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6. How wise, how benignant, then, is the proper division! The hours of light are adapted" to activity and those of darkness to rest. Ere the day is passed, exercise and nature prepare us for the pillow; and by the time that the morning returns, we are again able to meet it with a smile. Thus, every season has a charm peculiar to itself; and every moment affords some interesting innovation.




ƒ Ob-sta-cle, ob'-stå-k!, hindrance, bar,

a Dis-charge, dis-tshårje', to vent, re-fe Cat-a-ract, kåt'-á-rákt, a fall of wa lease, an explosion, a vent, a release Per-pen-dic-u-lar, pêr-pên-dik'-ù-lår, crossing at right angles

• Rapid, rap'-id, quick, swift, violent


g Tre-men-dous, trè-mên důs, dreadful, horrible

d Ledge, lêdje, a ridge rising above the h Fu-ry, fu'-re, madness, rage


U-nite, yu-nlte', to join, to concur

The cataract of Niagara, in Canada, North America. 1. THIS amazing fall of water is made by the river St. Lawrence, in its passage from lake Erie into the lake Ontario. The St. Lawrence is one of the largest rivers in the world and yet the whole of its waters is dischargeda in this place, by a fall of a hundred and fifty feet perpendicular. It is not easy to bring the imagination to correspond to the greatness of the scene.

2. A river extremely deep and rapid, and that serves to drain the waters of almost all North America into the Atlantic Ocean, is here poured precipitately down a ledge of rocks, that rises, like a wall, across the whole bed of its stream. The river, a little above, is near three quarters of a mile broad; and the rocks, where it grows narrower, are four hundred yards over.

3. Their direction is not straight across, but hollowing inwards like a horse-shoe: so that the cataract, which bends to the shape of the obstacle, rounding inwards, presents a kind of theatre the most tremendouss in nature. Just in the middle of this circular wall of waters, a little island, that has braved the fury of the current, presents one of its points, and divides the stream at top into two parts; but they unite again, long before they reach the bottom.

4. The noise of the fall is heard at the distance of sev eral leagues; and the fury of the waters, at the termina. tion of their fall is inconceivable. The dashing produ

ces a mist that rises to the very clouds; and which forms a most beautiful rainbow, when the sun shines. It will be readily supposed, that such a cataract entirely destroys the navigation of the stream: and yet some Indians in their canoes, it is said, have ventured down it with safety.



• Sub-ter-ra-ne-ous, såb têr-rà'-né-as,m Spar, spår, a small beam, bar lying under the earth n Pet-ri-fi, pet'-trè-fi, to change to stone b Grot-to, grót'-tô, a cavern made foro Re-cede, rè-sèèd', to retreat, desist, coriness

fall back

• In-crus-ta-tion, în-krůs-tà'-shôn, the p Per-spec-tive, pêr-spêk'-tiv, a scene, act of incrusting

d Cel-e-brate, sel'-e-bråte, to praise. commend

e Mag-ni, måg'-nl, an Italian traveller f Gi-gan-tick, j-gån'-tik, bulky, enor

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a view

Res-er-voir, rêz-er-vwor', a place where any thing is kept in store Quash, kwosh, to crush, to make a noise

Flam-beau, flám'-bò, a lighted torch
Ap-er-ture, ap'-år-tshure, a passage
into, as open place

Anx-ious-ly, ank'-shůs-lè, solicitous-
ly, inquietly
Cau-tious-ly, kåw'-shôs-lè, watchful-

Ex-pe-dite, èks'-pè-dite, to hasten,

The grotto of Antiparos.

1. Or all the subterraneous caverns now known, the grotto of Antiparos is the most remarkable, as well for its extent, as for the beauty of its sparry incrustations. This celebrated cavern was first explored by one Magni, an Italian traveller, about one hundred years ago, at Antip ros, an inconsiderable island of the Archipelago.

2. Having been informed," says he, "by the natives of Paros, that, in the little island of Antiparos, which lies about two miles from the former, a gigantic statue was to be seen at the mouth of a cavern in that place, it was resolved, that we (the French consule and myself) should pay it a visit. In pursuance of this resolution, after we had landed on the island, and walked about four miles through the midst of beautiful plains, and sloping woodlands, we at length came to a little hill, on the side of which yawned a most horrid cavern, that, by its gloom, at first struck us with terror, and almost repressed curiosity.

3. " Recovering the first surprise, however, we entered

boldly; and had not proceeded above twenty paces, when the supposed statue of the giant presented itself to our view. We quickly perceived, that what the ignorant natives had been terrified at as a giant, was nothing more than a sparry concretion, formed by the water dropping from the roof of the cave, and by degrees hardening into a figure, which their fears had formed into a monster.

4. Incited' by this extraordinary appearance, we were induced to proceed still further, in quest of new adventures in this subterranean abode. As we proceeded, new wonders offered themselves; the spars," formed into trees and shrubs, presented a kind of petrified grove ; some white, some green; and all receding in due perspective. They struck us with the more amazement, as we knew them to be mere productions of nature, who, hitherto in solitude, had, in her playful moments, dressed the scene, as if for her own amusement.

