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through the energetic efforts of the Arch-latter, after having persevered in his Duke. This committee elected as its pre- onerous task until the interior economy sident the Chancellor, Count Joseph Té- of the institution was sufficiently perfected léki, the head of the protestant party in to render the office a mere matter of Hungary, a man as estimable in private technical routine, felt himself compelled life as he is able and earnest in public af- to resign it, from its interference, not only fairs; beloved as a landholder, and ho- with his literary pursuits, but also with noured as a citizen; whose eligibility for the duties of the high and honourable the distinguished position to which he has post which he holds under the governbeen called by his literary countrymen is ment. moreover attested by the reputation of one of his ancestors, alike for learning and for liberality, whose munificent bequest to the town of Maros Vasárhely in Transylvania is thus mentioned by Mr. Paget:

is most rich in choice editions of the Latin and

Learned societies, if we except that founded in 1497 by Conrad Celtes, called indifferently the "Danubian Society," and the "Celtic Institute," had never hitherto succeeded in Hungary, however great had been the struggles of their most learned men to promote their interests; but that which held its first meeting in February, 1831, in the city of Pesth, has already accomplished much towards the advancement of the national literature.

"The great pride of the town is the fine library of the Telekis, founded by the Chancellor Teleki, and left to his family on the condition of its being always open to the public. It contains about 80,000 volumes, which are placed in a very handsome building, and kept in exThere still remains, however, one great cellent order. A reading-room is attached, and important phase of the question of which is always open, where books are sup- Magyar literary progression, upon which plied to any one who demands them. There we have not yet touched, because we are funds for its support, and the family still were unwilling to interrupt the current continue to add to it as far as they are able. It of its purely national vicissitudes; but Greek classics. These works were the favour- which must nevertheless not be passed ite studies of the chancellor himself, who was over without comment. We allude to a man of very extensive learning. What ren- the discouraging influence of the Slavoders this the more remarkable is, the fact of his nic colonies in Hungary. having entirely acquired it after the age of The mixed population of the Magyar twenty, that too, during the little leisure afford- nation, collected together by national ed him from public business. Among the bibliographical curiosities pointed out to us was an convulsion and external policy, would of illuminated Latin Bible, which was said to be itself have been a serious impediment to written on a vegetable leaf. The substance the advance of purely Hungarian literaemployed was certainly not papyrus; I should ture, even had each distinct community have taken it for very fine vellum. There was been left to operate alone on the legitialso a manuscript copy of a work by Servetus, mate language; but such was far from which we were told was unpublished, though, being the case, Austria on the one hand on turning over the fly-leaf, we found a quotation from an edition of the same work printed seeking to naturalize her own German in London. There was a beautiful manuscript dialect, and Russia on the other sparing of Tacitus, from the library of Matthias Corvi- neither gold nor pains to ingraft the Slanus, and splendidly bound, as indeed the whole vonic tongue and the Slavonic spirit on of that library was.' the Hungarian stock; while in Upper Hungary, in the private circles of the noAfter this long parenthesis we return ble Slavonic Hungarians, their priests and to the academy, which elected as its vice- preachers introduced the dialect of the president Count Stephen Széchenyi, whose country in which they had studied. And name is too familiar to every one convers in these different colonies (for so they ant with his nation to need further men- may in truth be called) were reared priests, tion here; while M. Gabriel de Döbrentei, physicians, lawyers, and other young well known by his valuable contributions men of education, who devoted themto the national literature, and deservedly selves with avidity to German literature, esteemed for his moral worth and sincere mistaking affinity for originality. The patriotism, was unanimously chosen as minor tribes of Swabians, Illyrians, Bosecretary. The two first-named gentle-hemians, Wallachians, Croatians, Greeks, men have been re-elected from year to Frenchmen, and Italians, were easily set year, and still continue to act; but the aside by the haughty lords of the soil, who were resolved to keep by the strong hand what they had won by the sword;

