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of Japanese soil. The Imperial Earthquake Committee had, it is true, recommended a certain type of building as offering the greatest guarantees of security, but unfortunately it has not, as yet, been widely adopted.

The information at present being received regarding reconstruction measures seems to indicate that Japan understands perfectly the importance of this problem, and that she is making every effort not only to wipe out the traces of past suffering but also to ensure greater safety for the future. The question of removing the sites of both Tokyo

and Yokohama has been discussed but the latest information states that they are to be rebuilt on the same sites. This is not surprising for these sites have proved their value from the economic

point of view and the damage to Yokohama's deep-water harbour is not irreparable. The entire Pacific coast of Japan is in the earthquake zone so that the risk is no greater at one point than another. The question of the type of building to be put up is not the only one which is occupying the minds of the Japanese reconstruction authorities. Many distinguished Japanese have studied town-planning and some interesting schemes are being put forward by them. These plans, if carried out, are likely to lead to a marked improvement in public health. In spite of the terrible blow dealt her, Japan is looking with courage and confidence towards the future.

Since the above article was written, further details of the relief work being carried out by the Japanese Red Cross have been received direct from headquarters in Tokyo. The following passage is of particular interest to those who have contributed funds to the Japanese Red Cross :

A provisional Japanese Red Cross relief committee has been established to centralize and coordinate the relief work of the various sanitary detachments so that nothing shall be left undone. The earthquake having been even more severe in the district of Kanagawa (around Yokohama) than in Tokyo, a section of the service of this committee has been attached to the Kanagawa branch of

the Red Cross. The future programme for the district of Tokyo is as follows :

1. Immediately to add to the Central Red Cross Hospital three temporary huts capable of accommodating 300 ordinary cases and 50 infectious disease cases, and one hut for maternity


2. To make arrangements to receive 600 patients in Asakusa, Shitaya, Honjo and Fukagawa, as the arrangements for sick and wounded in these places

are insufficient. These accommodations to be

expanded if necessary.

3. To improve the organization of the 29 aid posts already established, making certain of them permanent, taking into account the position of the refugee huts erected by the municipality. It is

also intended to add to each aid post an ambulance service to connect it with the hospital and with other aid posts.

4. To assist the public authorities in their campaign against dysentery and typhus, which are beginning to break out. Instructions will be given to all ambulance units as well as to sanitary detachments to notify all suspected cases, to disinfect and to destroy anything likely to transmit infection.

5. To instruct the survivors in the devastated towns how to prevent the spread of infectious diseases and to teach them elementary rules of hygiene, as none are free from the threat of disease. 6. To distribute milk to new-born babies and to children who are in need of care.

Similar arrangements have been made for the district of Kanagawa. In Yokohama almost all the hospitals were destroyed so the Red Cross is immediately putting up a temporary hutted hospital capable of accommodating 500 patients. The municipal authorities intend to build a 500bedded hospital and it is with the idea of helping them that the Red Cross has planned its temporary hospital.

The Red Cross relief service is also active in the districts of Chiba, Saitama, Shizucka and Yamanashi, which, although they suffered less than Tokyo and Yokohama, are also badly in need of help.

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In June, 1923, the Red Cross Society of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes decided to inaugurate "Red Cross Days" as recommended by the League of Red Cross Societies. These "Days" were celebrated simultaneously throughout the whole country. Lectures were given in all schools, universities, barracks and public meeting places. Several of the daily newspapers devoted a special number to Red Cross propaganda, and published articles recalling the origin of the Red Cross institution and explaining its mission in the world.

In Belgrade, the capital of Yugo-Slavia, particularly imposing manifestations took place. The President of the Red Cross Central Committee made the opening speech in presence of the King, the Patriarch and representatives of all philanthropic societies, both public and private. He described the work of the Red Cross in war and in peace, emphasizing particularly the advantages which membership in the International Red Cross Committee and in the League of Red Cross Societies gives it in all international relations.

opening of a holiday camp at the foot of Mount Avala in the midst of a pine forest, where a hundred children requiring change of air will be cared for each summer.

Dr. Jovanovitch-Batut, Professor in the University of Belgrade, gave a public lecture on the third day, in which he dwelt particularly on the rôle of the Red Cross in the anti-epidemic campaign. This last day being a Sunday, special sermons were preached in all churches throughout the kingdom and the Patriarch made a moving appeal for the Red Cross in Belgrade Cathedral.

