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"The portrait of Thorwaldsen and the Bap tism of Christ are the two principal figures I painted in Italy. I also essayed painting in fres co. The subject of the picture I executed in this manner was Tobias restoring his father's sight. Besides several landscape studies, I brought back from Italy a great number of other compositions, of which I subsequently made an auto-da-fé.

the French, on the contrary, accused me of lean- I have postponed my visits to Italy six years lon ing to the German style: I was thus taken between two fires. Both were certainly right, but only to a certain extent. Under such critical auspices, it was difficult for me to take a determinate direction. My eyes and my hands were spell-bound to the influence of France; my heart and my intellect attracted me towards Germany. "In the month of March," continues Begas, "I carried to Berlin my picture of the Descent of the Holy Spirit. I journeyed by Strasbourg, "On my return to Berlin, in 1824, I married. Dc. Carlsruhe, Stuttgard and Nuremberg. I cannot mestic happiness, the arts, and six children living, define the emotions I felt in once more revisiting fine robust boys, lighten my present existence." Germany. The noble enthusiasm, which had raised my country as it were from the dead, actAfter enumerating the list of his works, ed on my whole being like a divine inspiration, the artist concludes this naif auto-biographiand invigorated me with a strength before un-cal sketch in the following characteristic known. The secret tendency, which even during my residence at Paris, drew me away from the manner :— French style, became a potent sentiment when I saw at Stuttgard the pictures of the old German masters in the collection of the MM. Boisserée. Soon after arriving at Berlin I painted a portrait which bore the stamp of this impression of mind. I also sketched a composition representing the baptism of Christ, which was subsequently painted en grand from another sketch

which I made at Rome.

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It was at this period that I became affianced, but before celebrating my marriage, I resolved to visit the classic land. Having obtained a pension from the king, I set off for Italy. Nothing less than the gratitude I felt for the royal bounty, and the hope of perfecting myself in my art, could have given me strength to separate myself from her who was to be my future companion on the journey of life. I travelled by Cologne to take leave of my parents, and was detained there some time in painting the portraits of the whole of my family. This picture, composed of nine figures, was painted under the influence of the sentiments and taste I had imbibed from the old German masters. I consider it the best which I had painted up to that time.

"In February, 1822, I at last set off for Italy, and visited Munich on the way. Cornelius had just finished the two frescoes of the Glyptotheck. On the road to Rome I saw the principal cities of Italy. The paintings in the chapel of Giotto at Padua acted in a powerful manner on my imagination on account of my then disposition; ten years later they would doubtless have given me pleasure, but in a manner less absolute. In these works I recognized the artist, who, with the simplest lines and little colouring, could impart a matchless force and vigour to the expressions of the figure and pose. The view of those frescoes completed that revolution in my taste which the collection Boisserée had begun, and determined a contrary tendency to that which I had imbibed from French models. Still I might, in the studies I pursued in Italy, have derived much advantage from the practical skill and savoirfaire I had brought with me from France. But my judgment was badly directed; instead of taining what might have been useful, I made tabula rasa both of my style of painting, and my French notions of art, and undertook a radical reform. I now think I should have done better to

VOL. XXVIII.

33

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to his own taste and his own good pleasure con"Every one will judge for himself, according but every one must also acknowledge that the cerning the merits of those various productions; judgment of contemporaries cannot be placed in the scale against that of posterity; and it must not be forgotten that I claim to be considered as a scholar of the great masters of the age of the Medicis. This sentiment preserves the freshness of youth in an artist, and is favourable to im

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Wach is an accomplished painter, formed by the assiduous study of the kindred sciences of perspective, anatomy, mythology, history and poetry. His mind is highly cultivated, and his sentiments delicate and noble. His sensibility contributes to aid his talent, and the application and care he bestows on his paintings have sometimes the character of tenacity, the traces of which are discernible in his works. desire of seizing and fixing an evanescent expression on its passage, of communicating a movement of physiognomy, a smile, a tender emotion, causes him sometimes to exaggerate the natural model in his living figures. In this respect he might seem to have taken a lesson from Leonardo da Vinci; but justice requires us to say that he is stimulated to this extreme application by the natural bent of his genius rather than by the imitation of any particular master.

