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the crime in both instances. In the eyes of two or three years the number of deaths has God and of equity it makes but little differ- considerably increased, while the proportion ence whether the child is "put out" to of births has diminished. At the same pestrangers in a field or to strangers in a "found-riod, out of the children born alive in the ling" factory. The addition of violence heightens the crime, but does not constitute it. This leads us to a few statements connected with this subject

A decennium ago one child was born in Sweden to every thirty-two persons, now it is one to every thirty-three; for during the last

whole kingdom every fifteenth or sixteenth was illegitimate, of those born in the capital every two and a half, and of those in the other towns rather more than every sixth. But of late the scale of morals* has sunk still lower, and now stands thus

PROPORTION OF ILLEGITIMATES TO ALL OTHER LIVE-BORN CHILDREN.†

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The same work from which we have taken | which occur in each year. This list, which these details contains a specification of the is so curious that we cannot omit it, opens causes, and numbers of the "violent deaths" with the small-pox, thus:

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Accidentally poisoned

By other causes, mostly unknown

From the latest work of Col. Forsell (his "Anteckningar") we would willingly extract largely. A few of his interesting statements we must find room for :

"Over the whole kingdom about every 44th person dies annually, but with these differences, that in the capital every 21st dies, in the other towns every 33d, and in the country one out of 47. Of the 67,866 persons who have died annually during the quinquennium between 1830 and 1835, nearly every 4th was a child less than 1 year old, every 6th a youth under 15, every 8th consisted of unmarried people above 15 years old, every 4 of a married man or woman, every 17th of a widower, every 8th of a widow, and nearly every 20th of accidents, &c. [See table above.]

"There is annually 1 marriage contracted for every 137 persons; of 113 marriages 88 are between two unmarried persons, 13 between a widower and unmarried female, 8 between an unmarried man and a widow, and 4 between a widower and a widow.

"Of 100 childbed women, not quite 2 per cent. have children before their 20th year, 14 between 20 and 25, 25 between 25 and 30, 26 between 30

288-316 12 144

11 144.

and 35, 21 between 35 and 40, 10 between 40 and 45, and not quite 2 between 45 and 50. Every 67th lying-in woman has twins, every 5333d has trillings, and only every 150,000th has fourlings. Every 35th mother bears a stillborn child, and every 8th pair has no children.... "To every household there are nearly 5} souls.

... Every 280th individual is sheltered in a poor-house; every 82d is supported by his children or by other persons; every 84th has outdoor relief; every 168th is a foster-child or a foundling-hospital child; and, in general, every 25th person is a pauper."

In reference to the probable length of life we have collected the following statements. The first four columns are extracted from "Milne's Treatise on the law of mortality," published in Edinburgh in 1837. The last column has been kindly communicated by the professor of astronomy Herr Selander. A child which at its birth can calculate on living 33 years, when one year old may reckon upon 47ths, and at three years of ag emay expect to live just fifty years. For the other periods see the table

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the damp situation of many parts of the town. The gradual increase of its population is entirely owing to immigration, about 1632 persons, principally of the serving and work

In Stockholm life is shorter than in any other part of Sweden. Not less than 3884 persons die annually, while only 2658 are born, thus showing an annual excess of deaths over births of 1226 souls. This is doubting classes, removing hither every year. For less partly to be attributed to the excessive the rest the following are the skeleton statiscorn-brandy drinking among the lower classes tics of and the prevalent immorality, as well as to

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But we must not quite forget the book of M., Lundblad. This production is in one sense remarkable. Although consisting simply of translations of the flowery and ex-parte "Royal Statements" presented by the king to every diet, the author, formerly known as a severe anti-Bernadottist, has now turned round, and by his head and tail pieces, that is, by a short introduction and a short postscriptum, endeavours to persuade Europe that Sweden is a happy Canaan "flowing with milk and honey," as well as with iron and brandy; the king a wondrous creator and preserver and restorer, "and all that;" the opposition an ignorant, traitorous, and revolutionary band; and a reform of the representation both dangerous and uncalled for. In this last assertion he has evidently gone beyond his errand. The most respectable adherents of the court party openly acknowledge the necessity of remodelling the representation, although they have not been able to agree as to the quomodo. Count Björnstjerna himself published some years ago a very ingenious plan for organizing the representation on the two-chamber system, and during the sitting of the last diet published another pamphlet in defence of his views. It is also worthy of remark, that these same flaming exposés to the diet, which have so little comparative historical or statistical value, have also appeared in a German translation.

But we shall extract a few paragraphs from this writert

"I had often felt great astonishment at the questions which were addressed to me regarding my country (Sweden), its institutions, and the progress of its government, and have seen numberless erroneous statements as to the events of

* Abridged from Forsell, p. 71.

+ Lundblad, Recueil, &c., pp. v., vi.

This gentleman, a Swedish ex-employé, now for good reasons residing in Paris, possesses considerable talents both as a Swedish and as a French litlérateur. He has lately translated Swedish History into French," and has composed Geijer's many valuable minor historical aperçus in the French magazines and literary journals.

