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In order that the Junior Red Cross movement of a country may have real life it must have a definite constructive policy and purpose stated in clear terms. The main interest of the first of three pamphlets recently issued by the Czecho-Slovak Junior Red Cross is its manner of meeting this uecessity. It explains the general principles underlying the movement in Czecho-Slovakia: education in citizenship, in self-government, in self-reliance, in personal cleanliness and hygiene, in neighbourliness and in gardening. It gives practical details of organization, such as membership through school groups, relations to be maintained between the various groups and the national Society, suggestions for the administration of local groups, cost of insignia and membership. The Central Organization also informs the Junior membership that it is prepared to give assistance through its Junior magazine, by supplying books at reduced prices and pamphlets on hand-work, gardening, school correspondence and other Junior activities, and by encouraging school correspondence between different regions and countries.

In the second and third pamphlet we find more detailed directions for carrying out two of the activities of this programme. Pamphlet No. 2 is a practical manual on gardening by Dr. Anna Berkovcova. This is a rearrangement by subjects of the seasonal articles on gardening which have been appearing each month in the Czecho-Slovak Junior Red Cross magazine. Explicit directions are given as to the preparation of the ground, planting, making hot-beds, pruning and training of fruit trees, and other subjects interesting to young gardeners. The pamphlet is illustrated with diagrams of gardens, pictures of tools, and with planting tables for both flowers and vegetables. So far as we know, this is the first pamphlet which has been issued by any Junior organization on the subject of gardening.

Pamphlet No. 3, on School Correspondence, is also illustrated and contains, besides the customary snggestions as to form, a long list of subjects about which the children may profitably write : the history, geography and botany of their country;

the nationalities, religions and customs of its inhabitants; the form of government and the national culture, the schools, the books and the magazines; public health administration, hospitals and sanatoria and health laws; social organizations, such as the Red Cross and similar societies; the financial system of the country; transportation, manufactures and home industries; housekeeping, sports, student life, and art. If these suggestions are followed, the school correspondence of the Czecho-Slovak children ought to be not only interesting but valuable to the children in their own or other countries who may have the good fortune to receive it.

A TEXT BOOK OF HEALTH.

T.G.

The associate professor of physical education, Teachers College, Columbia University, has written what is probably the first text book of hygiene specifically designed for college courses (1). He

deserves all our gratitude, not only as a pioneer, but equally for his well-balanced judgment and idealistic point of view. To him "health is more than perfect digestion, more than perfect bodily functions". He insists that hygiene can never be an academic subject merely to be learned-it is useful only as it is lived. Health he defines as "the quality of life that renders the individual fit to live most and to serve best ". It will be readily understood that a book written in this spirit is not likely to breed valetudinarians. The first five chapters are concerned with the author's philosophy of health, its social implications, the influences of heredity and environment, the possibilities of health education and so forth. Thereafter the main organic systems are discussed seriatim, in clear non-technical language, illustrated by charts and diagrams which might often be clearer and with a few slips in detail that will doubtless be corrected in a second edition. A great deal of space is well devoted to the exposure of patent medicine frauds, and the improperly trained cults that practise spurious healing in

(1) Personal Hygiene Applied, by J. F. Williams, A.B., M.D. Philadelphia and London: W. B. Saunders Co. 1922. Pp. 412.

some parts of America come in for deserved castigation.

Numerous footnotes guide the reader to sources of more detailed information, while an excellent index makes the book useful as a work of reference. It is clear that the writer has had experience in teaching hygiene to lay students for he has foreseen many of the questions which are bound to arise in the minds of intelligent pupils and provided wise replies. The book may be recommended to all adults who seek the scientific background of the growing collection of pamphlets about their own and their children's health. J.R.E.

POSITIVE HEALTH.

That health is something positive and progressive and not merely the antithesis of disease is the conviction which the Women's Foundation for Health sets out to teach in a series of six pamphlets (1) issued recently, in co-operation with the Council on Health and Public Instruction of the American Medical Association and the Bureau of Social Education of the National Board of the Young Women's Christian Associations. The Foundation is an organization for the correlation of the health plans of fifteen leading American women's organizations, and as such should reach a wide public, including medical women, university women, business and professional women, as well as the working women and girls of America's women's clubs and Young Women's Christian Associations. Women in other parts of the world will find much to interest them in the series.

(1) Positive Health Series, Women's Foundation for Health Inc. 1922, American Medical Association Press, 535 North Dearborn St., Chicago.

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I confess I was a little disappointed, on opening Pamphlet One, to find myself confronted with long and detailed instructions regarding medical examinations, apparently addressed to physicians, and both this section and that in Pamphlet Two entitled Local Health Foundations" are of more interest to health administrators than to eager women seeking out the shortest way to positive health. This disappointment was, however, quickly forgotten in delight at the clever match-stick figures illustrating the physical exercises. The same illustrator, apparently, opens Pamphlet Two with an amusing cartoon entitled “ What is your grade of health?" in which the same little figures perform quaint antics varying according to their state of health.

