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new initiatives, of progress accomplished. It is therefore in the position, not only of publishing such information, but of enabling the organizations dealing with these matters to benefit by experience elsewhere acquired. It can also assist the less developed institutions.

Now that the Society is privileged to have as Chairman General Gustave Mannerheim it can indeed look to the future with all confidence. On assuming office, General Mannerheim immediately proceeded to a revision of the statutes in order to establish the action of the Red Cross on a wider basis. He appointed two committees, one of which is responsible for the preparation of the peace programme, the other for a programme for time of war. General Mannerheim attended the General Council of the League in Geneva in March, 1922.

Admitted that there really are certain difficulties connected with the formulation of a peace programme for the Finnish Red Cross, there should at least theoretically, be no difficulty with regard to the elaboration of a programme for wartime. Such obstacles as exist are of a purely practical nature. The position of a Red Cross Society is exceptional; it may be said that it possesses a monopoly of acting as auxiliary to the medical army services in wartime. This therefore should be the primordial aim

of the Finninsh Red Cross. Here there is no need for it to make a place for itself amongst other organizations, the field of action is ready to hand; in this connexion moreover the Society has an opportunity of organizing and utilizing the forces which, at the commencement of every war, invariably seek an opportunity of manifesting their generosity, enthusiasm and love of adventure.

To sum up, the Finnish Red Cross in peacetime is called upon to prepare and train personnel and to collect material for action during wartime. Hospitals and depots are required, and, in order to obtain them, it is necessary to collect funds by awaking the interest of the public in the work of the Red Cross. This may perhaps be effected by organizing the peace activities indicated in the programme prepared by the League and specially modified for our country. By these means the Society should succeed in establishing closer contact with the public and should so consolidate its position as to enable it to overcome all difficulties when war breaks out.

Not until the Finnish Society possesses permanent depots and peacetime hospitals can it be considered as established on a solid and permanent basis, nor will its activities be really effective or free from all suspicion of improvisation and amateurishness.

THE EASTERN EUROPEAN RED CROSS CONFERENCE

A Conference for the purpose of discussing the problems lying before the Red Cross Societies of Eastern Europe will be held in Warsaw between April 9th and 14th, 1923. The Polish Red Cross has undertaken to act as host at this Conference, the arrangements for which have been made by the Secretariat of the League in response to the desire manifested by the Societies concerned.

The Bulgarian, Czecho-Slovakian, Esthonian, Hungarian, Roumanian and Serbo-Croato-Slovene Societies will also be represented as well as certain other Societies in Eastern Europe which have not yet received cfficial recognition which is the essential preliminary to their admission to membership in the League. Such other Red Cross Societies as are particularly interested in the questions before the Conference as well as International organizations whose field of action lies close to that of the Red

Cross, are being invited to attend this conference in an advisory capacity. The League Secretariat will be represented by Dr. Ré Sand, Secretary General.

It will be recalied at the Red Cross Societies of the Far East met in a Conference at Bangkok on November 29th, 1922. An account of this conference will appear in a later number of The World's Health.

A NEW MEMBER OF THE LEAGUE The Danzig Red Cross, in reply to an invitation to join the League of Red Cross Societies, bas informed the Secretariat, by letter dated December 28th, 1922, of its official adhesion to the League, whose membership now numbers forty-three national Red Cross Societies.

The Danzig Red Cross was constituted on June 19, 1922 ; the Society whose statutes were approved by the Senate of the Free City of Danzig on July 29th, received the official recognition of the International Red Cross Committee of Geneva on October 10th.

The President of the Senate, Dr. Sahm, has accepted the Presidency of the Society.

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European Director of the Junior American Red Cross.