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A former Chancellor,

were, moreover, trammelled and thwarted by their involved and vacillating political position, and the under-current of an adverse and powerful interest, which had existed from year to year, and settled itself, like an incubus, upon the genius of the country.

for none of these settlers were supported Here again, then, we perceive a formidby external influence, nor were they suf- able barrier to the mental progression of ficiently numerous to render them influ- the Hungarians; who were not only left ential either upon the moral or intellec- to fight their battle totally unassisted, but tual state of the Magyars. But it was far otherwise with the Germans and the Slavonians; German princes had aided Hungary in her wars; and after the battle of Mohács, she received an Austrian emperor as her king, who naturally sought to make her more thoroughly dependent by grafting her upon his more legitimate posses- Surely, after all these circumstances sions; an experiment which failed, as we have been fairly considered, the wonder have already stated, through its awaken- will not be that Hungary should now aping the spirit of a brave and free people, pear so backward in science and belles. who, long accustomed to the sway of their lettres; but rather that she should have own monarch, and the exercise of their possessed sufficient moral energy to preown privileges, were ready to peril every-serve her national idiom unforgotten thing in order to retain the little liberty among so many difficulties and diswhich an adverse and resistless fate had couragements; and that, after a fierce left to them. and resolute struggle to restore its use in In the case of the Slavonians, their po- the legislative assemblies, and on all sition was different under every phase. other occasions of public ceremony, bright The Germans had come into their country spirits should have once more started into as traders and as allies; somewhat dis- life, giving evidence of the vigour and posed to encroach, perhaps, in each capa- beauty of the language for which they so city, but nevertheless honest, straight- boldly and successfully contended. We forward, and truthful; while they had have carefully avoided indulging in dethemselves wrested Hungary from the tails, which, while they would have ena. Slavonic tribes, and driven them to the bled us to explain more fully the former frontiers of Austria, Poland, and Moravia, state of Hungary, would have done nothing where they were permitted to settle as a towards an exposition of the vicissitudes conquered colony, for whom the Magyars of her literary interests, and the preserentertained so sovereign a contempt that vation and encouragement of her idiom; they never could be induced to pollute nor shall we, on this occasion, further foltheir lips with their language; a disdain low up the subject than to animadvert on which the vanquished people returned the neglect which has been visited upon tenfold; coupled with the hatred which a Magyar literature by England; and which worsted nation will ever feel towards its has arisen from no want of merit in those conquerors, so long as it continues una- who are its representatives; but may venged. And thus they, in their turn, more fairly be attributed to the difficulties would acquire no more of the Magyar of a language, which, copious and harmodialect than was absolutely essential to nious as it is, will nevertheless ever contheir comfort, and almost to their exist- tinue to be unattainable by the mass, who ence. The same virulent feeling has can consequently only hope to become endured to the present day; and the familiar with its beauties through the meSlavonic-Hungarian approximation pro. dium of translation. gresses the more slowly that the political interests, the religious belief, and the moral position of the two people are diametrically opposed. Unlike the Hungarians, who are a distinct and condensed

mental. Bossange & Lowell, London, 1842.

nation, the Slavonians are linked on all ART. VIII.-L'Espana Artistica y Monusides to their countless tribes in other lands; and, although they are greatly inferior in intellect to the Magyar population, their literature is supported by the THE magnificent work before us, which decided and undisguised patronage of contains some most exquisite Spanish Russia, which is extended to every writer who repays her favour by advocating her institutions and policy.