In the third pamphlet Professor MacCollum writes on nutrition, in the fourth, Dr. William A. White's fascinating article on mental hygiene entitled "Living at our best ", is followed by an article on "Bringing up Children ", by Dr. Jesse Taft. Pamphlet Five, by Dr. Walter B. Cannon is entitled "The Heritage of Life", and contains a clear explanation, written in simple language, of the functions of reproduction. This, to my mind, is the best of the series, for the author has gone to considerable trouble to avoid technical terms. The series ends with Pamphlet Six on Recreation.

Taken as a whole, these pamphlets illustrate well the conviction that "health is normal and realizable— a condition of being which allows an individual the full development and mastery of herself the powers of her physical body, her mental processes, her emotional force, her spiritual expression".

N.H.

Le Gérant: LYMAN BRYSON

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THE LEAGUE OF RED CROSS SOCIETIES AND ITS PROGRAMME

The Red Cross is the symbol of human compassion. It was their pity for the suffering and unaided victims of the battle of Solferino, (June 24th, 1859) that moved Henry Dunant and his friends to take the first steps which led to the formation of the International Red Cross Committee in 1863, and to the signature in 1864 of the Geneva Convention, under which the rights of the wounded in wartime were officially recognized. Red Cross Societies have since been formed in nearly every country.

In 1919 on the initiative of Mr. Henry P. Davison, Chairman of the War Council of the American Red Cross, the Red Cross Societies of America, France, Great Britain, Italy and Japan founded the League of Red Cross Societies, with the object of applying the spirit and organization of the Red Cross, in peacetime, to the improvement of public health throughout the world. The permanent Secretariat of the League, established in Geneva in 1919 and transferred to Paris in 1922, is a central office equipped to collect and distribute information bearing on the peacetime work of Red Cross Societies, and to assist them in planning and carrying out their programmes. The Secretariat also acts as the collective representative of the national Societies

belonging to the League, and in this capacity maintains close co-operative relations with the Health Section of the League of Nations, the Office International d'Hygiène Publique, the International Labour Office, and the more important non-official international health organizations.

The General Council, which is the supreme authority of the League, meets at least once every two years, It comprises delegates from all Red Cross Societies, members of the League. At its second meeting, in 1922, the Council recommended to all Red Cross Societies the adoption of peacetime programmes aimed especially at the development in their several countries of popular health instruction, public health nursing and Junior Red Cross organization. This is the basis upon which Red Cross Societies throughout the world are working to-day.

The Board of Governors of the League meets annually. It consists of representatives of each of the five founder societies, ten nominees of societies designated by the General Council, and the Director-General and Secretary-General. The Board of Governors directs the policy of the League in pursuance of the resolutions of the General Council.

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The World's Health

A MONTHLY REVIEW PUBLISHED BY

THE LEAGUE OF RED CROSS SOCIETIES

The contents of THE WORLD'S HEALTH are not copyrighted. Societies or publications are welcome to reprint or to reproduce material but it is requested that acknowledgement be made. Contributions will be considered from any source on the international phases of health and welfare.

CONTENTS

“THE VIKING", by Jens MEINICH.

Pages

2

BY PRECEPT OR PRACTICE, by Hermann TOBLER .

4

7

EDUCATION FOR LIFE
TRANSPORT OF THE SICK AND WOUNDED, by Dr. Armand VINCENT
HEALTH IN THE EAST.

.

THE "TRUCE" OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA, by Joseph GROH .

14

THE CANADIAN RED CROSS AND ITS PEACETIME PROGRAMME, by Major Frederick

DAVY, 0.B.E.

15

NURSES AND SOCIAL MEDICINE, by Professor Léon BERNARD.

21

PREVENTORIUMS FOR CHILDREN, by Dr. Georges KUSS.

24

THE EXTENT OF THE DRUG EVIL, by Ellen N. LA Motte
MUNICIPAL MILK CONTROL IN TORONTO, by Colonel George G. NASMITH, C.M. G., D.Sc.,
D.P.H., and Dr. Ruggles GEORGE, B.A., M.B. .

26

.

28

CONFERENCES.

BOOK REVIEWS .

31

32

THE REPORT OF THE ORIENTAL RED CROSS CONFERENCE, HELD IN BANGKOK LAST DECEMBER, IS IN COURSE OF PREPARATION AND WILL SHORTLY BE PUBLISHED (IN ENGLISH). THAT of the eastERN EUROPEAN RED CROSS CONFERENCE, HELD IN WARSAW IN APRIL, will alsO APPEAR SHORTLY (IN FRENCH AND IN GERMAN).

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