Household Property therein. Taxed in 1836 at Rix-dols. Banco. 31,519,628

which it has been the theatre since the commencement of the present century. Endeavouring to discover to what these questions and these that if one soon knows from the one end of Eumistakes ought to be attributed, I have perceived rope to the other what passes at Paris, at London, and at Berlin, while people are quite ignorant of what takes place at Stockholm and at Christiana, the principal cause must be sought for in the fact that French, English, and German are everywhere read, while Swedish is not understood across the Sound. From this it resuch incorrect documents relative to these two sults that we have so few and incomplete and united kingdoms.

"And yet a people is in question which the history of different nations shows us to have taken a part always remarkable and sometimes decisive in the events of every period. We see it everywhere invested with its heroism and its antique virtues, and with that burning love of characteristic. It never can be without import independence which has always been its great ance to know, what such a people can do or has accomplished. But since its union with Norway under the same sceptre, it ought to fix still more the attention of our historians and public writ ers, who study more than ever the advance of nations in amelioration and civilisation. determined without doubt by the influence of the "Every nation has thus its distinctive character, countries it inhabits, and by the sources of existence opened out to it by its climate and its soil. A country whose frontiers are the seas, and where one beholds only vast forests, broad lakes, and barren mountains whose surface none can cultivate

but whose dense masses must be penetrated, and whose deep bowels must be torn in sunder in order that severe toil may draw thence some advantage, - such a land can only be inhabited by a people which has always an instinctive love for freedom, but a freedom and independence of that adventurous and half-savage sort which eagerly looks for excitement, longs for difficulties to overcome, and grows impatient in repose. Such is Sweden, and such the people which inhabit it. Every page of its history describes it a's capable of enduring the greatest perils and of supporting evils the most terrible. But the question whether it can also bear peace and prosperhave hitherto offered us periods of calm too short ity, is still to be answered; for its chronicles to prove that it can endure any periods, much

longer.* In this respect we may regard the present epoch as an era of experiment; it is already twenty-five years old."

M. Lundblad then gives a table to prove, that of the seventeen reigns which have elaps ed in Sweden since the time of Gustavus I. (319 years), that of Charles XIV. John is the only one in which the kingdom has enjoyed an uninterrupted peace. But "peace," it is asserted, the "discontented" Swedish nation cannot bear, and as the reign of Charles XIV. John has been one of "uninterrupted repose," the unpopularity of the present king and his system is the fault of the people and not of the hero-Quod erat demonstrandum. Bravo, M. Lundblad!

This "table" we should willingly have given, but there are so many apparently wil ful inaccuracies in its manufacture, the number of war-years being swelled and that of many reigns diminished, that it is perfectly useless for any purpose but that for which it was composed.

But we must now take our leave of this subject. We had marked many closing subjects for discussion relative to Mr. Laing's book, but our space forbids. Suffice it to say, that we have found much to praise in his pages, and much to blame which we have not remarked upon. His absurd talk about Russia and the North and the dissolution of the Union, we cannot sufficiently reprobate. But Count Björnstjerna has already chastised him severely enough on this point. He is equally unfortunate in his dynastic * This absurd jargon is a part of the modern court cant, which answers the universal demand of the Swedish people for better laws, lighter taxation, and improved representation, by declaring them to be 66 a nation ungrateful, insolent, changeable, and unripe for self-government." The old proverb says, "When we will beat a dog, we can always find a

speculations. He may be assured that the dethroned royal family has no party-no, not even the shadow of a party, in its favour. A restoration is impossible, unless it be by the help of Russian bayonets. For the rest, every reader of Mr. Laing's work ought in justice to peruse the Count's reply, although highly bitter and personal, and party-spirited, and rather the reply of the Swedish aristocrat, than the Swedish gentleman, it refutes many of his statements with great happiness of style and effect.

The whole contest, as might have been expected, has produced an advantageous spirit of self-inquiry throughout Sweden itself. Many of her best writers are more and more devoting themselves to domestic subjects. May God raise up at least one spirit with courage great enough, and views extensive enough, and a life and heart pure enough, to urge him on to a public avowal and defence of those great, simple, solid, everlasting principles of private and national morals, of truth and justice and mercy, of law and of liberty, which shall turn the stream of public opinion in that country into a more healthy channel, and restore to this ancient and brave and distinguished people that home right and those home manners, that sound hearty northern gladness, and that unaffected purity which foreign corruptions and unfortunate government politics have shaken, till the very foundations thereof do tremble. All who know the bold and honest and ingenuous Swedish yeomanry, must love and esteem them. As yet, in spite of the floods of demoralization flowing from the towns, they are sound at the core. All our childhood pictures of the lonely forests and rocky wildernesses of their land, and of the cottage of its peasant offering its hospitable haven to the weary traveller, of the fireside ingle and the happy group and the "Thus, to procure sugar and coffee cheaper in wondrous legend and the haunting elf and the Russia, Mr. Laing, this great friend of Norway, merry goblin and the sweetly-sad viol-playing would incorporate Norway as well as Sweden with water-king, of the local garb and the provinRussia. It is this enlightened and patriotic Scotch-cial custom and the smiling cheek and blue inan, who wants to establish Russia opposite to the very coasts of Scotland, and would make Russia 'a first-rate naval power' on purpose to procure cheaper sugar and coffee for her serfs! indeed, a very well applied philanthropy, utilitarianism, or philosophical radicalism, as you may please to call it! And this is the work so highly praised by the Edinburgh Review! "But it remains for Mr. Laing to show how and by what means the conquest of Sweden and Norway might possibly tend to procure sugar and coffee cheaper to the Russians. Is it by means of a landconveyance over the Norwegian Alps, and across the extensive provinces of Sweden, that these goods would arrive cheaper in Russia than they do at present, transported by sea into her numerous ports in the Baltic, the White Sea, and the Black Sea."--pp. 13, 14.

stick."

