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and steel production were originally carried on there by the Tennessee Coal Iron Railway Company, employing negroes condemned to hard labour; it would seem that the very low wages and the compulsory nature of the work would make for easy and economical product ion. On the contrary, the results were so bad that no time was lost in replacing the convicts by free labourers. But nothing was done at first for the health and well-being of the workers. In 1913, without any official intervention, without a strike, or pressure of any kind, the directors, with a view to increasing the output, put into practice a vast programme of reforms workmen's houses were built, as well as clubs, schools, hospitals and dispensaries; a water-system was installed, drains, showerbaths, cloakrooms and gardens were provided, so that Birmingham to-day is one of the few industrial cities which breathes the joy of living. And the result was not long in making itself felt : the workmanship became better and more uniform, the output was greater, and both salaries and dividends increased.

THE WAR AND WELFARE WORK

During the Great War huge armament and munition factories were established in many countries, and the demand arose for a vast army of women workers. With a view as much to facilitating the recruiting of this army and increasing production as from humanitarian considerations, steps were taken to ensure favourable working conditions for these women. In England, a special department of social welfare work was instituted at the Ministry of Munitions. Under the direction of Mr. Seebohm B. Rowntree and Mr. Robert R. Hyde, this department inaugurated a threemonths' course for welfare supervisors. The result was very striking; the number of English factories possessing lady superintendents or welfare supervisors rose from 25 to more than a thousand. About 600 of them remain at the present day; they form with the male industrial welfare workers an association called the Welfare Worker's Institute, which

publishes a monthly review, "Welfare Work". Another organization, the Industrial Welfare Society, is composed of manufacturers who have undertaken social welfare work; all the big English firms are represented. The training of welfare supervisors is being carried on now, as before the war, in the Social Science Faculties of the English Universities; the course is generally of two years' duration, specialization beginning in the second year, and it includes probation and practical work.

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In France, the Ecole des Surintendantes was founded in Paris in 1917, on the initiative of Mlle. de Montmort and Mlle. Diemer, secretaries of the public health nurses of France; of Mme. Brunschvig, of the Conseil des femmes françaises; of Mme. Viollet, of the Fédération des Organismes de Travail (war workshops) and of the Association des Logements ouvriers; of Mlle. Routier, director of the Assistance par le Travail (Mamoz Foundation). The course of study lasted from three to six months. Under the direction of Mme. Jacob, the School and the home rendered signal service, which the manufacturers were not slow in recognizing. One of them wrote: "The intervention of an intelligent woman of strong character whose whole endeavour will be to maintain the most cordial relationship between employer and staff, is highly desirable on account of her cooperation in solving a great number of questions relating to the interests of the staff.

"Thanks to the excellent training given in your School and to your careful selection, the first welfare workers had no difficulty in finding positions, and quickly rendered themselves indispensable employers find them valuable assistants in the studying and carrying out of all social work for the improvement of the material and moral condition of their employees."

The Association des Surintendantes de France, which publishes a Bulletin, has about a hundred members. In other countries, the training of welfare supervisors is carried out in the Schools of Social Service, which award diplomas to Social Workers. specializing in relief work, child welfare, home assistance, industrial wel

fare, industry, etc. Outside of the United States, Canada and Great Britain, there are at the present time Schools of Social Service in Belgium (8), Czecho-Slovakia (1), Finland (1), France (4), Germany (30), Holland (4), Italy (1), Sweden (3), Switzerland (4).

In Belgium and Germany, the courses for Social Workers are regulated by the public authorities. An International Conference of Industrial Welfare Workers was held July 2-9, 1922, at the Château d'Argeronne (La HayeMalherbe, Normandy) on the invitation of Mlle. Renée de Montmort. Delegates were present from Australia, Belgium, China, France, Great Britain, Holland, the British West Indies, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States. A second international Conference of Industrial Welfare Workers is proposed for 1925 or 1926.

WELFARE WORK IN AMERICA

The reason we have not yet spoken of the United States is that in America the functions of the welfare supervisors are divided into separate groups. There are no less than seven distinct departments in the big firms, outside of the purely commercial and industrial departments :

1. Scientific Department experimental and research laboratories, files, technical library. 2. Safety Department.

3. Medical Department.

4. Welfare Department: canteens, cloakrooms, drinking fountains, wash-rooms, shower-baths, rest rooms, playgrounds, workmen's houses, gardens, libraries, cinemas, workmen's clubs, amusement societies, art and travel clubs, co-operative stores, laundries, savings banks, loan funds, insurance, old age pensions. This department sometimes attends to the transportation of the staff and it endeavours. to counteract the monotony of the work. The factory generally has a welfare department of its own, but this work is also carried on by such organizations as the Y. M. C. A., which has 250,000 American workmen among its

members, and which, through its Extension Work, reaches five million workmen in the United States. It is said that in a certain naval dock-yard, under the influence of the Y. M. C. A., 5,000 additional rivets were driven in per day; accidents were reduced by 47 per cent, the number of days lost from work was less by 59 per cent, and the production increased by 19 per cent.

In the universities more than 10,000 women students and 15,000 men students take an active part in social organization work; study clubs bring students and workmen together; some working women recently spent more than a month in a women's university, Bryn Mawr College near Philadelphia: the exchange of ideas and the mutual understanding resulting from this experiment were a revelation to both sides. Most of the American Social Service Schools are connected or affiliated with the Universities; the courses are generally made up of a year of regular study and a year of specialization.

