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words which bridged all distances and immediatelv put conversation with her on a footing of mutual confidence and, one might almost say, of familiarity.

Madame d'Haussonville's salon has often been mentioned and will always remain famous for its variety, its brilliance and its influence. I shall not enlarge on the subject here but I cannot refrain from remarking in passing how appropriate a setting Madame d'Haussonville found at Coppet.

Coppet, on the Lake of Geneva, is one of the world's historic spots. Great events have happened there the art treasures of a century and the imprints of a century's genius are preserved there. The portrait of the young Countess d'Haussonville, née Broglie, the chef-d'œuvre of Ingres and possibly the most beautiful portrait ever painted, creates an atmosphere by itself. The whole house, with its high tiled roof and its courtyard paved for heavy coaches, is friendly and welcoming. On the restful white shelves of the wonderful library lie volumes which were handled, some of them written, by Madame de Stael, volumes which invite one's thoughts to linger upon the brilliance of the past. The view of the Lake is framed in dark trees as if to shade its brightness how peaceful and quiet it looks! All this makes a background old-fashioned and yet at the same time young and living for the salon which was frequented by those kings and queens of conversation : Madame de Stael, Madame Récamier, Benjamin Constant, Schlegel, Mathieu de Montmorency, and Chateaubriand, and where I met Madame d'Haussonville in later days surrounded by Balfour, Bergson, Viviani, Paderewski, Mrs. Barton and Mademoiselle d'Harcourt. Such are the of pages past and present history which spring to my memory when I think of Madame d'Haussonville - so gentle, so cordial, so kind, as she advanced towards us over the polished floor, leaning on her stick, to welcome us with outstretched hand and a smile on her lips. Was there ever a more perfect harmony between the past and the present?

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From her earliest youth Madame d'Haussonville devoted herself to charity. In 1870 she refused to leave Paris, and, whilst her husband was fighting, she volunteered her services as a nurse in the hospital organized by the Society for Aid to the Wounded in the Grand Hotel, under the direction of Doctor, later Professor, Guyon, who a few years afterwards organized the first Red Cross school of nursing. Such was the prelude to a life which was to be devoted to Red Cross work until the very end. Such a thing had never before been known. War of manwas men's work; even the terrible Scourges kind were considered as a sort of charitable monopoly of the religious orders. Lay people, above all women, did not readily obtain entrance into the ambulances and hospitals; they were separated by a kind of reserve from men's sufferings. In time of epidemics a sovereign occasionally visited the wards for contagious diseases as a special act of heroism. How times have changed! Public life, in opening its doors to all, has claimed from all a like devotion to duty; and women, before they were given the right to vote, volunteered for the duties of self-sacrifice. Perhaps this is the greatest moral innovation of our time.

The Countess d'Haussonville became a member of the Ladies' Committee of the Society for Aid to the Wounded in 1898, and was appointed vicepresident during president in 1904. She acted as the Duchess de Reggio's illness in 1906 and was appointed president in 1907. This was a period of great enterprises. The Red Cross societies, like the army, found their training ground in the colonies. A first unit of nurses was sent to Casablanca, then another to Lalla Narnia and another to Tlemcen. The Red Cross societies began to work in Morocco in 1907, and are still working there to-day. From this time onwards relief was given in big public disasters, such as the Messina earthquake and the big floods in southern France in 1910.

Madame d'Haussonville was here, there and everywhere. She paid for her zeal by a serious illness, but nothing stopped her. Nurses were train

ed, stores were prepared, exhibitions and tests were organized, and the conditions of the cooperation of the Red Cross with the army and the government were settled. The government was made to feel that it could depend on the Red Cross and its task was thus lightened. The enrolment of voluntary Red Cross workers spread with the extension of equal military service to all. Henceforth all Frenchmen and all Frenchwomen « stood for it ». The Red Cross was « mobilized », for this was the term used from that time onwards. So when the war broke out that war which had

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been long foreseen and dreaded 200,000 beds were ready in different parts of the country and all necessary resources were forthcoming up to the very front lines.

