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these was attributable to diseases of the digestive system. Thanks to the advice given them, the Mussulman mothers have learnt to feed their babies better; not only this, but they have passed on the knowledge thus gained to others, so that the good work of the milk station extends far beyond the circle of those who attend it. It also helps in the training of young doctors; every week Professor Bessim Omer brings his pupils from the Kadiga Maternity Hospital to the milk station, where they listen to the infant consultations and take part in the routine work. These consultations are held twice weekly; in ten months 909 consultations have been held and 1,431 free distributions of medicine, etc., have taken place, besides injections and other treat

ment.

A ladies' work room supplies the necessary layettes and other clothing, and has already distributed 1,500 garments. From time to time, also, on the occasion of French and Mussulman fêtes, a free distribution of food and clothing is made.

The milk station is supported by the French High Commission, by funds sent by the Association of French Ladies and by generous private donations. The upkeep is expensive for cow's milk is scarce and dear in Constantinople. It is to be hoped, however, that this milk station which has already done such good work and saved so many precious lives, may be enabled to extend its activities and that in other quarters of Stamboul new milk stations will be opened to spread health and to educate the people in hygiene.

DAY NURSERIES IN SHOPS

About ten years ago the directors of the Galeries Lafayette, one of the big department stores in Paris, becoming justly alarmed at France's decreasing birth-rate, started a most interesting experiment. They determined to demonstrate that work for married women was not incompatible with motherhood. To this end they organized a day nursery for the babies of their 8,500 employees.

The day nursery is established on the premises in several adjoining clean and airy rooms, and is free to all infants of employees from one to fifteen months of age.

Each mother receives at the time of her confinement two months leave of absence from work with full salary (15 days before the confinement and six weeks after), and she comes back to work bringing her baby with her. These mothers are entitled to arrive half-an-hour later and leave half-an-hour earlier than the other employees so that they escape the general rush.

When the babies arrive at the nursery in the morning they are put into the care of one of the nurses, each one of whom has six little charges. First of all they are taken to the bath room, where they are tubbed and dressed entirely in clothes provided by the shop. After their toilet the 50 rosy faced, but tired, babies are put to sleep in 50 little white beds.

The only condition of admission to the day nursery is that the mothers shall nurse their babies, if they are able to do so. In order to do this they are allowed to leave their work every three hours to feed their children. Before entering the feeding room, each mother puts on a white overall so that the child shall not come into contact with her working clothes. If the mother's milk is insufficient, the nursery provides extra milk, which it

receives twice daily from the country around Paris. In addition, the business, while providing lunch for all its employees, allows each mother a supplementary milk

ration.

Any child suspected of illness is immdiately put into an isolation room, and, if proved to be unwell, is at once taken home by the mother. Thanks to these precautions no epidemic has ever broken out in the nursery, which is regularly visited by the doctor in charge. Once a week all the babies are weighed and the result noted on the observation sheet which contains the life history of each little day-boarder.

The whole atmosphere of this delightful day nursery is one of health and happiness. The spotless cleanliness of the white cots with their gay blue coverlets, the fat cheeks of the babies who lie on their backs playing with sus pended toys, toddle round the pens, or sit in solemn conclave in their tiny chairs, and the motherly pride of the matron in charge are all proof that the experiment made by the Galeries Lafayette has proved wonderfully successful.

A law exists in France (dated 5th August, 1917) which provides for a « feeding room » (chambre d'allaitement) in every business house employing more than 100 women over 15 years of age, but this law is seldom put into force.

The example of the Galeries Lafayette has been followed by other big Paris shops, including the Louvre, which in some cases have also opened day nurseries and in others grant special maternity benefits to their employees.

World's Health

A MONTHLY REVIEW

CONTENTS

THE DRUG PROBLEM, by Ellen N. La Motte.

THE RED CROSS ANE DISEASE PREVENTION, by Prof. R. San-
toliquido..