After the continental peace Wach, who had previously studied in the academy of Berlin, proceeded to Paris, where he was admitted first into the atelier of David, and subsequently into that of Gros. After hav

In 1825 the corporation of the city of Berlin ordered from him a picture, to be presented to Princess Frederica of the Netherlands. It is now at Brussels, and represents the Virgin seated on a throne of marble, adorned with garlands of flowers, the infant Jesus sitting on her knees, and two angels standing on each side; the back-ground representing the sea, the foreground filled with cypresses and orangetrees. This is one of the best works of Wach, of which a copy by him, en petit, may be seen in the fine collection of Consul Wagner at Berlin.

ing passed two years at the French capital, | is remarkable for its elevated style and pure he went under the patronage of the king of and correct drawing. Prussia to Italy; and, after visiting Lom. bardy and Naples, proceeded to Rome, there to pursue his studies. In this capital of the Christian world and of the arts he found a cluster of artists, his countrymen, Cornelius, Overbeck, Veit, Schadow, Schnorr, Koch, the chiefs of the modern school of German art, united as a band of brothers. The tendency of their studies and labours had already been fully explained in the previous volumes, and is again dwelt upon in the present volume of Count Raczynski's work. The names of Wach and of Begas can never be separated from those of these distinguished painters. Caulbach and Lessing are found at the head of a new generation of artists.

"The peculiar genius of Wach," says Count Raczynski, "is best displayed in his symbolic compositions, his arabesques, and frontispieces Wach executed a great number of stu- consisting of allegories. I believe, indeed, that dies and cartons in Italy, and a suite of in this line no artist of the present day is supedrawings after the ancient school of Flo- rior to him in this sort of composition; they rence, tracing the history of the progress of manifest taste, majesty, a great richness of inpainting previous to Raphael. On his re-vention, and a genius full of nerve and originality. It is in this sphere that I could wish to see his turn to Berlin in 1819 he painted, by order talent exercised, and most certainly he would of the king, two great compositions for the produce in it works which would transmit to church of St. Peter and St. Paul at Moscow, posterity a reputation honourable to the artist representing the Crucifixion and the Last and to his country. Except, perhaps, in the Supper. In 1820 he painted the ceiling of Werdersche-Kirche, it seems to me that his cathe Schauspielhaus at Berlin with the figures pacities have not been put in requisition in a of the nine muses. He had previously ob- manner suitable to the peculiar nature of his tained permission to establish his atelier in talents. I could wish to see him give free reins to his imagination in one of the vast apartments a public building called the Lagerhaus, of the old palace, and combine allegorical subwhere the sculptor Rauch has also his stu-jects and arabesques with the architectural dio. Wach now opened his atelier to pupils desirous of receiving instruction in the theories and practice of the art of painting. Of this institution he says

"I had learned at Paris to estimate the advan

tages which young artists may derive from a well-directed course of instruction under a single master. I therefore determined so to arrange my atelier as to accommodate a certain number of pupils, and I had the pleasure to see thus formed the first school established in Prussia on the plan of those I had seen and frequented in France. The rooms were soon found too small to accommodate the whole number of pupils who sought admission, and I obtained from government the grant of an additional apartment."

Wach had thus the satisfaction of forming a vast number of young artists, who have since become distinguished by the public approbation, and have reflected the highest honour on their master.

This artist has painted a great number of fine portraits, historical pictures and religious subjects. His master-piece is the picture of the three theological virtues, to be seen in the Werdersche-Kirche at Berlin. It is twenty feet long and eight broad, and

forms which might serve as a frame-work to these productions of his pencil. One might, I think, designate by the epithet ornamental, that style which is most appropriate to his artistic genius."

We have not room to complete the catalogue of the most distinguished Berlin artists, historical, landscape, and genre. But we must not omit to mention Hensel, who also studied at Rome, where he copied the Transfiguration of Raphael, a fine picture in the size of the original, which may be seen in the chapel of Charlottenburg palace. He also painted there the Woman of Samaria, which would appear to better advantage in a church than in the gallery of the royal palace at Berlin, where it is confounded with a multitude of other pictures, in various styles, not harmonizing with the subject of this scripture-piece.