views, is, we say it with pleasure, from the designs of Spanish artists who have taken it up with the laudable intention of

media." We perfectly agree in the notion of the artists of mainly devoting themselves to this period, but surely a work of the splendid character of that before us might be anticipated to go a little deeper into time, but this question they have despatched in four lines. "To busy ourselves with Iberian, Celtic, or Phænician monuments, to plunge into the void of conjectures, were to expose ourselves to innumerable errors, and finally simply to write for half-a-dozen devoted amateurs to archæological pursuits." Without being thus dévoué, some notice of these matters, as well as of Roman remains, and the indication of a Greek or Egyptian connection with Spain, might have aided somewhat scientific insight into the past, and us. was in the fair compass of the work before The illustrators confine their powers in, the work before us from this fixed plan to three classes of monuments-those constructed under the dominion of the Goths, others of the æra of the restoration, and lastly those erected during the restored sovereignty. The following are the several great periods of which the authors avail themselves. 1st, The edifices constructed up to the eleventh century, rude relics of Roman art blended with the northern barbarian's rough execution, which of course possess neither style nor originality. 2d. The Byzantine, or primitive Gothic. 3d. The Gothic. 4th. Mixed style, Moorish and Gothic.

indicating the state of Spain as to her markably singular manner, for the artists architecture, habits, customs, manners, of Andalusia made no scruple of passing warfare, in all periods of her empire. The into Castile, and there aided in the conartists at least evince that however low struction of churches while their brethren the strain of the land may be at present were fighting against the faith of the worcompared with the days of Cortez and shippers. It was only in the eleventh cenPizarro, still the wild witchery of her tury that the Christians began to gain scenery is not lost, but appreciated by strength against their oppressors, and it them as it deserves, and transmitted for was not until the reign of Ferdinand and the admiration of other nations both as to Isabella that their resources in art and the scenery itself and its wonderfully ef- arms assumed a fixed position. This pefective delineation in their hands. Al-riod our authors class by the term "edad though the letter-press by no means equals in description the beautiful sketches before us, which exceed really the best that Roberts has yet given, and which have raised lithography even beyond what one of the most distinguished in that art considered practicable, we shall yet review it, recommending our readers to compensate themselves for the dulness of the letter-press by consulting the drawings themselves. The work is in Spanish and French, and the whole conduct, both of the letterpress and drawings, of Spanish execution. It is dedicated, and justly, to that munificent patron of arts, Don Gaspar Remisa. It opens with an introductory essay on the first inhabitants of Spain, on which subject the writers have added nothing to existing information. We doubt, for example, excessively, in the absence of all inscriptions, the fact that the walls at Tarragona exhibit traces of the Phoenician, the Carthaginian, the Roman, and the Arab. Rude stages of building by no means always evidence antiquity. Many works in Spain have been thrown up so rapidly that inferences of this character lead to dangerous conclusions. On the fall of the Roman empire the Christian religion penetrated Spain; it brought with it, when the Gothic king Recaredo renounced Arianism, an architecture suited to religious purposes, but not the Saxon, which began to prevail in Europe during that period. From the three hundred years that followed from this reign, that is, from the conquest by the Goths to the rangement, we proceed to one of the indicated these heads of arcommencement of the eighth century, war noblest structures reviewed in this magnifor a long period prevented any develop-ficent work-the Cathedral of Toledo. ment of art, but the same cause also en- The foundation of this glorious structure riched, for the Arab brought with him the is about the year 525. Ricaredo, the 6th full charm of his own gorgeous edifices, Gothic king, was its founder; when reand combined them with the existing state nouncing Arianism he entered into cathoof art; the results of which are a most lic communion. An inscription which was elaborate style of architecture and deco- dug up in laying the foundation of the conration perfectly unmatched in any coun- vent San Juan de la Penitencia" contry, however open to critical objections. firmed this tradition. The ancient strucThis Moorish union with the Gothic was ture on which the present is erected was accomplished in its early stages in a re-destroyed in great part by the Arabs, and

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We must here give the worthy editors of this work a hint, that in the treatment of one subject before them, the Viaticum at Seville, they have inserted two or three pages embracing a homily of no small length on the subject of the merits of the Roman Catholic religion. It damages the high character of the work and must hurt its general sale, to find these little sermons on controverted points peeping out of many and many a page, lugged in by the ears and not in the fair path of a treatise on architecture, or painting, or design.