A new era in the history of charity had begun. Self-sacrifice became universal and contagious. The bravest women, who were often the humblest, claimed the most dangerous post, and in the great retreats, in the great advances, the hospitals advanced or retreated as the tide of war rose or fell. It was no long business to pack and go when death and suffering were waiting. However far the camps might be, however near the front line the casualty clearing stations, there were always nurses there. It wa touching to see how they sought to outdo each othe in heroic self-sacrifice.

Madame d'Haussonville took over the heavy task of directing the womens' sections of the Society for Aid to the Wounded throughout this terrible war which was to have lasted three months but which dragged on over more than four years. She was always at her post in Paris and always the same, never giving way to weakness. « Stand to your work »>, was her watchword to all, and she stood to her own. She paid personal visits to many parts of the front to see her << dear friends the nurses. They all trusted her and she carried with her everywhere an atmosphere of confidence and cheerfulness, toge. ther with the highest ideals of duty. She was always ready to console, to calm and to encourage those who needed such help; she never left a dark

corner without sunlight or a heart without hope Even the roughest and humblest of the wounded knew, as she bent over their beds, that in this great lady they had found one who understood their sufferings and would give them skilled care. She was at Bar-le-Duc during an air raid, ant at Courlandon throughout a night when bombs were raining down on the hospital; at Compiègne a long-distance shell burst close beside her.

When she returned to Paris she scrupulously remembered all that she had seen, all the needs she had observed, and she set to work to supply the deficiencies. Above all, she remembered the moral needs of those at the front, for this nurse of nurses cared for souls as well as bodies. Some day the collection of letters which she wrote to the nurses of her Society at the various periods of the war will doubtless be published. It constitutes, if I may say so, a moving picture of the state of mind of our women during the Great War.

In 1916 she wrote:

(( My dear friends,

<< My first thoughts are for those whom death has taken from us, both those who have fallen gloriously at the front, as in Rheims and in Arras, and those who have died of illness contracted on service. They are our martyrs; ask them to watch over us... My thanks go to you all, both at the front and those at the base, whose rôle may appear less heroic but is not less meritorious. Duty carried out without flinching is a fine thing wherever it is performed. Thank you, you who have not been afraid to travel to far-off Mudros, to the Dardenelles, to Corfu and to Salonika, braving the uncertainties of the journey and the trials of the climate. Thank you, you who have cared for our troops in Morocco, remaining with them at the post of duty and sharing their regret at being unable to take part in the great


"When I review in this way our whole army of nurses, I cannot help feeling very deeply moved. Dear friends, for six years now I have been your president. With all my soul and with all my strength

I worked to prepare for the coming war. It was my earnest wish to recruit and train a skilled corps of courageous and well-disciplined nurses. It seems to me that my dream is no longer a dream. You have done everything that the Red Cross expected of you... »

In 1917 she wrote again :

<< First of all, I ask you to beware of stumblingblocks, of which there are many. Some of our nurses are too shall I say capricious? They want to do dressings and only big dressings. They want to nurse only the wounded and not the sick. Some want to go to the south, others to the east or the north; others again only want to go to the front and anything behind the front is considered unworthy of them... I want you all to promise me that you will all make up your minds to desire one thing only to save and care for the soldiers under your charge. To achieve this splendid purpose you will do all that is possible. You will wash your patient's feet and hands; you will change his linen and make his bed, and you will keep his surroundings spotlessly clean. Perhaps you may never do a big dressing if the senior nurses elect to do them, but you will nevertheless be excellent nurses. >> Even the Lives of the Saints contain nothing more warm-hearted and at the same time more minute in detail. Great souls never despise little things. On November 11th, 1918, the day of victory. she wrote once more :

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struction of the liberated areas, the organization of dispensaries, the campaign against tuberculosis, etc. There will be work for all volunteers and I feel sure that the nurses will consider it an honour, after having helped to save France, to continue to dress her wounds, so that she may at last emerge yet stronger and more lovely than before this terrible war. >>

