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health nurses of their own, giving them a training equivalent to that given in the recognized schools. This effort is all the more interesting and the more useful in that it will attract more Red Cross nurses to public health nursing and will thus provide a supply of trained nurses and superintendents for Red Cross public health activities.

In reality the part taken by the Red Cross in the recruiting and training of public health nurses is more important than would appear from the statistics of public health nurses graduating from Red Cross schools; whatever these figures may be, the service rendered to the nation by the establishment of these schools is considerable. The fact alone that the Red Cross is organizing such courses is excellent propaganda in favour of public health nursing-a career which, in France, is very little known, sometimes discredited (even by doctors) and often avoided. Discussions of the subject by local committees and the publication of articles in Red Cross bulletins will spread the new ideas regarding mutual aid and the value and dignity of social welfare work. Difficulties will disappear and phthisiophobia, formerly so widespread and still in existence, will die out by degrees, while health organizations will become better known to the general public and, consequently, will obtain more support. Public health nurses, looked upon more sympathetically and given more help in their difficult work, will be able to accomplish more and will have better resources placed at their disposal, and many real vocations for nursing will be revealed, which might never otherwise have been discovered.

That point is important for there is danger that the health campaign may cease for lack of combatants! The rapid development of social work since the war has not been accompanied by a corresponding increase in the number of candidates for public health nursing. The lack of available nurses which now threatens health organizations is a great danger, for training schools would impose severer restrictions and would more frequently reject unsuitable candidates, instead of giving them diplomas, if they did not need their services. Such a necessity is likely to throw discredit on the excellent nurses who are fortunately in the majority. Let us hope that Red Cross pro

paganda will raise the recruiting standard for public health nurses and that public authorities will realize the advantage of encouraging Red Cross training schools and of procuring reliable situations for their graduate nurses where they will meet with the consideration due to them.

I think we have the right to suppose (and I upheld this opinion at the meeting of the directors of the National Committee) that the clientèle of Red Cross Societies is a more promising recruiting ground for social welfare workers than the clientèle of hospital training schools, not only because it is more extensive but also because it is a more likely home for those having a real vocation for nursing. Many women who have worked voluntarily for the Red Cross, without any particular thought as to the future, may be led to think of social work as a career-a career which is badly paid in France and which few trained nurses are willing to take up, but which is worthy of highminded women.

From this point of view, as well as from the point of view of the development of social welfare work, we must be thankful for the growing number of Red Cross anti-tuberculosis dispensaries. In many of these dispensaries, owing to lack of personnel, part of the work is performed by assistants holding certificates only for elementary instruction. in public health work. This method is satisfactory if the assistants work under good nurses and perform only assistant's duties. I am even of opinion that every anti-tuberculosis dispensary, public or private, would find it an advantage to relegate a considerable portion of the work to persons having had only a short technical training. Such a plan would add considerably to the amount of work performed by the public health nurses by saving their time, which would be a great advantage. As General Pau said, in the speech already quoted: "A great many of these assistants, being thus launched in public health work, and in the care of those suffering from tuberculosis and other diseases, will become so interested in it. that they will want to continue their training so as to be able to render more skilled service on a more ambitious scale. Probably the majority will specialize in one branch of public health and will be content to work in a subordinate position, but

there is no doubt that among them will be women anxious to obtain a complete technical training for the diploma of public health nurse". Whether these workers continue to serve voluntarily in public health organizations or whether they complete their professional training matters little; they will in any case swell the ranks of the visiting nurses upon whose services public health dispensaries are dependent.

The value of public health nurses does not depend only upon their intelligence or even upon their technical training. What counts most is their con

scientiousness, their high conception of their duty towards society, and their spirit of self-sacrifice and devotion. These fine moral qualifications are to be found in every social stratum, but they are more likely to be met with in women who have already worked for the Red Cross, who have submitted to strict discipline and who have had the experience of several years of preparatory work under supervision, rather than in candidates who are unknown and who have not been accustomed to work in a well-disciplined group. Security for the future often lies in the past.




President of the Bulgarian Junior Red Cross.

When the organization of the Junior Red Cross in Bulgaria had been decided upon, and the work of establishing it was under way, the administrative council could not but see the advantages of adopting for its purposes the compulsory labour week in the schools, which, as we shall see, is closely allied in principle to the ideal of the Junior Red Cross, because of the training in citizenship and in a sense of social responsibility implied in its programme.