+ Lundblad, Recueil, &c., p. 365.

"In considering the plan of Mr. Laing, to restore the ancient dynasty to one of the thrones of Scandinavia, and to retain the new for the other, which of course must repeal the union between them, we were unable at first to imagine what could have dictated |

eye and open brow of its fearless freemanall these may still be found among the hills and dales of the lake-rich Swede. Yet ring his native woods with half-heathen or romantic Christian ballads, soothing sounds driven by steam and suffering far from many another land; yet remembers he the exploits of his

such a political view to Mr. Laing, when we suddenly recollected his other plan, to give all Sweden and Norway to Russia, in order to procure her cheap sugar and coffee! And as the proposed repeal of the union between the two countries would undoubtedly tend to accelerate the accomplishment of this, Mr. Laing's political wish, we begin now to understand the whole wisdom of his former plan."-p. 64,

Mr. Laing has made some very startling though exaggerated statements respecting the merits and influence of the Swedish nobility in general.

fathers and the tales of the men of the olden | history of the development and rapid protime. Nor yet is his spirit quite quelled and gress of the fine arts in Germany since the subdued and broken down. Let this yeoman continental peace. It is, above all, in the host, then, quickly arise, and shake off every capital of the Prussian monarchy that this filthy scale cast upon them by the so-called development and this progress are striking "civilisation" of corrupt burghers, and stand and manifest as compared with the former up in their might, patterns of unflinching ho- state of the arts in that country. nour and simplicity and integrity, and, armed with virtuous manliness, look "forth as the morning, fair as the moon, clear as the sun, and terrible as an army with banners." Then at last may we hope that the black polluted stream now desolating their land may be turned aside from its course, and a re-action commence of the national country against the frivolous population of the" philanthropized"

towns!

We shall conclude by extracting a few observations highly to the purpose, from the pages of a Swedish gentleman, who has proved himself in all things the friend of his country and the enemy of all its enemies and oppressors:

Munich and Dusseldorf were renowned for their galleries and academies of art, established under the patronage of the electors long before the wars of the French revolution, and the new schools which have since been founded in those capitals are more or less indebted to the traditions of their former masters for their present fame. Not so with Berlin. The Academy founded there by Frederick I. so early as 1699, continued to languish until new life was breathed into it by the artists formed at Rome after the peace of 1815. Nor does there exist, even now, what can properly be called a Berlin school of painting. That denomination, according to our author, canTo inquire into the condition and re- not be given merely to any number of artists sources of the Scandinavian peninsula, and living at the same period in the same counthe education, the peculiarities and the try, and formed under the same master, ungeneral sympathies and disposition of its inhabit- less they are distinguished by certain comants, ought in my opinion highly to interest mon characteristics from other groups of every foreigner. Of this we shall be convinced by simply glancing at the geographical position artists formed in other times and other of this double state, whose influence and alliance places. In this latter sense the only proper must inevitably in future political convulsions be schools of painting during the latter part of of incalculable importance. Beholding at one the eighteenth and the beginning of the view the past annals of Sweden and the progress- nineteenth century are those founded by ive improvement of our species, we may be par- David at Paris, by Schadow at Dusseldorf, doned the wish that they to whom the guidance and by Cornelius at Munich. But this of its coming fates is entrusted may seek to ad- neither does nor ought to detract from the vance the happiness of its people by a fruitful and healing peaceful policy, but also may never separate merits of individual artists, who spare its forces or the blood of its children when-though neither the founders of a distinct ever it becomes our imperative duty to battle for truth and for knowledge, for freedom and for right. Should we go down in such a contest, we shall at all events die with glory. So thought also the Swedes of the days of old :

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school, nor belonging to a distinct school, have given proofs of original inventive genius, and have formed pupils worthy to tread in their steps. Such are Begas, Wach, Hensel, &c.

Begas is the first living portrait-painter in Germany, and is also the author of several historical compositions of the highest merit. He is distinguished among all the German artists by his delightful colouring, resembling that of the old Venetian masters. Born in 1794 in the Rhine province, he commenced his studies at Paris under Gros in 1812, the left bank of the Rhine then belonging to France, and remained in that capital until 1818, when he returned to his father-land, which had again become German, and exhibited his Christ in the Garden of Olives at the congress of Aix-la-Chapelle. This earliest production of his pencil, Begas himself says, was criticised by his own countrymen as

"bearing too much the stamp of French influence;

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