After his return to Berlin he married in 1829 Fräulein Mendelssohn, grand-daughter of the celebrated philosopher and sister of the great composer of that name. Madam Hensel is likewise distinguished for her musical talents, in the enjoyment of which the society of Berlin participates in the well-known matinées musicales at her house,

where the most eminent vocal performers, is passing by the streets and squares execute, under her direction and with her accompaniment, select morceaux from the compositions of her brother Mendelssohn, of Bach, Beethoven, Haydn, Gluck, &c. The most interesting of Hensel's works, Christ before Pilate, is an immense composition, embracing numerous figures of the size of life. It is placed in a very favourable light in the Garnison Kirche at Berlin. The colouring is vigorous, the ordonnance merits approbation; but some of the figures injure the general effect of the composition, such as those of Pilate and St. John, which produce a disagreeable impression. Still this picture has great merit in respect of drawing, colouring, and the expression to the figures, excepting those above mentioned. Hensel's albums are worthy the attention of connoisseurs, containing a suite of more than 400 portraits, full of life and expression, and drawn with much grace and facility. He also opens his atelier to pupils who wish to profit by his lessons, his paternal counsels, and his warm friendly protection.

Schinkel was justly regarded as being at the head of the Prussian architects. Indeed he may be considered as the founder of a school of architecture, distinguished by its pure taste and adaptation to the purposes of modern life. The public buildings which have been erected under his direction, or under that of the pupils formed by him, in Berlin and the provinces, during the last five-and-twenty years, all bear the impress of his peculiar genius. The new theatre at Berlin (Schauspielhaus) is generally considered as the finest of his constructions. This edifice contains several other apartments besides that devoted to the stage, so that it has been said to "contain many things, and among others a theatre." The concert-hall is one of the most beautiful of these rooms, the arabesques and other rich ornaments of which were designed by Schinkel. The proportions, the external lines, and above all, the principal façade of the Schauspielhaus, constitute in the judgment of the author one of the most perfect architectural works ever erected in any age or country; and however some may differ on this head, all true connoisseurs must agree that the proportions and interior decorations, both of the theatre and concert-hall, are most admirable. The ornaments and external decorations of the new school of architecture (Bau-Schule), executed in terracotta, are also designed in the most perfect

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adorned with the monuments of his genius,
followed by a long train of his friends and
pupils, and accompanied with every token
of reverential sorrow by an enlightened
public capable of appreciating his worth.
All those who have had the good fortune to
know him must have been forcibly im-
pressed with the simplicity and true native
dignity of his character. Disinterestedness
lay at its foundation. He was ever ready
to render his advice and assistance to his
brother-artists, and especially to young men,
to whom he gave up a large portion of his
precious time, cheerfully suspending his
own labours and studies, in order to give
them the benefit of his counsels. The spec-
tator who takes his stand on the bridge
over the Spree, at the end of the Linden
towards the old palace, will include in one
view the most remarkable works of Schin
kel:-the bridge itself, -the museum,
the custom-house, and other buildings be-
tween the museum and the arsenal, the
school of architecture, and the Werdersche-
Kirche. By advancing a few steps on the
Linden, he will catch a glimpse of the new
corps de garde (Hauptwache) also by
Schinkel, with the two fine statues of
Scharnhorst and Bulow, by Rauch. The
genius of Schinkel was ripened by a diligent
study of the classic models of Grecian ar-
chitecture, and at the same time was
strongly marked with the stamp of origin-
ality and practical adaptation to the pur-
poses of common life. The compositions
drawn by him to ornament, with four great
paintings in fresco, the façade of the mu-
seum, are now being executed under the
direction of Cornelius. The manner in
which the artist has treated his subject
in these drawings revives the classic recol-
lections of Herculaneum and Pompeii.
They are designed to represent, in a my-
thological and allegorical form, the progress
of human civilisation and the arts of life,
both useful and ornamental. The great
objection to such compositions is, that they
require tedious explanations, which break
in upon the impression the detached parts
would else produce upon the spectator, who
is often puzzling himself to make out the
meaning when he should be enjoying the
unmingled pleasure of contemplating the
artistic beauties of the work. But this style
suits the bent of the German mind, which
delights to analyse and dissect, and is natu-
rally prone to abstraction.

The separate cahier, accompanying the present

volume, contains an engraved view of these buildings s seen from this point.

