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also busily taken impressions in paper, wet | been sent twice to Egypt, (in this country, paper it is to be inferred, a very reckless we regret to say, the government is supproceeding with the more delicate calcareous monuments of Egypt. But the hand of man is rapidly annihilating what the course of time has spared; and, after all, the best mode of preserving the remains of this nation is by publishing accurate copies, and not sawing away, as Champollion did, the choicest portions of inscriptions and hypogées to enrich the walls of the Louvre at the cost of Egypt's destruction. It is vain to preach to the Arabs to-day, and mutilate the tombs to-morrow!

posed to direct its attention to higher matters, and consequently suffers literature to take care of itself,) and a Prussian expedition, under the auspices of the King of Prussia and M. Humboldt, starts in the autumn, provided with draughtsmen for three years. Great Britain trusts to the feeble voluntary system of a few amateurs or Indian passengers to effect what they can in this quarter. But the popular taste which has set in inclines strongly towards Egyptian antiquities and literature, of which we have a test in the work of Sir Gardner Wilkinson upon the manners and customs of the Egyptians, of which a second part has recently met with a highly favourable reception. It is a learned work, especially with respect to the information afforded us by the Greeks upon Egypt, and embodies a vast mass of information on a variety of branches; and although there are some details upon which we should differ considerably with the accomplished traveller, yet as a whole it is well and carefully prepared, and presents a great deal of novel matter; for example, the Bird, Ben or Bennou, in the Tamarisk of Howara, with an inscription stating it to be "the soul of Osiris," with the chest or closet of the god lying before it, is a very important addition to our knowledge of their mythology, while the elaborately drawn up chapters on the husbandry and agriculture of the Egyptians offer a very striking picture of the ancient cultivation of the soil. There is one reading with regard to an amulet of the Gnostic period, where we entertain rather a different view of the explanation to that of the learned author. It represents on one side a winged disk snake, a hawk-headed winged deity, and a frog-headed female deity seated upon a throne, facing the hawk-headed deity; on the reverse are an hexameter and pentameter verse, reading

A great portion of the remainder of M. L'Hote's work consists in the verification of what has been previously done, and the account of different hypogées which he has visited, with the various drawings which are destined for publication in their local order in the Monumens de l'Egypte et de la Nubie, now in the course of appearance. Besides the work of L'Hote the second livraison of the Monumens Egyptiens du Musée des Pays Bas has appeared, whose first number was previously mentioned. It is not of the importance of the first, and consists of the fac-simile of a religious papyrus or ritual drawn up at a late period, apparently about the Roman era, comprising the commencing chapters of the first portion illustrating the ceremonies consequent on the embalment and the conducting the mummy of the deceased to its sepulchre. A Catalogue Raisonné of the Leyden collection, very respectably executed, has appeared from the same author, but the precision of a catalogue affords little scope for the advancement of much that is new, even should the author be prepared with it. Even the Catalogue Raisonné of Passalacqua, one of the best of the kind, is rather dull and dry for the general reader. No further criticism need be passed on it than that it is at present the fullest catalogue of any Egyptian collection extant, since that of the Musée du Louvre, formerly Charles X., by Champollion, is out of print, and has not been reprinted; that of Berlin is the old sale catalogue of Passalacqua; the magnificent collection of Turin waits till the In this inscription we regard is as dedirectors of the Museum are acquainted clined poeticè from the verb elu in the with the subject; and that of the British sense of "thou art:" "Thou art Bait, thou Museum, though large compared with the art Athor, one of the Bia, and thou art bulk of the Synopsis, requires consider- Hakori-Hail father of the world-Hail able expansion to make it rival the Leyden trimorphous god!" In that case the symcatalogue. bols gnostically represented the three forms The knowledge and taste for hierogly- of the divinity considered as a triad, the phical literature and Egyptian customs ap-frog-headed female deity being considered pear to have been transplanted from France as Hathor, and the hawk-headed god as to Britain. M. L'Hote, under the auspices Hakori. Hathor is a female deity, and as of the ministers of public instruction, has the inscription is otherwise in good Greek,

Εἰς Βαὶτ, εἰς "Αθωρ, μία τῶν Βία, εἰς δὲ "Ακωρι
Χαῖρε πάτερ κόσμου- χαῖρε τρίμορφε θεός.

ula is in good apposition, and could not be kind;" but Noub or Noum, for his name found allied with is. Hakori, analogous is written indifferently, does not in the to the name Acoris of an early Egyptian hieroglyphics bear any analogy with breath, monarch, may possibly have been derived from a deity of a late epoch, Hak-Hor, a one being written form of Horus.