The history of modern education in Bulgaria is connected with the history of our struggle for political liberation, which began more than a half century ago. The more advanced spirits, realizing that one of their most important weapons in this endeavour was enlightenment, founded schools in all parts of the country, with a programme of general elementary education and classical culture. As time went on, however, this programme was modified and practical work began to be introduced. More attention has always been given in our schools to drawing than to any other technical subject, resulting in the establishment in Sofia, at a comparatively early date, of an Academy of Art. Needlework for girls has been emphasized from the beginning, and in our training

schools for elementary teachers a great deal o attention has always been given to various forms of hand-work. The musical education of our youth has been so well developed that we already have an Academy of Music at Sofia. Thirty years ago Swiss instructors were invited to Bulgaria to teach gymnastics in our schools. Our athletic organizations are rapidly increasing in number and improving in quality, and general participation in sport and touring are making rapid strides.

Sofia University has developed as follows: in 1890 the historical, philosophical, physical and mathematical departments were opened to prepare teachers for our state gymnasia (high schools); then the Law School was added to the faculty, followed by the Medical School, and, finally, by the Agricultural and Theological departments.

The great war, however, with its inconveniences, hardships and misery, undermined the foundations on which society rested. This critical period compelled every individual, according to his age and spiritual culture, to choose one of two courses in order to satisfy the needs of life, either to take to

Editors's Note. The article in the February Number on the Junior Red Cross in Bulgaria aroused so much interest in the operation of Compulsory Labour laws among children that this further account of the institution is offered as explanation.

profiteering or to resort to physical labour. For those who continued to live according to the old conceptions the situation became every day more onerous and overwhelming. The young people, in the meantime, were influenced by necessity to acquire a different spirit, and to seek to become practical and skilful in order to secure the essentials of life. They betook themselves also more and more to outdoor life. In this way purely mental work came more and more to take a secondary place in the estimate of the younger gener


As a result of this social change, when the war was over, these labouring people began to feel that the intellectual class was poorly prepared for its rôle of providing the nation's leaders, that their spirit was foreign to that of the common people, and many people turned their attention to the edu cational system, in order to find out the cause of this inefficiency. A turning point in the development of our educational system had been reached, the time had come to give a more important place to skill and professional training than to classicism. and general humanitarianism.

As soon as the present Minister of Education Stoyan Omarchevsky, assumed office, in 1920, he considered it his duty to start reforms in the administration of his ministry; he therefore issued a special circular to the schools containing the following orders: (1) manual training must be taught as far as possible in connexion with each subject in all the schools; (2) school gardens and farms must be begun at once and worked on the co-operative basis; (3) all pupils who desire it must be given courses in the care of orchards and vineyards, the raising of bees, silkworms,

etc.; (4) there must be a department of manual work in every school, to teach modelling, cardboard work, carpentry, wood-carving, etc. and special attention must be given to needlework for the girls; (5) simple workshops must be arranged for students who desire training in shoemaking, tailoring, cabinet-making, etc.; (6) organizations must be formed for making the Fatherland more beautiful and healthful, for filling up swamps, repairing fountains, destroying harmful insects, cleaning the streets, etc.; (7) the pupils are to widen and deepen their knowledge and experience through excursions; (8) summer camps (colonies) are to be formed, where the pupils will not only rest and play, but where they will form labour bands to help in the work of the nearby villages; (9) organizations of student societies for national games and dances, touring clubs, etc. and (10) the school must do its best to encourage the pupils to take active part in every form of family work, as it takes advantage of family life.

During 1919, the National Assembly passed a law providing for the formation of the so-called Labour Bureau, whose task it was to direct and supervise compulsory labour for all youths, twenty years old and over, who were to be gathered into battalions to learn not how to fight, but how to work for their country. The girls, also, from



sixteen to twenty years of age were to be gathered together for compulsory labour assigned in accordance with their strength, ability and future life work. Besides this, all citizens between twenty and fifty years of age were to be liable to special unpaid physical service for a period of ten days each year for such duties as the authorities might call on them to fulfil.