At once the briefest and the most comprehensive statement of the aim of the Junior Red Cross movement is probably that contained in the eighteenth resolution adopted by the General Council of the League of Red Cross Societies at its meeting in Geneva last March. By this resolution the General Council recommends that each National Red Cross Society declare the purpose of its Junior Department to be « inculcating in the children of its country the ideal of peace and the practice of service, especially in relation to the care of their own health and that of others, the understanding and acceptance of civic and human responsibility, and the cultivation and maintenance of a spirit of friendly helpfulness towards other children in all countries. >>

This statement has recently been criticized on the ground that, because it attempts to include aims not necessarily related, it lacks precision and coherence. Specifically, it has been argued that there is no such organic connexion between « the ideal of peace » and «< the practice of service » as to render the pursuit of the two together a logical work for one Red Cross department. A similar absence of unity is alleged in regard to the care of one's health, the acceptance of civic responsibility, and the maintenance of friendly helpfulness towards the children of the world. My own opinion is that all the aims mentioned in the resolution do in fact cohere and make a single whole. Perhaps a statement of how they came to develop in one Junior

organization, that of the American Red Cross, may help to explain their interdependence.

In America the first impulse to organize the Red Cross in the schools came during the war. It came, moreover, from educators rather than from the Red Cross. The practical end to be achieved was the children's mobilization for national service in the interest of victory. Beyond this, however, and explaining the intense interest in the movement taken by school leaders in their professionnal capacity, was the desire so to direct the children's contact with the great emergency as to train them in habits and ideals of service. Of the aims mentioned in the resolution quoted above, therefore, it was « the practice of service » with a view to forming the habit of service that was the fundamental idea motivating the origin of the Junior American Red Cross.

By the time the armistice was signed, school and Red Cross leaders alike had become impressed with the importance of the contribution to education that could be made by organizing the Red Cross in the class rooms. This contribution consisted in the vitalizing of routine work by offering pupils direct contact with and personal interest in groups of other children the wold over, and thus familiarizing our own children with the present emergencies and the normal daily life of the young people of other countries; instead of standing on the shore and watching the stream of life in the mirror of their text books, our children were to be

drawn directly into the current of contemporary problems and to learn by experience the method and the spirit that alone can solve them. But with the coming of peace, the practical end first aimed at the children's mobilization for victory had been achieved. New needs, however, no less implacable than the need for victory, had become apparent. It was seen that children all over the world were in the direst need of help. There arose, with the measurable abatement of the passions roused by the war, a deep desire, not only for perpetual peace. but for an intelligent friendship with all the world as the essential condition of that peace. Quite naturally, therefore, in this transition period, the << practice of service » for needy children, wherever situated, with friendliness and peace as its ultimate aim, became the form in which the moral principle behind further Junior development in America was envisaged. The idea of service and the idea of friendliness were seen as complementing each other and becoming one, because it was believed that only as the peoples of the world in fu... ture generations knew and served one another would the permanent friendly relations that preclude wa: be possible. Practical methods for fixing this more far-reaching moral principle in the daily lives of the children had then to be worked out.

The nature of these methods was determined by the nature of the two agencies co-operating for their adoption and use. As the work was to be done in and through the schools all proposals must have definite educational value. As it was the American Red Cross that was placing its facilities at the disposal of the schools, the specific nature of the work to be done had to be so related to the functions of the Red Cross as to enable it to help most effectively. The war had left the American Red Cross carrying on activities in most of the countries of Europe; it had also brought the Red Cross societies of the world into closer touch with each other than

they had ever been before. Bacause of the increasing coordination of Red Cross effort all over the world, it seemed that the Junior American Red

Cross was equipped to bring the schools one new element of great value namely, direct contact with the youth of other countries, without which knowledge of them and sympathy with them would be next to impossible. To this end American schools were encouraged to use the Junior American Red Cross as a channel through which to send their aid to children in other countries; and correspondence and the exchange of articles of education al value were promoted between school classes abroad and those of America.

But it was neither possible nor desirable that all of our emphasis should be thrown on international friendliness. We could not urge service for the needy children of other countries and ignore the children, many of them not much less needy, of the United States. As the basis of a soundly constructive attitude towards the rest of the world, therefore, we aimed to develop in American children the conception of knowledge of and service for the people of their own country, their own state, their own community, Practical methods for giving effect to this aim were worked out with the schools. We wished to avoid sacrificing patriotism to internationalism, and at the same time to develop not chauvinism but a true Americanism with a world perspective.