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It would require considerable space to offer an analysis of the opinions relative to the Pantheon set forth by Sir Gardner with his usual ability and judgment, yet there are some points on which we could desire a more strict adherence to the monumental information considered as distinctly in the inscriptions accompanied by the from the Greeks; the later writers of Pa- three streams of water forming the phonetic ganism, platonizing over Pantheism, endea- equivalent analogous to the Coptic vouring to veil the expiring agonies of the word "the abyss" of the primordial national religion with an air of philosophy waters out of whose elements the world and system, which, applicable no doubt in was formed, and the same deity is repeatan amphibolic sense to the religion, never embodied its original ideas, or its doctrine edly textually called & "substance, matas explained by the priests themselves. ter." These are not put forth as blemishes Our information is, of course, traditionally of Sir Gardner's work, who is perfectly deficient, but from what does remain, we justified by the later Greek authorities, but are disposed to consider the early religion as philological proofs that the Greeks are of the Egyptians a system of local worship. frail authorities, especially the later sophists, How, for example, can we otherwise ex- on any or every question of Egyptian myplain the fact that Phtah, the eponymous thology. There is another deity in the protector of Memphis, is rarely, if ever, Pantheon who has excited a good deal of found at Abydos or Thebes-or Amounra attention, but who has never as yet receivat Memphis and Abydos, where Osiris is ed any satisfactory explanation either as to the main divinity, and that the worship of his attributes or name. His form replaces the "disk of the sun" at Alabastron and in the cartouche of Osirei Menephtah II. that Psinaula is rare at Thebes, and never found of the god Osiris, and has been in the maat Memphis-that no individual is found jority of instances most carefully chiselled qualified Osirian after death until the nine-out, and that evidently of old; the name teenth dynasty, and that no one divinity, except this last god, attained to anything like universal worship? Chnouphis, for example, was the local god of Elephantina, and even when his names and titles are found at spots far and wide from his seat of worship, he is always qualified "lord of Elephantina." The labours of Champollion, in his "Lettres écrites de l'Egypte," clearly proved that the deities in their local worship were as unaltered as the language, the old temples erected to them by the early Pharaohs having been repaired under the Romans, no other worship being substituted for the old local one.

has been supposed to be Seth, which is one of Typhon's appellations; another of his names is identical with that of the town of Ombos; a third, which is to be found in the Excerpta Hieroglyphica of Burton, gives his appellation as identical with that of the negroes in the tomb of Menephtah I. at Thebes. Nabsi at this place appears to be the name of the black race of Cush or Ethiopia, as distinguished from the copper-coloured races to the south of Egypt. The bird which is represented in the commencement of the word is coloured completely black, and is the restricted initial phonetic of this group only, to which it otherwise serves as a determinative, and its head forms that of the deity in question.

No. 825) this very deity Nahsi is represented bound with his hands behind his back to an Asiatic prisoner, just as the actual negro is drawn in other monuments.

