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THE Publishers, in announcing a change in the Editorship of the FOREIGN QUARTERLY REVIEW, invite attention to some features in the present Number, the object of which has been to realize, more completely than heretofore, advantages originally proposed by the establishment of this Journal.

Very great improvements, which the well-informed reader will not be slow to recognize, have been effected in all its departments. In aid of its general management extensive Correspondences have been opened with Men of Letters on the Continent. The scope of the Review has at the same time been so far enlarged as to admit of the notice of all works, including such as may be issued in our own Country, which come within a circle of relationship to its main purpose and design. Discussion of English Books on matters of Foreign concern, will no longer be excluded from the FOREIGN QUARTERLY; and subjects of Classical Scholarship, important alike to every country,

will receive more careful attention.

But the chief endeavour in the new management of the Review will be to give an English interest to its treatment of general Foreign Literature; and, on every possible occasion, to introduce into its pages that popular character, wherein, notwithstanding high literary claims and acknowledged services since the period of its establishment the FOREIGN QUARTERLY REVIEW has been always felt to be defective.




FOR APRIL, 1842.

ART. I.-1. Die Serbische Revolution; effects of man's fall appear nowhere written aus Serbischen Papieren und Mittheilun- in such palpable characters as in the region. gen von LEOPOLD RANKE. Mit einer which served as the cradle of his race, and

Charte von Serbien. (Servian Revolution, from Servian Documents, and Personal Communications by L. RANKE.) Hamburgh. 1829.

2. Servian Popular Poetry.


by JOHN BOWRING. London. 1827.

THE saying of Schiller, that the world's history is the world's judgment (die Weltgeschichte ist das Weltgericht), has no other meaning than this, that nations, like individuals, are to be considered as the authors of their own fortune, and should be judged not according to that which they might be, but solely by their actions. The sum total of the actions, or the history of a nation, or of an entire race, alone can show what that nation really is. Now, applying this stand ard to the races of Asia, the inferiority of these in all ages to those of Europe is fully evident from their inability to raise any durable structure of state; and frequent instances are not wanting amongst them of empires starting up and attaining to their highest pitch of greatness during the short period of a few generations, perhaps even of only one. Their sole manifestation of social energy appears to be a mere wild tempestuous roaring, and their firebrands of war which glare for a while in the horizon vanish in flame and smoke, and leave no trace behind. The cause of this phenomenon is, no doubt, that the spiritual life being confined to the surface of society, in pacific times never fails to shrink within itself, and to become as it were ossified in the vital functions. The

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the primeval curse still lies heavy there where its consequences have not yet been annulled by Christianity. That the inferiority of the Asiatic races is owing to this cause, the coldest unbeliever may be convinced, by comparing the two choicest Asiatic nations, the Arabs and the Turks, followers of Islamism, with the European races,the Germans and the Slavonians, who, in common with them, divided the ancient empire of the Romans.

The western part of the Roman empire fell to the share of the nations of the German race, the eastern to the Slavonian tribes, whilst all the Roman possessions in Africa and Asia were conquered by the Arabs. At one period certainly the Arabs crossed over to Europe and established their dominions in Spain, Italy, and Sicily, threatening even France with a similar fate. Not only, however, were the Arabs soon driven out of Europe, but the Latins advanced into the heart of Syria, and whilst the former sunk in consequence into a state of comparative nullity, the energies of the Christian nations were proportionally aroused, and the subsequent wonders of civilisation were the result. The predominance of the Christians was owing to the absolute superiority of the spiritual principle of their religion over that of Islamism, and it was to this that not only the followers of the latter succumbed, but also the ancient Romans; for, in all times, it has ever been the comparative superiority of the spiritual principle which gave to one nation power over another.


Duszan's death.