On all three days garden fêtes, bazaars, gymnastic competitions and concerts were organized for the benefit of the Red Cross. The latter had arranged a demonstration ambulance service and first aid posts in all the more important


These Red Cross Days organized by the SerboCroato-Slovene Red Cross were most successful. In addition to the practical results achieved, they helped to spread the Red Cross idea even to the farthest corners of the Kingdom, and contributed

The second Red Cross Day was marked by the greatly to its development.

by Theodora GEORGE

"The teacher, whether mother, priest or schoolmaster, is the real maker of history, and the school will shape the destiny of to-morrow. It is fitting, therefore, that the educational forces of the world should join hands in sympathetic comradeship". So wrote the National Educational Association of the United States in its preliminary announcement and invitation to a World Conference on Education, held at San Francisco from June 28th to July 6th last. Not in school only is the teacher a maker of history. Now that the conference is over and one can look back and take a comprehensive survey of the results, the conviction comes home to one, with all the more force that it is shorn of the enthusiasm of the moment, that the decisions taken at San Francisco will be epoch-making in their effects on education.

The most important business of the conference was the formation of the International Federation of Teachers Associations. The provisional constitution as adopted provides that the Federation as a whole and the sub-divisions for Europe, Asia and the Americas, shall meet yearly. The following temporary officers were elected President, A. O. Thomas, education commissioner of the state of Maine, and presiding officer of the San Francisco Conference; Vice-presidents, P. W. Kuo, president of the national Southwestern University of China, and E. J. Sainsbury, president of the National Union of Teachers of England and Wales; Directors, M. Sawayanagi, president of the Imperial Education Society of Japan, R. V. Gogate of India, George Pringle of Scotland, Anthanagoras Kavados of Greece, Harry Charlesworth of Canada, and H. D. Showalter of the United States. These directors are to carry on the activities of the Federation during the time intervening between meetings. A large joint meeting of the world Education Conference and the National Education Association was addressed by Dr. Henry Noble Mac Cracken, President of Vassar College, and first director of the Junior American Red Cross. His

theme was The World as a Social Laboratory " and he said in part :

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At the present time so far as I know the only world-wide organization of school children that exists for the purpose of learning in this laboratory is the Junior Red Cross. Last Christmas, in the rooms of the Imperial Palace where the former Archduke Franz Ferdinand had lived, whose death was a signal that started the war, I saw the annual exhibition of the Austrian Junior Red Cross.

"The Superintendent of the City Schools told me that the exhibition was the first revelation that the citizens of Vienna had had of the artistic and productive capacity realized in their schools. To-day throughout Austria the Junior Red Cross is carrying out, not a health game but a health battle for the children of that country. It is an almost desperate fight for life and under trained teachers 150,000 children are engaged in it to-day.

"Last fall at Vilna in northern Poland, only

a few miles from the Russian border, I saw the Junior Red Cross at work caring for the little Polish refugees as they came out of Bolshevist Russia. Critical though the condition of Poland is the country is still generously receiving distressed children from other lands.

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Elsewhere in Europe the Junior Red Cross is at work in more constructive ways of organization and of education. Monthly magazines describing its activities appear in Swedish, Polish, Czech, German, Italian and the languages of the Balkan States. This fall a new programme begins in the three Republics of the Baltic. In all, over thirty countries of the world have organized the Junior Red Cross as an integral part of their school system. Through its activities the children are learning in ways suited to their growth the nature of the world's social laboratory and their own opportunities in it.

'How can education meet this demand which from the point of view of human suffering and sorrow is the primary obligation of mankind?

Only by awakening in formative years the enthusiasm for service. Only by introducing the world to school children as a great social laboratory in which they can observe the needs of those who for one reason or another have become disassociated from normal self-sustaining life. Only in letting them learn by doing the tasks that will resocialize their fellows.

"From the point of view of world education, the primary need is knowledge by children of each other. Through school correspondence and through studies of international civics children. can learn the essential similarities among children of the world. By studying the history of social work, by reading the lives of heroes and heroines. of service their purposes can be formed. "


The discussions of the conference were carried on by groups to which were assigned definite subjects. The character of the discussions will be seen in the following list of the topics assigned to the various groups: (Group A) International co-operation; (B) Dissemination of Educational Information, by means of exchange of educational information, a universal library and by the exchange of teachers and professors; (C) Conduct between Nations, with the sub-headings of World Civics and Ethics, Textbook Materials and Inter-School Correspondence as promoted by the Junior Red Cross; (D) International Ideals in Character Education, World Peace, Debt of the Present Generation to the Future, Social Studies and an International Good Will Day; (E) Health Aspect of the World's Children, starting with a statement of Health Education in the World To-day, and discussing Contributions of Physicians and Dentists, the Place of the Nurse, Contributions from the Field of Nutrition, Physical Education, Essentials of a Curriculum in Health Education, Preparation of Teachers and Supervisors and the Contributions of Non-School Agencies; (F) Universal Education, by means of the Removal of Illiteracy, the Education of Women, Thrift Education and a Balance of Liberal and Vocational in Education; and (G) Rural Life Conservation, with discussion of reports of Rural Life

Conditions, Rural Life Movement, Conditions of Rural Schools and their Improvement and the Rural Church and its Mission.