Again, there is one supposition put forth, which, although excessively ingenious, is not justified by the inscriptions; it is this-On a papyrus in the British Museum (Salt, that the deity Chnouphis indicates the xvè, or breath, spirit moving upon the face of the waters. That Chnouph indicates primordial water, we are aware, because it is over the "waters,' ," "the pure waters," that he always presides; and that he is a creative power, we equally perceive from those inscriptions in which he is stated "to fabricate upon his wheel the divine limbs of Osiris," and to be "the builder of all man

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From this it must be inferred that this god represents one of the forms of Typhon, considered as the personification of the impious race of Cush or Ethiopia, whose name and attribute and inflictions he bears. There are also some other considerations up

We now have to touch upon another work connected with the study of Egyptian antiquities, the Inscription Grecque de Rosette, by M. Letronne, who has put forth a new edition of the Greek text of the Rosetta stone, based on criticisms of the labours of Porson, Heyne, Druman, Amalhon, and others; M. Lenormant's work on the same subject of last year being also comprised in this, and the translation and collation made with the hieroglyphical and enchorial texts by M. Champollion being used throughout to confirm the restorations proposed by M. Letronne. M. Champollion's labours, to whose memory the work is dedicated, thus receive the additional sanction of Letronne, and it may be mentioned, en passant, that M. Dujardin, who attacked very fiercely Champollion's discovery, died in the conviction of the grand truths laid down by the French hierologist. The commencement of the text is not much mutilated, but in the 27th line Letronne proposes rozkoarras in the place of the

on the names and attributes of deities which | It conveys a beautiful picture of the decorathrow light upon the notions entertained by tions of the tombs, and a powerfully graphic the Egyptians. For example, attached to a illustration of the expenses contingent upon representation of Netpe pouring a libation, the funeral of persons of rank under the and emerging from a sycamore tree, a sub- eighteenth dynasty. ject repeated at the great funereal ritual, in the chapter entitled "The drinking the living waters in Noutehir," occurs in Sir J. Gardner's plate the following text: "Netpe, the great resplendence, with her name in the sycamore, we consecrate to thee these libations; refresh thy heart with it, with these waters manifested" *** the rest being deficient. The soul of the deceased eagerly catches one of the streams of living water. Thus the god called Khem by Wilkinson, and Harsaphes by Champollion, is frequently in the texts called Har-nasht, "the victorious Horus," which accounts for the constant presence of this deity in the triumphal processions of the kings. It is in this capacity that the statue of this deity is borne along in the procession of Rameses Meiamoun, representing, according to Sir J. Gardner, the ceremonies performed at the coronation of a king, from the sculptures of Rameses III. at Medenet Haboo; for the deity there, although he appears to be worshipped in the capacity of Lord of the soil, is notwithstanding in his attributes, the lord of victory; and in the speech addressed by the god (part E.) the deity states, We give you all power and all victory." The white bull in this sculpture is probably the living emblem of Har-nasht, mystically termed the husband of his mother considered as Amoun, the father of the very triad of which, as Har-nasht, he was the son; and since the whole of the inscriptions run in his praise, we are disposed to consider that it is intended to show what is termed on the earlier monuments "The panegyry of the manifestation of Harsaphes." Among other points connected-p. 25, 1. xxx. with this interesting plate are the declarations uttered before the deity and the bearing of the usual offerings and standards by the 66 Negroes of Pount" (Part G. H.), connecting the ceremony Libya," with the worship of Ammon in his oracle at the oasis in the desert and at Meroe; for it is to be observed that the Libyans here appear not as captives, but equally participating in the rights along with the sons and brethren of the king.

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In bringing his labours to a conclusion, the author of necessity touches on the funereal ceremonies, and among other beautiful illustrations of this portion is a magnificent plate, printed in colours, representing the funereal ceremonies performed upon the decease of Nofreophth, a scribe of Ammon.

It runs,

qбégarтas of Amalhon, the inboarτas of Heyne, the ixigoarтas and έniлiéσανias of Lenormant, and the tonuboavras of Porson. Although his text is not fortified here by the hieroglyphical part, his reading certainly contests the palm with that of Porson. In another restoration, line 30, where he reads αποτεταγμένης against the λελειμμένης οι Heyne or Porson, he supports himself on the translation of the demotic portion. as he says, according to Champollion, "The king has ordained concerning the droits of an artaba per acre from lands belonging to the gods, &c, which have been remitted." confirms the reading of Letronne. Here then the demotic Rosetta stone, has been so often made the But the subject of criticism, that it is quite unnecesits text; and M. Letronne, coming last into sary to repeat here the vexatæ quæstiones of the arena, is of course enabled by the assistance of the Greek papyri, a newly opened branch of Greek literature, and aided by the dim light of demotic revelation, to overthrow his predecessors and antagonists.

