions of Maria Monk
as to the very peculiar categories put to young
women in the Roman Catholic confessional.

"1527. Marcantonio Raimondi, bolognese, celeberrimo incisore, parte da Roma dopo il sacco, e va a Bologna, dove credesi ch' egli THIS Book of Anecdotes is extremely well passasse il resto dei suoi giorni. Nacque verso arranged to afford both amusement and informail 1488, e più non viveva nel 1534. Studiò sottotion, and the simple character and naturalil Francia Bolognese; poi si trasferì a Venezia, e si perfezionò nel disegno in Roma sotto la direzione di Raffaello. La prima sua stampa che porti data, e del 1505. Le più belle tra le molte sue opere, sono quelle ch' egli fece sui disegni di Raffaello; nelle quali si ammireranno mai sempre la grazia, l'espressione, la correzione del disegno, l'ottimo gusto e la delicatezza del Bulino. Tra i suoi scolari ed imitatori si distinsero i seguenti: Agostino Veneziano," &c. A list of this distinguished engraver's pupils follows; and it may probably be interesting to some of our readers to be informed that the very finest specimens of this master are in the printroom of the British Museum, though the fact was probably not known by Signor Reumont.

The notice we extract on Sebastian del Piombo, is merely with the intention of indicating the care that has been taken of the artistic portion.

"1546. Muore Sebastiano del Piombo (Luciano,) pittore Veneziano. Cristo che porta la croce, nella Galleria Corsini; Cristo flagellato, in San Pietro in Montorio a Roma; Lazzaro risuscitato, a Londra."

In the last noticed picture in our National Gallery, Michael Angelo is reported to have drawn that wonderful figure, the Lazarus, himself, when he felt anxious that Sebastian might

"At Cologne a young girl named Beatrice was placed in a monastery by her parents. There she grew up in monastic innocency until one day a priest asked her, in the confessional, whether she had ever sinned carnally. To this she of course replied no. 'Are you then a virgin?' was the next question. To which she replied that she had never been approached by a man. To this the priest replied, A woman can sin without a man, and lose her virginity.' On this point she demanded explanations which, when given, excited on her part such an insatiable curiosity, that she became discontent with the monastery and left the walls, and plunged into a worldly course of sin. Before quitting, however, she took the keys of the sacristy, flung herself before the altar of the Virgin, and, addressing the image of the Madon

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