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515. Anio or Anien, now Teverone, a river of Italy, which has it's origin in the mountains of Umbria, interfects the country not far from Tivoli, and throwing itself from a confiderable height into the valley below, forms a moft magnificent cascade. It falls at length into the Tyber. The epithet limpid, which I have given it, though not without fome exception applicable to this river, is however adopted by my author;

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The Teverone, like moft of the rivers of Italy, is, in fome parts of it, too rapid and impetuous to be perfectly clear. Statius calls it Anien, and particularly notices the rocks among which it flows, and it's amazing impetuofity.and foam. But after a moft noify and turbulent courfe of feveral miles over rocks and mountains, in which it's stream is frequently broken by a number of cascades, brodi Mukun at I it defcends into a valley, where, fays Addifon, "it recovers it's

temper, as it were by little and little, and after many turns and MA doiden

windings, falls peaceably into the Tyber."

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Ipfe Aniens (miranda fides) intraq: fuperque

Saxeus, hic tumidam rabiem, fpumofaque ponit;


Stat. Silv. 1. 3.

So Silius Italicus.

Sulphureis gelidus qua ferpit leniter undis,

Ad genitorem Anio labens fine murmure Tibrim.

Here the loud Anio's boift'rous clamours ceafe,

That with fubmiffive murmurs glides in peace
To his old fire the Tyber.

The Anio divided the antient Latium from the territory of the Sabines,

I cannot difmifs this fubject without taking notice of a well known criticism on that paffage in Cato,

So the pure limpid ftream, when foul'd with ftains,'

which Bolingbroke has commended, in a letter to Pope, but which I think a very ridiculous one. This nobleman is of opinion, that Addison's expreffion must have been faulty, because a ftream cannot be pure and limpid, and yet foul with ftains. But before he is proved guilty of a bull, it must be fhewn that he has made his rivulet at one and the fame time limpid and yet foul; and it must be farther demonftrated, that a limpid ftream cannot be made foul. But the truth is, that a ftream may be pure in general, and yet foul in particular parts. Above all, what utterly deftroys the force of this criticism is, that a river, as

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well as every thing in nature, is to be denominated, not from an accident, but from it's general and prevailing qualities: confequently, Addison's ftream, being generally pure and limpid, was properly diftinguished by thofe epithets, notwithstanding the incidental circumftance of being fometimes fouled by torrents from the hills.

Our author had, no doubt, heard of the criticism in question; and as he never condefcended to alter the paffage, it is a fufficient proof that he defpifed it as it deferved. For a boy of fourteen, with all the petulance of that age about him, and with parts more fprightly than folid, it was, as Bolingbroke obferves, enough;' or rather, it was pardonable: but when his Lordship deigned to adopt it, he drew a bow at a venture, and criticised as if determined to bring his judgment into contempt.


But Bolingbroke had no heart;-and I have been the more particular in this note, because I suspect him to have been prejudiced against Addison as a Christian and a man of virtue; and to have criticifed with all the rancour of infidelity on his mind. He fpeaks of his poetry in general with a contempt it cannot deferve; and I beg leave to fay, that the only verfes of Lord Bolingbroke that I have seen, are far inferior to the worst that ever fell, in his most unpoetical moments, from the pen of Addifon.-Voltaire, another critic of the fame fchool, fays of Addison, that the gulph between tafte and genius, is immense.”

But he who has read the effays on the pleasures of imagination,

and denies him genius, either contradicts his judgment, or must be utterly ignorant in what genius confifts."

524. It is certainly no unimportant part of the office of a teacher, to discover the bent of his pupil's genius. As the wants of fociety could never fuffer that all should be engaged in the fame pursuits, nature has made a proper provifion in this cafe, by inftituting a wonderful diverfity of genius and talents.

To this purpose Triftram has felected feveral obfervations from Quintilian, and from Viperanus, de Ratione Docendi. From fome expreffions of the latter, one would fuppofe him an adept in judicial aftrology. "Genius, fays he, is not the fame in all; nor are all equally competent in the same arts, fince every man is not intended by nature for the profeffion of each. All have not the fame constitution of body; nor are born under the fame afpect of the heavens, and configuration of the ftars. Thus, there is an acumen in fome, which inclines them to logical disquisition; some are remarkable for memory, which is peculiarly requifite in the study of the law; while others are diftinguished by vigour and accuracy of judgment, which are of effential fervice in philofo phical purfuits.

562. This remark is agreeable to the advice of Quintilian, who would have all amorous compofitions concealed from the eye of youth. What would he have faid, had he lived in this cen tury, and feen what ftrange pieces are produced by modern. novelifts, for the inftruction of the rifing generation? But I mean not to condemn novels without distinction. Some of them, particularly thofe of Richardson, Brooke, and Moore, have the beft tendency; and are indeed, virtue teaching by examples.

612 to 619. Nothing can be more contemptible than the prefumption of thofe quacks in literature, who, because they have fucceeded in fome inftances, conceive themselves excellent in every. thing. Because a man has been fortunate in controversy, or has fome knowledge of divinity, muft he therefore be a great philo fopher, a judicious hiftorian, a physician, a naturalift, and a politician? How few know the limits of their own powers!

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It is certain, however, that he who would excel in poetry, fhould acquire a fund of general knowledge and obfervation. Plutarch fays, Δει τον παίδα τον ελεύθερον μηδε των άλλων των καλεμένων εγκυκλίων παιδευμάζων μῆνε ανήκουν, μπλε αθεατον εαν είναι. A liberal and well educated youth ought to have some acquaintance with the whole circle of fcience: but he adds, Arλá Tævla per ex wigidgouns μαθειν, ωσπεράνει γευματος ένεκεν, εν απασι γαρ το τέλειον αδυνατον, but this curforily, and as it were, by way of a tafle; for perfection in every thing is impoffible. So that, in his judgment, fome things are to be known accurately and completely; while in others a general view is fufficient. In the former, the poet ftudies for matter; in the latter, for ornament or illuftration. Nullam poeta fcientiam afpernabitur, fays Voffius; quarundam tamen guftus fuffecerit, faltem in iis partibus, unde ornatus aliquid accedere poemati poffit. The poet will think no fcience beneath his notice. Of fome, however, a tafte will be fufficient, at least in thofe parts which are admitted into poetry merely for the embellishments which they afford.

626. The wanderings of Ulyffes are the chief fubject of the Odyssey of Homer, who is generally confidered not only as the

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