scholar, avowedly, is not open to the same M. Letronne, not being a hieroglyphical criticism that has been shown to M. L'Hôte, his protégé; but we shall suggest respectfully for his consideration the following light thrown on some of his critical animadversions on the Pierre de Rosette. In speaking of the yyev, a peculiar kind of crown

As from time immemorial the public documents were dated by regnal years, the year was probably calculated from the coronation, whether from accident or design; the celebration of the festival was made to tally with the course of the year, and recall the identity of the king and the sun. However, that the royal birthday was a movable feast, and calculated from the actual event, is certain, from the historical stele published by Rosellini and Leemans, by which the regnal years are calculated for the life of an individual in such a manner as would not coincide with the present date.

composed of two separate portions, the | gyry of Thoth at the commencement of the "red crown" and the" white crown,"-M. year," and otherwise in the completion of Letronne imagines that it answers to the the year, in Thoth the commencement of zuvén, out of which Psammetichus poured the year. his libation (Herod. ii., s. 142); but the Egyptian helmet is the crown called tosh, and is always on the head of the king when helmed in the military scenes, while its peculiar shape bears much greater analogy to the term zuvén, as used by Herodotus; for example, the xuvén Kogiv0iánn, which, thrown upon the back of the head, with its visor up, exactly resembles the tosh; the zuvin, too, of Psammetichus, was of brass, and we may doubt if the pschent can be shown to have been of this material. Another illustration may be given relative to the yevskia of the king mentioned in the Greek: he observes, that the day of celebration being the actual birthday, no conclusion, can be arrived at relative to any astronomical circumstances connected either with this festival, or that of the coronation on the 17th of Mecheir. Champollion has proved that the hieroglyphical text here substitutes the month of Paophi for that of Mecheir in the Greek, four months sooner, evidently erroneously, since the compliment would have breathed rather cold, and the demotic reads with the Greek Mecheir. The point of the yɛvela being a fixed or a moveable feast cannot yet be considered as determined; every day in the Egyptian calendar was either a fast or a festival, and two 30ths of months, those of Epiphi and Mecheir, were, from the evidence of Plutarch on the one hand, "the celebration of the birthday of the eyes of Horus (symbolic eyes)," and from the ritual on the other, "the day of clothing the symbolic eye in Poni (eye of Horus), on the 30th of Mecheir, that I may behold the filling of the eye in Poni, in the presence of the god of that country." We quote from the part of the ritual entitled, "The Book of going to the Hall of the Two Truths." Of the two festivals, however, the coronation should be rather expected to be found fixed; the yɛrshia, the actual birthday, variable since the Egyptians paid particular attention to nativities; and a Græco-Egyptian one has been found cast in Greek. Letronne also considers that the restoration of Porson, to whom he generally inclines, is here undoubted; in fact, that the demotic, according to Champollion, states "each in its month" to be dated from the first of Thoth, and the touria, which Letronne has restored to its right sense, the first of Thoth, was apparently the commencement of the Egyptian year, upon which, following the authority of the earlier monuments, a festival of Thoth was held, as during the "pane

Before taking our leave entirely of the question, we have a new reading to propose with regard to the hieroglyphical version of the inscription: the three writings being distinctly mentioned as "the writing of the divine words (hieroglyphics)," "the writing of the books (or epistolographic of Clemens)," the enchorial," and "the writing of the Ionians," the Greck. With this last part of the inscription, the enchorial text bears a much greater analogy than the hieroglyphic with the Greek version. A point upon which M. Letronne constantly insists is the priority of the Greek version. The testimony of Letronne to the truth of the discovery of the manner of reading the sacred character may be placed on the same shelf with the declaration of Niebuhr, and the slow but sure progress of truth is insensibly winning its way with an irresistible power, which nothing can daunt or destroy. In this country the current of popular opinion is rapidly verging toward the ocean of Egyptian lore, and among those works which are more particularly calculated to afford a lucid explanation of Egyptian philology directed to all capacities, we may notice "The Antiquities of Egypt" put forth by a religious society, to elucidate more especially the connection of the Jews and their bondmasters, since the connection alluded to, rather than distinctly mentioned, in the Old Testament, must, previous to the desolation of the arms of Shishak, have always been politically strong;-the one in their flank marches upon central Asia, or Syria, encountering the Philistines or Phonicians, and assisting indirectly in maintaining the independence of Judah; while the other, from similar institutions, many of them equally influencing the habits and tastes of the two races, looking with a favourable eye to their old masters, now new allies, and reposing in the shadow of the riches and in