According to this law school children were exempt from any compulsory community work, but it was evident that obligatory labour for a few days each year could well be used as a means of educating the children; therefore, on February 25, 1921, the Ministry of Education sent a circular letter to the schools establishing a week in March for compulsory community work for school children under the direct supervision of the teachers. This read, in part, as follows :

"The purpose of this service is to organize and utilize our working powers for social purposes, in order that production and good order may be improved; to cultivate in our citizens, no matter what their social position or wealth may be, a liking for social work and physical labour; to raise the moral and economic standard of the nation by cultivating in the citizens a consciousness of their duties towards themselves and towards society, and to teach the citizens rational methods of work, in all branches of national economy.

"This compulsory work has great pedagogical value. It points the way to solid social training, and it should, of course, be utilized in the schools. "It is impossible to think of a radical remodelling of our national life if the citizens are not thoroughly imbued with the consciousness that they are a unit and are responsible for it, that only through their mutual efforts has it been possible to do the worth while things, that they owe to this unit support in every respect, and with the feeling that only intensive labour can create the material and spiritual culture of the nation, and that the real pillar of a solid society is hard work.

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with all his might for the awakening of this socia! sense, and, which is more important, to change it into deeds. Such training is difficult work, and the material and spiritual consequences of the war make it still more difficult. Teachers know this well. This training requires new methods, and the teachers pointed them out a long time ago.

"Since organized productive labour is the thing which raises the common citizen to a position where he is a creator of material and spiritual national wealth, and since mental and physical work are mutually helpful, and as their combination promotes the development of the human spirit; and since the great value of manual labour consists not only in gaining practical knowledge or dexterity, but in its power as a real educational stimulus... because through labour pupils become acquainted with the fundamental needs of life and the methods for their rational satisfaction, and, lastly, since through labour can be cultivated at substantial civic spirit and will for our social life, therefore the Ministry believes that in this moment when all citizens are asked to do compulsory labour in the name of a social ideal, it will be of high educational importance if the pupils also are called on to do this social work. ".

This circular granted a large degree of freedom to the teachers planning the work, fixed the working day at eight hours, and provided that the children. should go to and from their work in ordered ranks. It was stated that it was desirable that the pupils should begin with work requiring no special tools, and connected with school needs, for example, cleaning the school building, leveling and paving the school grounds and planting them with trees, enclosing the grounds with hedges, making a relief of the locality in the school yard or making school furniture. It was further suggested that they might improve the grounds of the church or townhall, make archaeological excavations, make cottages for summer use, cultivate the state land, the products of which could be utilized by the same pupils. Any technical work was to be supervised by specialists therein from the nearest centre.

The educational effect of this practical work was so beneficial that the institution of labour week has been entered definitely on the schoo! statute books. According to this statute the work

of the teachers in supervising the school children. was to be counted as their share of compulsory labour. At this time also the National Assembly passed a law, not only establishing a number of professional schools, but adding to the programmes of the primary schools and gymnasia such subjects as manual training, national economy, co-operation and book-keeping. In order to carry on this .new work it was necessary to establish training courses for teachers, lasting from one to several months. The number of teachers attending these courses has been considerable, and exhibitions of their work have been held.

After the Junior Red Cross organization had been started in Bulgaria its educational side so appealed to the Minister of Education that he

included the following in a circular letter to the teachers in the spring of 1922:


Since the labour principle has now been accepted in all the schools, the Ministry recommends that the physical labour of the pupils should be organized according to the aims of the Junior Red Cross, and to be so arranged that they may be in a position to give donations in money, clothes, food or other material. These donations in money, clothes or food may be used for local or other purposes, in accordance with the statutes and by-laws of the Junior Red Cross."

When the teachers arrange the programmes of the compulsory labour week, they must take into consideration the aims of the Red Cross Organization. The Junior groups themselve must try to establish their own work-rooms for boys and girls, either with their own means or with the help of town and school authorities and charitable organizations."

The first step in this direction was made during the compulsory labour week of October, 1922, when the children in the girls schools worked for the Red Cross organization--embroidering, knitting, making pictures. All these articles were sold by lottery to make money for the Junior organization. The administrative council of

the Junior Red Cross has prepared a circular letter to send to all the Junior groups,directing them how to obtain the best results, in accordance, of course, with local conditions and wishes. But, we must repeat again, all depends on the goodwill and efforts of the teachers. We must encourage them and make them sympathize with our Red Cross organiza




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