In determining the specific nature of the work in which the American Red Cross was best fitted to help the schools, we could not overlook the fact that the traditional field of Red Cross effort is health betterment. In developing service projects for aid to needy children of the immediate community, or to the children of a distant war-ravaged country, it was therefore only natural that a considerable though never an exclusive emphasis should be laid on the restoration of their health. But as charity begins at home, so should the care of health. There is no difficulty in interesting the children of Cincinnati, Ohio, in the health of the children of Epehy, France; and the American children can be taught through a project of this kind to appreciate the relationship between their own health and their

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capacity for the highest service to others throughout all their lives. Thus personal health projects, like the health game, were developed in connexion with service projects intended to promote international understanding and friendliness.

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When looked at historically in this way even though the history be for so brief a period as five and a half years the development of Junior Red Cross aims is seen to present a consistent growth and the aims themselves to form a logical whole. Understanding of and continuous service to the world, as an essential condition of world friendliness and peace, is the goal; the means for reaching that goal is the actual practice of service to the children of other countries, to the children of one's own country, and to oneself.

In the above analysis I have somewhat rationalized, from the vantage point of the present, the development of the past. Unlike most of the Junior Red Cross organizations in Europe, the Junior

American Red Cross has never issued a formal set of statutes, with its aims highly particularized. This is a deliberate omission, born of our feeling that even to-day the Junior Red Cross movement has hardly enough experience behind it to warrant a final formulation of its principles. We fear that a precise and rigid definition of its aims too early in

the movement's growth may stereotype its purposes before their full and proper scope has been adequately attested. For in a movement that cuts as wide and as deep as the Junior Red Cross, it is only by thorough, careful experimentation that we can learn within just what limits it can render its greatest service. However detailed and concrete, there fore, we have been in the development of a Junior technique, our enunciations of principle have always been kept in very general terms.

As character is a by-product of duty performed, so world peace will be a by-product of world understanding and world service, shared in by all peoples alike. We see the Junior Red Cross as an educational movement contributing powerfully to the creation of this by-product, with the « practice of service » both its method and its most immediate aim. When children have learned to serve others through actually performing such service, when they cherish service as a living ideal because they have acquired it as a living habit, friendly understanding and peace may be expected to follow.

The working creed of the Junior Red Cross movement, therefore, however we may split it up for purposes of discussion, may be summed up in the title of this article: « Education in Service ».

THE JUNIOR RED CROSS IN POLAND

When the Polish Red Cross was first organized, a Junior Red Cross section was formed, but the Bolshevist invasion of July and August, 1920, interrupted its deve!opment. It was, therefore, only in 1921 that the Polish Junior Red Cross really began to take root. Lectures were given to the general public and to teachers and the American Red Cross, which, as is well known, has done so much for Poland, undertook a propaganda tour throughout the country. Several appeals were launched, from one of which, by Professor Sobinski, Director of the Lvôw Schools, we reproduce the following passage:

A vast field of activities is opening up to the schoolchildren under the supervision of teachers. Help is to be given to those children who are in need, as well as to charitable institutions, such as orphanages, homes, children's hospitals, institutions for the disabled, and to

those committees which are undertaking to care for soldiers graves. Children, however, must beware of overtaxing their strength or of endangering their health. They must not risk catching contagious diseases, neither must they interrupt their school work. There are many ways in which this humanitarian work can be carried out. Gifts of money will not be entirely excluded as there seems a tendency to do. Teachers have here an excellent opportunity of suggesting ideas to their pupils, of developing their spirit of initiative and of setting up a friendly rivalry in doing good and useful things.

a It is easy to pity the unfortunate but deeds are often separated from words by an insuperable distance. Love I one's neighbour should be cultivated in school, by daily acts of kindness, so that the younger generation shall be well trained and possibly the present generation reformed.