duit en Gaule.* Agathias writes that they
were a people of Asia.
"Hunni quondam
circa lacum Mæotidem loca incoluere in
arcturum potius versi, ut barbarorum cæte-
ræ nationes, quæ quod infra Imaum mon-
tem Asiam insident, hi omnes et Scythæ et
Hunni vocitabantur: seorsum tamen et per
generationes. Nam partim Cotriguri appel-
lantur, partim Ultizuri, partim Burgundi,
partim alias utcunque patrium illis est gen-
tibus, et consuetum nominari." After men-
tioning the temporary possession which
some of these nations had of the territories
they seized upon, their subsequent final
overthrow, and even the entire perishing of
their names, he adds, "sed Ultizuri, Bur-
gundique ad Leonis usque tempora Roma-
norum imperatoris celebres extitere." It is
probable that a body of Burgundians, tempt-

fluence of Egypt. It is pleasing to reflect that, in this country, where a fungous and unhealthy state of archæological research into the obscure too frequently finds favour, there is light as well as darkness, and that the morbid sense is on the decrease, which discovers a Hebrew in every tomb, and Pharaoh's signet in every ring. When the labours of Rosellini are completed, the circle of the monumental history of Egypt is finished; the eyes of Europe must then be cast on those barbarian efforts which convert the records of art and antiquity into quarries, and destroy what they cannot equal. Day after day plunder and mutilation are rooting up all that remains. Another century, and what Egypt was, will be a tale. Woe to Egypt! "The impure foreigner," whom she bound to her chariots, trod under her sandals, and forced to excavate the tem-ed by the expectation of plunder, or influples of her gods, recklessly mocks and defaces the palaces of her kings and the tombs of her dead.

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The original place from which the Burgundians came, and their race, have been matters of great dispute with historians and geographers. Germanorum genera quinque: Vindili, quorum pars Burgundiones, Varini, Carini, Guttones."-Plin. Nat. Hist. lib. iv. § 28. "Par lesquels mots," says Paradin, in the first page of his Annales de Bourgogne, "l'on peut assez conjecturer la noblesse et antiquité de cette nation, laquelle est mise au premier rang des cinq premiers races de l'antique et noble Germanie; chose que monstre assez ce que n'est un nom nouvellement forgé et intro

enced by the renown of his name, might have served under Attila, and thus have caused the error of Agathias. Valesius imagines that the Burgundi and Burgundiones were different people. This, however, is totally improbable. Jerome and Orosius. call the same nation Burgundiones to which Marcellinus gives the appellation of Burgundi. Malte Brun assigns to them a Gothic origin, and says all that remains of spoke a Gothic dialect. It is to be wished the Burgundian language indicates that they that Malte Brun had told us where these traces of their language are to be found. It is singular that the Vandal race, once so fearfully celebrated in the annals of mankind, has so utterly perished from the face of the earth, that we are not aware that any vestiges of their language can be traced, so as to throw any light on the disputed question of their origin.‡

All these surmises, however, are in direct opposition to the plain and decisive authority of Pliny, as quoted above. His opinion deserves great weight. He composed the history of Drusus, who, in conjunction with Tiberius, conquered these very Burgundians: besides, he himself served in Germany about sixty years after the death of Drusus. Mascou, whose History of the Ancient Germans is a work of very great research, confirms the declaration of Pliny. He says, "the accounts we meet with of their manners, which entirely agree with those of the ancient German nations,

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