All of the groups were addressed by interesting speakers, but the two groups whose subject matter would most naturally draw the attention of Red Cross members are Group C, with its discussion of Junior Red Cross school correspondence and Group E, on the Health of the World's Children. This group, which was also an International Health Education Conference, had as its chairman Professor Thomas D. Wood, Professor of Physical Education, Columbia University, and Vice-president of the American Child Health Association. The comprehensive programme for this group was the combined achievement of the Departments of Child Hygiene and of Physical Education of the American National Education Association, the American School Hygiene Association, the American Child Health Association and the Joint Committee on Health Problems of the National Education Association and the American Medical Association. The problems on the programme were presented by a number of experts, whose papers will appear in full in the proceedings of the Conference, which will be published this fall by the American Child Health Association and which should be of special interest to health workers.

In the session devoted to the training of teachers and leaders for health education, the point most emphasized was the need for a high standard of scientific training in physiology, hygiene and nutrition. One of the speakers made a significant comment on present day normal school training in these subjects, the result of which is that "under the present system of textbook teaching the repeated inoculations of textbook doses develop so high a degree of resistance to germs of knowledge that the latter are promptly eliminated from the system as soon as examinations are over ".


Informal discussions of methods and devices in health teaching were carried on at round table meetings. The reports from Mexico, China and Japan were especially interesting, but perhaps no single piece of health work for children is more

notable than that carried on in Belgium since the war. It was reported to the Conference by Mile Kaiser, Directrice of the Colony for Debilitated Children at Brussels.

Toward the close of the Conference the more general aspects of the problem of health education were considered,-its importance, its place in the school programme, the underlying educational principles, and its objective: " to give health its place in the complete life of the child ".

The discussions in Group C, on World Civics and Ethics, Textbook Materials and Inter-School Correspondence were most interesting. Mr. Arthur W. Dunn, National Director of the Junior American Red Cross was chairman of this group, and Mr. C.H. Li of China, secretary.

A memorandum submitted by Mr. Li gave definiteness to the discussion almost from the beginning. He expressed the opinion that principles must first be set up on which to found the teaching of world civics, and that a method of applying them should be devised. He suggested as essential a knowledge of the characteristics of other nations, a campaign against wars brought on by ambition, the investigation and correction of misleading statements regarding other nations, a better understanding of the culture of other countries, and the censoring of moving pictures misrepresenting other lands. After the adoption of these principles, a committee of three was appointed to frame the resolutions to be presented to the plenary session. They were: Miss E. Landazuri, representing the Mexican Secretary of Education, Mr. Li, delegate from China, and Mr. R. P. Lane, formely in charge of the European work of the Junior American Red Cross.

Meetings of the group were addressed by M. Dronsart, Director-General of the Belgian Red Cross; Mr. Bunker of the Pan-Pacific Union; Miss Theodora George of the League of Red Cross Societies; Mr. H. B. Wilson, Superintendent of Schools, Berkely, California; Dr. C. R. Mann, Chairman of the Advisory Board, General Staff, United States War Department, and Secretary of the National American Council; and by Mr. Lane and Mr. Dunn.

The three topics given for the consideration of Group C World Civics and Ethics, Textbook

Materials and Inter-school Correspondence, were considered by its members as being so closely interrelated that they were practically one subject for discussion. In presenting the resolutions to the plenary session Mi. Dunn, who had been chosen by the group as its delegate, brought out this fact very clearly.

The three resolutions, as passed by the plenary session, are given here. Although that on school correspondence does not specifically mention Junior Red Cross, yet it was Junior Red Cross school correspondence which was under discussion.


Whereas the only hope for the achievement of permanent peace and goodwill among nations lies in the realization by future generations that the world is dependent for its very existence upon organized co-operation in every department of life and is thus a single great community in which every individual enjoys certain benefits and bears certain responsibilities; therefore,

Be it resolved that the World Conference on Education request the proper educational body of each country to outline for its own schools a system of training that will cultivate in children. attitudes of mind and habits of thought and action appropriate to effective membership in this world community, such outlines to be presented to the next World Conference for comparison, discussion and publication throughout the world.

The following recommendations are respectfully submitted:

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