THE ITALIAN RED CROSS, by Prof. T. Rossi Doria..

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THE JUNIOR RED CROSS IN BULGARIA, by Howard H. Barton
HEALTH AND SOCIAL WELFARE.

9

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THE LEAGUE OF RED CROSS SOCIETIES AND ITS PROGRAMME

The Red Cross is the symbol of human compassion. It was their pity for the suffering and unaided victims of the battle of Solferino (June 24th, 1859) that moved Henry Dunant and his friends to take the first steps which led to the formation of the International Red Cross Committee in 1863, and to the signature in 1864 of the Geneva Convention, under which the rights of the wounded in wartime were officially recognized. Red Cross Societies have since been formed in nearly every country.

In 1919 on the initiative of Mr. Henry P. Davison, Chair man of the War Council of the American Red Cross, the Red Cross Societies of America, France, Great Britain, Italy and Japan founded the League of Red Cross Societies, with the object of applying the spirit and organization of the Red Cross, in peacetime, to the improvement of public health throughout the world. The permanent Secretariat of the League, established in Geneva in 1919 and transferred to Paris in 1922, is a central office equipped to collect and distribute information bearing on the peacetime work of Red Cross Societies, and to assist them in planning and carrying out their programmes. The Se cretariat also acts as the collective representative of the national Societies belonging to the League, and in this

capacity maintains close co-operative relations with the Health Section of the League of Nations, the Office International d'Hygiène Pablique, the International Labour Office, and the more important non-official international health organizations.

The General Council, which is the supreme authority of the League, meets at least once every two years. It comprises delegates from all Red Cross Societies, members of the League. At its second meeting, in 1922, the Council recommended to all Red Cross Societies the adoption of peacetime programmes aimed especially at the development in their several countries of popular health instruction, public health nursing and Junior Red Cross organization. This is the basis upon which Red Cross Societies throughout the world are working to-day.

The Board of Governors of the League meets annually. It consists of representatives of each of the five founder societies, ten nominees of societies designated by the General Council, and the Director-General and SecretaryGeneral. The Board of Governors directs the policy of the League in pursuance of the resolutions of the General Council.

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A new activity in the field of preventable disea ses is the fight which must now be made by public health workers in all countries against the habit of drug addiction: the taking of habit-forming drugs, such as morphia, opium, heroin, and cocaine. This drug habit is no new thing, but what is new is the realization of its extent and ramifications. It is making rapid inroads upon the peoples of all countries, and is a menace to the well-being, and to the mental, physical and economic efficiency of individuals of all races. The United States has had a sharp awakening to the danger, and is becom ing fully aware of the magnitude and seriousness of the problem. America has always been keenly alert on all matters relating to public heal and national welfare, so it is not surprising that the agitation for the suppression of dangerous drugs should find its chief support in that country. No nation in the world, however, is exempt from this drug danger, but, so far, no other country has made such a study of the evil. Should they do so, they will find the same facts before them, and will receive the same uncomfortable shock and surprise upon learning how prevalent is the habit, and how difficult, if not impossible, is its prevention.

For many years, America has had exceedingly drastic laws to prevent the illicit sales of habitforming drugs. These have also been well administered. However, in spite of them, drug taking was found to be greatly on the increase. This was considered so serious that in March, 1918, a special committee was appointed by the Washington Government to investigate the matter, and the report

of this committee was published in June, 1919. Note carefully that this occurred two years before the Prohibition laws were enacted, and that the increase in drug addiction was already a matter of grave national concern long before Prohibition ca.re into effect. This report, "Traffic in Narcotic Drugs ", shows the United States to be the largest opium consuming country for which statistics are available. This comparison, of course, is not made with those countries in the Far East where the opium trade is established by law, and where drugs are sold to the people through the medium of licensed drug shops and opium-smoking rooms. Those countries, naturally, are in a class apart. But compared with European countries, the figures are striking. The per capita consumption of opium is as follows:

Italy, grain; Germany, 2 grains; Portugal, 2 grains; France, 3 grains; Holland, 3 grains; United States, 36 grains.