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5. Employment Department. This department originated in some experiments in vocational guidance made in Boston twelve years ago; it was found that the staff was often engaged and allocated without taking account of individual aptitude. The result of this was an abnormal proportion of labour turnover involvcosting, according to the estimate of Mr. Magnus ing needless expense, every new workman Alexander, 37 dollars. To remedy this state of affairs, specialists were called on to create and direct the Personnel Department, in charge of engaging, allocating, promoting and dismissing the staff. Dismissal has become very rare since the foremen are no longer authorized to carry it out. The employment manager keeps the staff informed of the regulations and institutions of the firm; he follows the career of each employee and the changes in his salary; he deals with complaints; he clears up personal difficulties, even those referring to private life; he keeps in touch with workmen's organizations. The employment managers are trained in Schools of Business Administration connected with the Univer

sities, and they are frequently, very highly paid.

It is certain that production is greater and the spirit of the employees is better when each one is in his right place in the factory. Various elements are taken into consideration in placing the staff, -- the result of the medical examination, previous professional experience and natural gifts, which can in many cases be determined quickly by certain tests. For example, at the Technological Institute at Pittsburgh, a certain number of tests were made on some fifty telephone girls; when the list of candidates, classified according to the results of the examination, was given to the manager, he exclaimed: "That is just the order I would have placed them in myself, and I have had them in my service for two years!" The test had taken half an hour. An effort has also been made to determine the essential qualities and the defects which constitute a definite drawback for each occupation. This information has proved a valuable help in the placing of the staff.

6. The Instruction Department organizes general courses, technical courses for apprentices, and technical courses for employees. This instruction is given not only in industrial firms but in commercial houses and the large stores.

7. The Research Department investigates the weak points and deficiencies in the business; it endeavours to increase production, perfect the working of the factory, and introduce reforms.

The departments of which we have just spoken do not always exist separately in the great American industries; they are grouped in various ways; one of them may be given predominance or be subordinated to the others. Altogether, it is estimated that 30,000 American firms have some kind of welfare organization. The specialization which, in this activity as in all others, distinguishes the big American businesses, would not be so practicable in Europe, where the three great assistants of the manifacturer are the welfare supervisor, the doctor and the nurse.

The welfare supervisors in England, France

and Belgium look after the general behaviour of the employees, engage the staff, inform them of their rights and their duties and of the general arrangement of the workshops, help them in difficulties, and care for them physically and mentally. They direct the welfare work of the factories and keep in touch with outside social work. They give immediate care in case of illness or accident, visit the absent women workers in their homes, and represent the employer in case of marriage or burial. In many cases they keep a card index of the career of each employee, noting her absences, promotion and salary; if the lastnamed is not adequate, the welfare supervisor tries to find out the reason, and seeks to remedy the situation. She receives and investigates complaints, and settles disputes. If any employee leaves the factory, the welfare supervisor tries to find out the reason for this decision; and no one is dismissed without her consent.

The welfare supervisor also sees that suitable work is given to pregnant or delicate women, and that facilities are provided for nursing mothers, as well as for any employees who are taken ill.

Her work resolves itself into the development of the personality and self-respect of everyone. A French welfare supervisor expressed this admirably in a striking phrase; to a young engineer who asked her what she did in the factory she replied: "My work here is to keep all the other people satisfied".

It is becoming more and more evident that no business is complete unless, working side by side with the commercial and production departments, there is a Human Factor Department. The Taylor system and scientific management of industry have shown us that in addition to commercial and technical problems there is in industrial life the problem of human beings, a problem which has both a physiological and a psychological aspect.

Common sense and experience have determined that health, well-being and contentment are important factors in production. It occurred to Dr. Edgar Collis, a specialist in industrial hygiene, to make a comparison

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HOW HEALTH IS

The difficulty of carrying on health propaganda in are spoken, may readily be imagined. Add to this the fact th census of 1901 showed that only 1 Indian boy in 5 and 1 girl in which the Indian Red Cross Society is facing. In spite of task of educating the people in health, and i which are exceptionally interesting.

These booklets were originally issued by have been adapted and reproduced by the In following ten languages: English, Bengali, Telegue and Urdu, and consist mainly of pictu in the form of questions and answers. T vention; the language used is such as may and the lesson is often pointed by a sto "Look at the case of Ram Singh. He

nobody else to sup children were starv of selling the few o Pandit Gauri Shan stopped her. He doctor. The docto quinine. In a few and in due time w became happy agai The pictures

extracted from the

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TAUGHT IN INDIA

untry of 300 million inhabitants, where 147 distinct languages large proportion of the adult population is still illiterate the as attending school-and one has some conception of the problem cles, however, the Society is setting itself whole-heartedly to the recently issued a series of propaganda booklets

United Provinces Public Health Department, and Red Cross Society. They are published in the ese, Gujrati, Gurmukhi, Hindi, Marathi, Tamil, sons, with a short text underneath the pictures describe the principal diseases and their predily be understood by an uneducated person, This is how malaria prophylaxis is taught. suffered from fever for months and there was his family. His wife and

nd she was on the point ents she possessed when appened to pass by and sed her to send for the me and gave Ram Singh 's Ram Singh recovered to work and his family

produced below are all dets.

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