Czarat (empire) passed then, as they say, over to the Turks. The cause of the Slavonians and of Christendom against the Turks was taken up by another Slavonian nationthe Poles-who, after long wars, finally, under their king John Sobieski, inflicted on the Turks a decisive blow, from which these latter never recovered. Lastly, a third Slavonian power-Russia-seems disposed to act in this affair the part of the ass to the dying lion; but Europe wisely interfered, for the Turks of the present day, as will subsequently appear, are mostly Europeans. Setting aside, however, such considerations, we here again witness the triumph of Europe over Asia, and of Christianity over Islamism. This triumph we shall once more behold even in the case of the apparently forlorn Servians, who, by their defeat at Kossowo, all fell more or less into a state of barbarism and slavery.

The Slavonians attempted, like the Ger-three years after mans in the west, to achieve the same complete revolution in the eastern part of the Roman empire in Europe, but were not so rapid in their progress. Their invasions began in the sixth century; and in the tenth, the greater part of the Byzantine empire, as Epirus, Macedonia, and Hellas, were occupied by them; and we have on record not only the complaints of Constantine Porphyrogenitus that all Peloponnesus was Slavonised, but those also of the commentators upon the ancient geographers that classical names were no longer to be met with. To this circumstance the modern Greek language, which more resembles the Slavonic than its ancient prototype, owes its origin. The Emperor Justinian was a Slavonian by birth, as were also many distinguished generals and statesmen of the Byzantine empire.* That the Slavonians did not effect a complete revolution there, was owing to their inability conquer the entire country. This inabili- In Bosnia Proper, the nobles, with some ty again arose from the character of their few exceptions, embraced Islamism, though immigration, which was only partial and ages elapsed before the completion of their never at any time general, for the Slavonians apostacy. Still they have preserved their constantly attempted to establish peaceable nationality entire, not one of them in a colonies rather than to make extensive conthousand, for instance, speaking the Turkish quests. For a considerable time they were language. Some distinguished families yet either tributary vassals to the Greek emper- flourish as in the time of their ancient indeors, or received in their turn a tribute for the pendence, and that of Sokolowitch boasts of assistance they afforded to them in time of having given grand viziers to the three sultans, war. Amongst these Slavonians the Servians Soliman I, Selim II., and Murad III., mainwere the most powerful, and it seemed in taining nevertheless a very independent posithe fourteenth century that they would be- tion. The capital of Bosnia, Seraiewo, is a come masters of Constantinople under their kind of oligarchical republic.* king Stephen Duszan, who called himself In the part of Bosnia called Herzegowina, king and emperor, and bore in his coat-of- some of the ancient Boyars, though they rearms a double-headed eagle. His lieutenants mained faithful to the religion of their ances ruled Ætolia and Macedonia, and the Byzan- tors, maintained themselves in the possession tine writers used to compare him either to of their rights by means of privileges (berates) an all-devouring fire, or to a far and wide wrung from the Turks. Under the protecoverflowing torrent-both irresistible powers tion of the Boyars, the people live far from of nature. He was preparing in 1396, at the dominant nation, tending their flocks, and the head of eighty thousand armed men, to always wearing arms. In a similar manner strike a last blow against the Greeks, when were governed, until lately, Kraina and Klihe died suddenly, and thus a different fate utch; the first by temporary Knese (princes) was prepared for the Servians. In the same appointed by the Porte; and the second, by year the Turks acquired their first firm foot- hereditary Knese, called Karapantchitch. ing in Europe by the capture of Tzympi, The tribes of Montenegro(Czernogorcy) have from which epoch the Turkish historians made themselves almost wholly independent. date their settlement in Europe, omitting Forgetting the rest of the world, and obeying previous conquests. The Servians divided no laws save the ancient customs of their foreby domestic factions during the minority of fathers, they either acknowledge the authorDuszan's successor, were unable to resist the ascending power of the Turks, by whom they were completely defeated at Kossowo, thirty

This subject has been more extensively treated in the Article on Slavonian Antiquities, to which we must refer our readers.

+ Nicephorus Gregoras, IV. I.

ity of a chief descended from the family of Radowitch, or of the Wladika, that is, their bishop, according as the personal influence of either severally prevailed.