its ruins were formed into a mosque; but it receives the appellation of " llamaba the present noble edifice, which was 232 de los linages." years in building, was begun by Ferdinand, the conqueror of Seville, in 1258, and completed by Isabella in 1492. Its grand chapel is perhaps the most gorgeous structure in the world. The magnificent tomb of Cardinal Mendoza is well known, with its laboured and richly-wrought devices, more resembling chasing than carving, so minute is the execution. The plate of the transparent altar in this cathedral is one of the most exquisite in the book, though the period of its erection is not remarkable for very chaste design. In figuring the Castilian monuments which contain various groups, the writers have considered it requisite to allude to the uniformity of the manteau costume in that


"La capa dice un Castellano abriga in invierno, y preserva en verano del ardor de del sol; asi, se envuelve en ella en Diciembre, y se ahoga en sus plieques en Julio. La capa lo encubre todo; y por eso cuida poco del resto de sus ropos. Con la capa no hay que temer nada, ni inclemencias del cielo ni durezas de la tierra; y en efecto la capa le sirve de abrigo y lecho. Presentarse sin capa es desautirizar la persona, y en consecuencia ne se va al ayuntamiento, nise acompana procession, ni se casa hija, ni se visita a superior sino con la capa puesta."

To imagine Protestantism inimical to the progress of art, or to put down all those splendid buildings necessary to the influence of the Roman Catholic religion, is equally absurd. Protestantism is as favourable to art in its place as Roman Catholicism. St. Paul's cathedral is the second cathedral in the world, and is a Protestant building, and a building which may naturally be regarded by Protestants, however inferior to St. Peter's, as not constructed by the humiliating process of the soul-damning indulgences of Tetzel, or, in plain English, built up by direct permission to Roman Catholics on the part of Christ's vicar to sin as long as they pleased, and as much as they pleas The view of the cathedral of San Isidro ed, provided that they contributed to at Madrid is as successful in the lithograph build Pope Leo's fine cathedral. This as that of Toledo, but rather out of per- is an association of ideas that is rather spective. Villareal, though a pupil of subtractive even from our admiration of Velazques, was a poor architect, and this that beautiful structure; and unquestionachapel is not of a high character, though bly protestant rejection of the image of its ensemble is very imposing. The fête the Deity over her altars is a chastening of San Isidro is also given with the happy of art by confining it to representable groups attending it; but though the gene- subjects. Who feels other than shocked ral effect of the grouping of modern Spanish artists is not disagreeable, their groups, though elegant, seem to have no centre, and the eye runs over them without remarking any very particular traces of individual character, or carrying away any other idea than of a number of people who drop into a variety of elegant groups, but without attracting attention to

any one.

at the sublime picture even by Michael Angelo of the Deity in the process of creating? To exhibit God as an aged man, to show the Untouched by time as exhibiting its ravages, to attempt to fig ure the Invisible Excellence is as blasphemous in intention as it is absurd to attempt in realization. We doubt much the effect of any of these representations of the Deity, and so far from touching us The court of the palace of the Dukes with awe, they invariably create disgust. del Infantado in Guadalajara is admirably The exquisite Ecce Homo, the Madre given, and might well attract the admira- Dolorosa, convey only images of pained tion of Francis I. This was the birth- mortality; the Virgin, even in Raphael, place of the famous Cardinal Mendoza, in the Madonna della Seggiola, gives us and here he died. The Moorish Gothic which is apparent throughout is inexpressibly light and beautiful. The armorial bearings of this celebrated saloon contain three of the noblest families of Spain, and

no devout idea, the picture is simply a Roman lady and her child. Painting requires greater truth and expression than anything yet essayed in the art, to form a valuable combination in protestant

places of worship. St. Johns grown to manhood, while the Jesus is yet an infant; the combinations of Dutch burgomasters with Roman subjects, the monstrous violation of all keeping of time, place, and costume-these things, which are perpetrated by all the greatest masters, would ill suit the rigid character of protestant truth and civilized taste.

energy and exertion in Andalusia. His style of treating this question is highly amusing.