The school should inculcate in its pupils the Christian principle (Res Sacra Miser) and should show them how to put it into practice. »

From all parts of the country these appeals met with an enthusiastic response. The needs of the moment directed the work towards relief for children of repatriated families who were returning from Russia in dire poverty. Polish children, like their Czechoslovak comrades, made many useful garments with material generously supplied by the American Red Cross. Gradually a systematic organi. zation was introduced. Inspectors, helped by the Junior American Red Cross, were sent out to study conditions in different parts of the country and to adapt the Junior Red Cross programme to these conditions. The war had left many villages deserted and much ground uncultivated. Lack of seed was another reason for agricultural underproduction. The Junior Red Cross, with American aid, organized a special service for obtaining seeds which were sent to many villages in agricultural districts.

A former industry which had disappeared for some time from the country was revived. Poland had once been an important centre for the cultivation of medicinal plants; the flora of this is extremely rich but the methods of cultivation and preparation had been forgotten. The Junior Red Cross revived the forgotten traditions, and at present the industry is again spreading throughout the country.

Besides these special activities, the Polish Junior Red Cross has drawn up a complete programme covering the following fields of activity hygiene and health, social work and relief, manual labour, and relations with other countries. It has received general popular support, for the people understand the advantages which such an organization may have for their country. Teachers are acti vely co-operating and a part of the school time-table is devoted to Junior Red Cross activities.

General Haller, President of the Polish Red Cross, who is also President of the Boy Scouts, has enlisted the cooperation of the latter in the work of the Junior Red Cross. To-day the Polish Junior Red Cross has a membership of about 100,000.

SECOND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE

ON EDUCATION

An international conference on education will be held at the Institut des Essarts, Territet, Switzerland, on the 2nd15th August, 1923, under the auspices of the New Education Fellowship. It is the aim of the promoters of this conference to discover and disseminate the most ideal methods of education, believing that by so doing they will not only be helping the child to develop its own capacities to the highest degree of efficiency, but also that they will be employing the only possible means of securing the best type of future citizens. These two ideas of self-expression and citizenship are combined as the theme of the whole conference. It is in fact education for creat

ive service and upon this depends the welfare of every

nation.

This can only be secured by putting behind us all the international causes of disharmony which divide the present citizenship. It is by securing for the present youth of the world, before they too have become similary biassed, such an environment as will make the continuance of this lack of understanding impossible. Teachers of all nations are called upon to teach the youth of their countries to become true citizens and to promote such a feeling of good fellowship between the youth of different nations as will ensure the future peace of the world. »

« Education is a question that belongs to no one nation and to no one age; it is a matter of universal importance of which every nation has its share to give and to receive. It is therefore with the idea of obtaining a frank and open discussion of the best means for the stimulation of right educational methods that this conference is called. True citizenship and a proper love of one's country involve a wider understanding of the responsibilities of the youth of each nation, not only to each other, but to the wider world citizenship.

While the nations of to-day and the people of the present generation are suspicious of each other it is difficult to bring about whole-hearted co-operation and exchange of ideas. Through the world citizenship of the next generation, howewer, it may be possible to bring about a more sympathetic understanding, and any conference which has such an end in view should have the warmest support of all who desire that peace and good-will shall reign

among men.

Any communications with regard to the arrangements for the conference should be adressed to I. A. Hawliczek, B.Sc., Esq., Maryland, Letchworth, Herts, England.

BOOK REVIEW

The New Era. An International Review of new Education. Published at 11, Tavistock Square, London W.C.I. Subscription 4s. 6d. per annum.

This Review, the official organ of the New Education Fellowship, appears quarterly in three editions: English, French and German. It is an international record of experimental education and treats the training of the child from an advanced point of view. It is interesting to note that the English October number contains articles from six different countries. The articles in the French edition, while not identical with those in the English, cover a wide range of subjects connected with education.

The Fellowship intends to spread its principles through the existing schools and to promote closer co-operation amongst teachers throughout the different grades of the profession, and also between teachers and others of similar education and ideals in all countries of the world. H. H. B.

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