In the spring of 1920 the New York Health Department opened a special clinic for the treatment of drug addicts. It was patronized immediately and overwhelmingly, by several thousand patients. Important statistics were obtained. In the first place, the old charge that people became drug takers through the careless administration of narcotics by physicians was completely refuted. The physicians were exonerated. There were, of course, few cases of this kind, in which the habit had been unintentionally acquired by too prolonged administration, but these instances were so few and occasional that they constituted no problem. The

source of the evil was found to be the deliberate and systematic initiation of young people by drug peddlers or smugglers. These latter are the lesser links in that great chain which encircles the entire world, the international drug ring. These smaller fry, these petty peddlers, are agents for the more powerful interests, higher up, and they operate in every country of the world. None is exempt. In New York, it was found that one-third of the patients had acquired the drug habit while under the age of 20, and one-half of them while under 25. These young victims, therefore, must not be considered as desperate persons who take to drugging when their alcohol supplies are cut off, as the opponents of Prohibition would have us believe. No, the two questions, drinks and drugs, have existed simultaneously, and except for this. have not much else in common.

Another important fact brought out at the New York clinic was the impossibility of curing these cases. All patients who were willing were sent into hospital for treatment, and when, after several weeks, they were discharged as cured, 90 per cent of them relapsed within 24 hours, and the rest soon followed. Why? Because, being used to obtain their drugs through underground, illicit channels, they were followed by the agents of the drug ring and tempted again at the first opportunity. The drug ring is out to make money, and intends to lose no good customers. The drug takers at the New York clinic were taking doses of morphia or heroin ranging from 15 to 60 grains once in 24 hours. The highest recorded dose was of a man who took 125. Therefore, profitable customers, all of them. Too profitable to be allowed to stay 66 cured ". The drug peddler does his work thoroughly. He first initiates his victims, thus creating a market for his wares, and he sees to it that there is no slipping out of the toils.

One asks where are the police, where are the laws to prevent all this? All the police, active and indefatigable as they are, and all the laws on the statute books are worthless, because of the immense quantity of drugs which are annually turned

loose upon the world. Drugs are very easy to smuggle, being light in weight and small in bulk. America is peculiarly easy for smugglers, with its 3.000 miles of Canadian border, and a long line of exposed Mexican border, to say nothing of the long coast line, east and west. But, bad as conditions are in the United States, if any other country chooses to make the same study of drugging that New York has done, and as the Washington Government has done, facts very similar will doubtless be unearthed.

Where do all these drugs come from, in the first place? Why is there always an immense output to be sold, legally or illegally? Opium, from which morphia and heroin are obtained, comes from the opium-producing countries, India, Persia, Egypt, Turkey, and China. In China, however opium growing is illegal and is done in defiance of the law. In India, the largest opium producing country, every step of cultivation, manufacture and sale is conducted as a Government Monopoly. In India alone, the output for 1919-20 amounted to about 971 tons. (1)

The amount of opium required for the proper medical needs of the world is small. Sir William Collins, the distinguished London physician, says that the dispenser of a that the dispenser of a large hospital containing 8,000 in-patients and 130,000 out-patients, had used in one year less than thirteen pounds of opium and five ounces of morphia. On this basis, the world's medical needs are infinitesimal, as compared with the immense output used for drugging. Therefore, this gigantic over-production must be stonned before the drug evil can be abolished

The Opium Commission of the League of Nations is attempting to weld the world together by a system of restrictive legislation, similar in all countries, the object of which is the final suppression of the traffic. But the opium trade dies hard. Its end can be accelerated by an aroused public opinion that will no longer tolerate this immense overproduction, part of which finds its way through the

(1) Statistics, British India; Vol. II, Financial, Tenth Issue.

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