Charles Christian Rauch has, by his fine | nument, which his majesty intended to works in sculpture, rendered illustrious an erect to the memory of his beloved queen, obscure name and origin. Born in 1777, Louisa of Mecklenburg, then just deceased. at Arolsen, in the principality of Waldeck, Canova replied, that he considered Rauch he was, when quite young, bound as an ap- himself quite capable of fulfilling the king's prentice to a carver in wood and stone in intentions; he was therefore ordered to that town. From Arolsen he removed to return to Berlin, where the composition of Cassel, where he entered the studio of the proposed monument was made the subRuhl, a sculptor, and received his earliest ject of prize competition, and the plan of lessons in the art of modelling. Family Rauch being preferred to that of all the affairs having called him to Berlin in 1797, other artists who proposed for the work, he he had there the good fortune to attract the was commissioned to execute it. Having notice and protection of the late king, Fre- commenced the model at Charlottenburg, derick William III., who had just ascended he was unfortunately taken ill with a nervthe throne, and of other powerful patrons. ous fever, the effects of which, according to By the assistance of one of these patrons, the opinion of his medical advisers, could Count Charles Sondrezky, a Silesian noble- only be removed by the milder climate of man, he was enabled to visit Italy in 1804, Italy. He consequently obtained permistravelling, in company with his noble friend, sion to return to Rome, in order there to through the south of France, by Genoa to execute the statue of the deceased queen Rome, where he made the acquaintance of in marble. Having visited Carrara to sethe most distinguished artists of that capital, lect a block of marble for this purpose, he and among others of Canova and Thor- had occasion to study the model of a fine waldsen. His warm attachment to the art, live eagle, and he has repeated with great combined with zeal in the pursuit of know- force and beauty the traces of the majestic ledge, and the most honourable personal bird on several basso-relievos. Those on qualities, secured him the esteem and the pedestal of the funeral monument at friendship of these illustrious sculptors, as Charlottenburg are remarkably fine. The well as of the French painter Ingres, and of statue itself was finished at Rome in 1813, the German artists then residing at Rome. and Rauch proceeded to Carrara to comHe was also honoured with the notice of plete some other works, whilst Tieck exethat eminent statesman and savant, the late cuted the candelabras for the monument. Wilhelm von Humboldt, then residing at Rauch returned to Berlin in 1814 to place Rome as Prussian minister. There his the statue, which was hailed with enthusigenius was guided by the inspiration of the asm by the public both as a work of art and great living sculptors, and by the study of as embalming the beautiful lincaments of a the antique. He also executed several queen, whose memory was justly endeared basso-relievos, busts, and statues, and pre- to the nation by her misfortunes, identified pared the models of others, which were as they were with the public calamities of afterwards executed in marble. When the those disastrous times. Still it may be French armies occupied Rome in 1808, the doubted whether such monuments-which new government established an exhibition ought to be eternal-are best preserved in of works of art in the capital, to consist of a summer-house situated in a public garden. productions of all the artists there residing, They ought rather to be erected in churches from whatever country they might come. and cathedrals, where they may be proThis great association of artists appointed tected from neglect and wanton destruction a committee to decide on the respective by religious associations, and where the merits of these productions. Rauch was ashes of monarchs may peacefully repose in selected by his brother-artists as a member the midst of the mortal remains of the warof this committee. His name appearing in riors and statesmen by whom their tottering the Moniteur in this capacity struck the at- thrones were upheld. The statue of Queen tention of the King of Prussia, who had Louisa was subsequently reproduced, with retired to Memel after the disastrous cam-several variations, and may now be seen at paign of Jena and the peace of Tilsit. On the new palace at Potsdam. In this last, the recommendation of M. W. von Hum- she is represented, not in the sleep of death, boldt, the king conferred upon Rauch an but in a natural slumber. annual pension of four hundred thalers, which relieved him from pecuniary embarrassments, and enabled him to continue his studies at Rome. In 1810 he was directed by the king to inquire of Canova if he would undertake to execute a funeral mo

Rauch received in 1815 from the king orders for the two statues which are now placed in front of the new guard-house at Berlin, of Scharnhorst, who reorganized the Prussian army, and enabled it to take the field against the French in 1813, and of

buted their quota of mind to the great work of national deliverance and regeneration? To say nothing of the exclusively intellectual fame of Kant, Fichte, Hegel, and Niebuhr, the absence of any memorial of such national illustrations as Hardenberg and Von Stein, call to mind the funeral procession of that noble Roman from which the statues of Brutus and Cassius were excluded: Viginti clarissimorum familiarum imagines ante latæ sunt Manlii, Quintii, aliaque ejusdem nobilitatis nomina: sed præfulgebant Cassius et Brutus, quod effigies eorum non visebantur."