Many Servians, flying from Turkish op

• La Bosnie, par Pertusier. Paris. 1822.

pression, took refuge in Austria, where they of the "History of the Popes," for valuable have made productive tracts of land which details concerning Servia, which he has colbefore were mere deserts; such as the dis- lected on the spot, and given to the world in tricts of Warasdin and Karlstadt, as also the the work first mentioned at the head of this morasses formed by the inundations of Glogo- article. nitza; and have rendered besides good service In Servia Proper, ruled by the Pasha of to their adopted country against the Turks. Belgrad, there remained no nobility either They enjoy certain privileges, as those of Christian or Mahomedan, nor were any kind electing their archbishop in a general assem- of privileges enjoyed by any class of the bly, and sending representatives to the Hun- people, but the whole mass of population garian Diet, independently of their provin- was in a state of slavery, and all doomed cial Congress. It is these Servians who, alike to obey blindly their Turkish task-masunder the name of military colonists, protect ters. the entire frontiers of Austria on the side of Nevertheless, even a nation thus absolutely Turkey, cultivating land allotted to them, enslaved has a history of her own, though and obeying chiefs of their own nation. They this history may not consist in records of point with pride to some of their country- whatever ennobles man in the sight of heaven men who have been raised to the highest of- and earth,-in the achievements of heroism, fices of state in the Austrian empire. of civic virtue, genius, and talent. The hisAll these tribes, together with the Dalma- tory of every enslaved nation is of a quite tians and Morlacks, who once obeyed Venice, different tenour; its element is the fear of constitute only one people, having the same the master or lord, which fear, when it is ablanguage, customs, and manners, however solute, is the beginning of wisdom, but only they may otherwise differ by government and the beginning, and it only attains to the end religion,―amounting to about four millions of wisdom when the second element, an absoof population. Whilst some of them march lutely active service of the lord, is combined in the vanguard of Islamism, others watch the with it. frontiers of Christendom, and these again are divided by the religious rites of the Greek and Latin churches. Some are independent, others subject to foreign rule, while some remain almost in the state of nature; and fi. nally, while some live with their eyes fixed upon Mecca, others have of late begun to take an active part in the progress of European civilisation. With all these differences, the Ranke: ground of their life is one and the same.

When an enslaved nation unites these two elements in her life, she never fails to defeat the ends of her masters, or, as is said of tyranny, to be suicidal. Let us now see with what degree of fear the Turkish masters inspired the Servians, and how these latter served them. Their condition in the sixteenth century is thus described by Herr

"The Servians were under very servile subThe hardest lot was reserved for those who jection to their masters, with respect both to inhabit Servia Proper, or Serfwilaieti, subject their persons and their property. To the spahi to an immediate Turkish rule; and the num- belonged every tenth sheaf of their fields; to ber of these amounts to no more than eight the pasha every house was bound to furnish, at hundred thousand. It is of their condition Christmas, maize, barley, and oats; and to the sultan belonged the haradsch, or poll-tax, levied that we now intend to speak, not without at on all males. Yet even this was not deemed the same time casting a glance also at their sufficient, and the peasants were often brought songs, more celebrated than even their revo- even from Belgrad and Sinederewo, as far as lution in the present century; and we wish Constantinople, to make hay in the sultan's this article to be viewed as belonging to a meadows, where they were detained from their cycle of essays which have appeared from homes full two months. A certain number of the inhabitants of the villages were also obliged time to time in this journal on the subject of to labour for the pasha during a hundred days Slavonian history and literature, and written in harvest time. Another great hardship was, by Slavonians. We venture to hope that this that the spahi and janissaries were quartered in same Slavonian literature to which Goethe their villages, and exercised over them an immepaid so much attention, will, when better diate and despotic power. In addition to this, known in England, add a new phase to her there was the tribute of boys, which carried off literature, and at all events it will contribute from them, every five years, the flower of their to establish the conviction, that wherever man stant source of insecurity still remained, owing youth. For such even as escaped this, a conhas been placed, in all times and in all coun- to the Turkish robbers, mostly deserters from tries, he has ever raised his voice to join the the army, who dwelt in the land, and kidnapped universal chorus of praise to the Almighty the natives in order to sell them as slaves." Father. In the present instance we are in- pp. 11, 12. debted to Herr Ranke, the well-known author

Thus was it with the Servians in the days

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