5. "We had as yet seen but a few of the wonders of the place; and we were introduced only into the portico of this amazing temple. In one corner of this half illuminated recess, there appeared an opening of about three feet wide, which seemed to lead to a place totally dark, and which one of the natives assured us contained nothing more than a reservoir of water. Upon this information, we made an experiment, by throwing down some stones, which rumbling along the sides of the descent for some time, the sound seemed at last quashed" in a bed of


6. "In order, however, to be more certain, we sent in a Levantine mariner, who, by the promise of a good reward, ventured, with a flambeaus in his hand, into this narrow aperture. After continuing within it for about a quarter of an hour, he returned, bearing in bis hand, some beautiful pieces of white spar, which art could neither equal nor imitate. Upon being informed by him that the place was full of these beautiful incrustations, I ventured in once more with him, about fifty paces, anxiously and cautiously descending, by a steep and dangerous way.

7. " Finding, however, that we came to a precipice which led into a spacious amphitheatre, (if I may so call it,) still deeper than any other part, we returned, and being provided with a ladder, flambeau, and other things to expedite our descent, our whole company, man by man, ventured into the same opening; and descending one after

another, we at last saw ourselves all together in the most magnificent part of the cavern."

a Glit-ter-ing, brightly


glit'-tår-ing, shining sailor

Trans-pa-rent, trans-på'-rênt, clear, translucent

c Col-umn, kôl'-låm, a pillar, file of troops

i Am-phi-the-a-tre, ẩm-phê-thẻ-4-thr,

a building in a circular or oval form, having its area encompassed with rows of seats one above another

j Pres-sure, prêsh'-shure, force, oppres

d Throne, throne, the seat of a king
e Al-tar, àl'-tår, the place where offerk
ings to heaven are laid


Crys-tal,kris-tál, a hard pellucid stone E-gress, è'-grès, the act of going out f Re-ver-ber-a-tion, rẻ-ver-bẻr à ́-shou, m In-scrip-tion, in-skrip'-shun, some

the act of driving back, or sounding

g Ven-ture, vên'-tshère, to hazard, a


▲ Mar-in-er, már'-rin-år, a seaman, a

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thing written or engraved, a title Ob-lit-er-ate, ob-lit-ter-råte, to efface,

blot out

Pen-e-trate, pên'-nè-tråte, to pierce the surface

The grotto of Antiparos, continued.

1. "OUR candles being now all lighted up, and the whole place completely illuminated, never could the eye be presented with a more glittering, or a more magnificent scene. The whole roof hung with solid icicles, transparent as glass, yet solid as marble. The eye could scarcely reach the lofty and noble ceiling; the sides were regularly formed with spars; and the whole presented the idea of a magnificent theatre, illuminated with an immense profusion of lights.

2. "The floor consisted of solid marble; and in several places, magnificent columns, thrones, altars, and other objects, appeared, as if nature had designed to mock the curiosities of art. Our voices, upon speaking or singing, were redoubled to an astonishing loudness; and upon the firing of a gun, the noise and the reverberations were almost deafening.

3. "In the midst of this grand amphitheatre rose a concretion of about fifteen feet high, that, in some measure, resembled an altar; from which, taking the hint, we caused mass to be celebrated there. The beautiful columns that shot up round the altar, appeared like candlesticks; and many other natural objects represented the customary ornaments of this rite.

4. "Below even this spacious grotto, there seemed another cavern; down which I ventured with my former mariner, and descended about fifty paces by means of

a rope. I at last arrived at a small spot of level ground, where the bottom appeared different from that of the amphitheatre, being composed of soft clay, yielding to the pressure, and in which I thrust a stick to the depth of six feet. In this, however, as above, numbers of the most beautiful crystals were formed; one of which, 'particularly, resembled a table.

5. "Upon our egress' from this amazing cavern, we perceived a Greek inscription upon a rock at the mouth, but so obliterated" by time, that we could not read it distinctly. It seemed to import, that one Antipater, in the time of Alexander, had come hither; but whether he penetrated into the depths of the cavern, he does not think fit to inform us."-This account of so beautiful and striking a scene, may serve to give us some idea of the subterraneous wonders of nature.



a Ex-tend, êks-tênd', to stretch out, en-c Per-ish,per'-ish,to die, to be destroyed large d Prin-ci-pal, prin'-sè-pál, chief, capital

En-sue, en-sù', to follow, pursue

Earthquake at Catanea.

1. ONE of the earthquakes most particularly described in history, is that which happened in the year 1693; the damages of which were chiefly felt in Sicily, but its motion was perceived in Germany, France, and England. It extended to a circumference of two thousand six hundred leagues; chiefly affecting the sea coasts, and great rivers; more perceivable also upon the mountains than in the valleys.

2. Its motions were so rapid, that persons who lay at their length, were tossed from side to side, as upon a rolling billow. The walls were dashed from their foundations; and no fewer than fifty-four cities, with an incredible number of villages, were either destroyed or greatly damaged. The city of Catanea, in particular, was utterly overthrown. A traveller who was on his way thither, perceived, at the distance of some miles, a black cloud, like night, hanging over the place.

3. The sea, all of a sudden, began to roar; mount Etna to send forth great spires of flame; and soon after a shock ensued, with a noise as if all the artillery in the world had been at once discharged. Our traveller being obliged to alight instantly, felt himself raised a foot from

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