Among other works of Rauch are the statues of Albrecht Durer at Nuremberg, of Dr. Prank at Halle, and of the late King of Bavaria, Maximilian, at Munich-all in bronze; six allegorical figures of Victory,

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Bulow von Dennewitz, whose coming up decided the battle of Waterloo in favour of the allies. For this purpose he made a second journey to Carrara to select the marble on the spot for these two statues, and again visited Rome, where he was charged with some commissions for the Museum of Antiquities, then about to be established in the Prussian capital. After his return to Berlin, he completed these statues, and also composed a colossal statue in bronze of Prince Blucher for the province of Silesia, which was cast under the artist's direction at Berlin, and erected on its pedestal of granite in 1827. It is the great glory of Rauch to have happily surmounted on this, as on other occasions, the difficulties of modern costume. He has selected the moment when Blucher is sup-in marble, destined to adorn the interior of posed to advance with naked sword in his right hand, his left raised to heaven, and addressing the people with the exclamation, "With God for king and country!" calls upon the inhabitants of Silesia to rise up for the deliverance of that province. Another statue of Blucher was ordered by the king from Rauch, after the old warrior's decease, and erected at Berlin, directly opposite the new guard-house. It is also of bronze, of the same height (eleven feet), standing on a pedestal of sixteen feet high, adorned with appropriate basso-relievos. The hero is represented looking behind, as if pointing out the blessings of peace achieved by the toils and dangers of war. Rauch also shared with Tieck and Wichmann in the composition of the statues which decorate the Gothic monument of cast iron, sixty feet in height, erected on the Kreutzberg, just out of the town, to cele-ing to the ideas generally prevailing among brate the victories of the Prussian armies in what is called in Germany "The War of Deliverance."

We may be allowed to observe, en passant, that though in a military state, whose greatness has been mainly acquired and must be maintained by arms, the glories achieved in war may justly claim to be commemorated by public monuments-yet the stranger who visits the Prussian capital is disappointed not to see a single trophy to civil merit. The heroes of the seven years' war, and of the late war of independence, live again in marble and bronze; but where are those of the statesmen whose labours regenerated the monarchy after it was trodden down in the field of Jena? Where are the monuments of the men who contri

See Dr. Waagen's valuable book on the Artistic Works of Rauch-" Abbildungen der vorzüglichstens Werke Karls Ranch, mit'Erläut.-Texte von Dr. G. F. Waagen (Berlin, 1827, fol.)

the Walhalla; and the group of Duke Mieczyslaus and his son King Boleslaus of Poland, for the cathedral of Posen. expense of this group of statues was solely borne by Count Edward Raczynski, brother of the author of the present work, a Polish nobleman distinguished for his patriotism and munificent patronage of learning and the arts. The expense of the chapel in which this national monument is to be placed, was defrayed by a public subscription in the province. Rauch is now engaged upon the model of an equestrian colossal statue of the great Frederick, which is to be erected in the centre of the Linden, opposite the university buildings.

In summing up the character of Rauch as an artist, our author says:

"His works have a historical character, but differ much from those of antiquity. If, accord

artists and amateurs, we hold, that in sculpture the classic style is that which distinguishes Grecian statues, the works of Rauch can hardly be said to belong to that class. But in the arts we ought not to generalize, in this absolute manner, our judgment and principles. As to Rauch, his artistic nature has the closest affinity. He the antique style is certainly not that with which has created for himself a new, and at the same time elevated, style. His imagination is not naturally inclined to seek for ideal beauty in the works of antiquity alone, nor is he inspired by epic poetry; but his artistic nature is powerful: both strongly characterized; his sentiments are in his productions, the author and the subject are true and profound; his drawing pure; in treating historical subjects of our time and of the middle age, his judgment and his taste are always correct.

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Rauch, as I have already said, is the creator of a new style, which I should call the modern and the middle-age historic. The finest works of this class are the two Bluchers, Bulow,

Tac. Annal., lib. iii., cap. 75.

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