"Gibraltar, in the power of the English, is not only a shame to the Spanish monarchy, and that there is between us who call ourselves the a proof by no means equivocal of the difference civilized, and these pretended barbarians, (Spain must have a vision vastly resembling the head of the celestial empire's if she entertain that notion now,) since we have warred on them for seven centuries and yet cannot recover the lost independence of Guadalete; it is a vehicle of immorality, an obstacle to the development of tobacco, cotton, stuffs, porcelain, &c., is a marAndalusian industry. Gibraltar, the depot of ket incessantly open to fraud. It is an asylum for all sorts of criminals. On our side a commercial legislature, ill conceived and worse observed, only opposes a feeble barrier to smuggling, and, if popular reports speak the truth, pression is not a little questionable. The nathe morality of the agents charged with its suptural laziness and taste for tobacco on the part of the men, and dress on that of the women, and the general inclination to buy everything at the smallest price, are more than sufficient to explain that madness that converts the Andalusian mountaineers into hordes of smugglers."

Up to this point we have simply considered Spain in her Christian and Moorish buildings, but in Toledo we have buildings that are neither-synagogues. The conquest of Toledo by the Arabs is said to have been owing to Jewish treachery. At the end of the ninth, or before the tenth century, the Jews of Toledo were numerous and rich, and they were then enabled to construct that building which now goes by the name of Santa Maria la Blanca. They inhabited distinct quarters from the rest of the population, and formed a rich city encased in the city itself. When the town was retaken by the Christians, they became alternately proscribed or tolerated. Alfonso el Sabio found their knowledge of great use to him in the construction of chronological tables. One of their body was treasurer to Pedro el Cru- by the Andalusian from the proximity of A very different lesson might be drawn el-Samuel Levi. With royal patronage, Gibraltar, but Spain cannot yet understand and under the direction of the Rabbin it. The fearful analogy between the banMeir-Aben-Aldebi, he constructed the dits of the Andalusian mountains and those synagogue. The catholic kings expelling of Italy, the mingled union of murder, masthe Jews from Spain in 1494, the syna- sacre, and masses, that prevail in both gogue fell to the order of Calatrava. Its countries, the ex voto offerings to Mary popular name is Transito, from an image by these Gibraltar martyrs of Andalusia, of the Virgin which is represented in the act of passing from earth to heaven. Few pillaging and praying by turns, prove that monuments of antiquity at Toledo are all evil, and even yet to be dominant in wretched priesthood to be at the root of more surpassingly beautiful in rich trace the wild passes where neither the influry and elaborate ornaments than the Sinagoga Mayor de Toledo; but the mas- civilized or humanized, has yet reached. ence of Gibraltar, nor of anything else sive character of the Primera Sinagoga is Their creed is their curse, for in its fatal amazingly imposing from its primitive laxity and absolution clauses, they shield and simple style. Toledo is a great fa- themselves from the task of accountable vourite with our artists, and they have and responsible agents. also given us, though it is not of very high merit, "the Puerta Nueva del Claustro." The next to this is a robber scene in Andalusia, which country is rather famous for these troublesome people. We cannot compliment the artist on the power of his pencil; the group is, like all the other plates with figures, without any par: ticular character in the design. We should never have been enabled to guess the story unless robberies, from their frequency in Spain, became such every-day matters as to excite neither surprise, apprehension, nor alarm. Our author consid

ers Gibraltar as the cause of the want of



de San Juan de los Reyes," a noble structure, and nobly given, though not equal to many of the designs in conveying a fair This convent was founded by Ferdinand representation of the exquisite interior. and Isabella in 1477, to commemorate a series of triumphs obtained over the King of Portugal. It is in the best period of the Gothic in Spain. It has suf fered severe injury during the late wars. The cloister side, given in our plates, is one of the most beautiful specimens of the Spain. It has warmed our Spanish brethflorid style which can now be seen in

to the "Claustro del Convento

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