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So we see the Countess d'Haussonville, in spite of age and illness, never relaxing her efforts, nor uttering her Nunc dimittis. She stood to her post throughout the war and stood to it still when peace came. She took the greatest interest in all new developments of social work and organized post-war anti-tuberculosis dispensaries, sanatoriums, social hygiene dispensaries, training of school nurses, and, above all, infant and child welfare centres. She started the idea of the « Crusade of the Children of France» to help needy children, and created the Cross of Honour of the Children of France », which was the first step towards the Junior Red Cross. She herself supervised the beautiful preven. torium for children at La Rochelle. She was made vice-president of the recently-organized National Child Welfare Committee, and she gave the support of her name and her experience to many national welfare organizations, amongst them the public health nursing service of France, social service in hospitals, the League against Cancer, the French « Welcome » Committee, and the Franco-American Committee. In all her work she was sustained by the inward flame of charity which became clearer the longer it burned and which lit up her face with a wonderful light. Like a soldier she met death at her post, for she was a soldier like those others for whom she had done so much. The blood of marshals ran in her veins and all through the great war she was a Marshal herself the Marshal of the army of Charity.

The Red Cross in Peace



by Professor R. FALTIN, Vice-Chairman of the Finnish Red Cross.

At the commencement of 1922 the Carlian Revolution was at its height and war seemed imminent in the East of Europe. In the loss of its Chairman, Minister Eduard Hjelt, the Finnish Red Cross had sustained a severe blow and resources in personnel, money and material were extremely low. The preceding wars had shown that, although it is nearly always possible to improvise assistance, unprepared action invariably entails immense effort and expense. Unless the Red Cross systematically prepares for war during peacetime, difficulties which might otherwise be avoided are bound to occur. All effort should therefore be directed towards this essential aim.

I am far from deprecating the importance of the peace activities so successfully organized in a great number of countries by the League of Red Cross Societies, an institution founded after the termination of the world war, but it should be borne in mind that the position of the Finnish Red Cross is entirely different to that of the National Societies in certain of the countries in which the League has done such excellent work.

To make clear this point, it would perhaps be well to recall the origin of the League of Red Cross Societies and to give a brief outline of its programme. During the world war the Red Cross developed tremendous impetus, nowhere more than in America. At the end of the war, the question arose, were these organizations, in full activity, and inspired with the most noble enthusiasm, to be dissolved? In creating the League, Mr. Henry P. Da

vison, Chairman of the American Red Cross, hoped to encourage the national Societies to work towards the mitigation of suffering in peace time, with an intensity equal to that displayed during the


The League is a central organization which, through the intermediary of the national Red Cross Societies, encourages and co-ordinates all voluntary social effort throughout the world; its aims are the improvement of public health, maternity and infant welfare, the training of nurses, the combating of tuberculosis, venereal diseases, malaria and other infectious diseases; it endeavours to inculcate humanitarian sentiments and encourages the populations of all countries ceaselessly to strive towards progress and improved social conditions.

A Junior Red Cross has been created in view of discouraging the spirit of war in the younger generation: the Junior Membership teaches young people the Red Cross spirit of universality and internatonalism instead of a spirit of rampant patriotism and extreme nationalism as has so often hitherto been the case.

One of the chief motives underlying the organization of the League was the composition of the International Red Cross Committee which has hitherto constituted the directing and co-ordinating organ of all Red Cross Societies throughout the world. During the war, the Committee did excellent work; notwithstanding its international title, however, it is composed exclusively of Genevese : its action is moreover exercised mainly in time

of war. It was therefore desirable to constitute a really international organ, dealing exclusively with peace activities and, by so doing, completing the work of the International Committee.

The League of Red Cross Societies was founded at Cannes in April, 1919, where a number of eminent doctors and scientists belonging to the allied countries had met in view of drawing up a programme for the new institution. At first, certain national Red Cross Societies, among which were those of Central European States, were not admitted to the League. Now, however, all are members thereof. The adherence of the Finnish Red Cross dates from 1921.

Societies in which they have, so to speak, had free play. In our country most of the fields of activity suggested by the League as suitable for Red Cross work are already occupied. To start with, the State, through the intermediary of the Medical Council, is responsible for national hygiene and public health; further, it possesses adequate resources for combating epidemics. Great progress has been made in venereal prophylaxis, as was shown by the deliberations of the North European Conference of Venereal Diseases, organized by the League in Copenhagen in 1921, at which the Finnish Red Cross was represented by Dr. W. Stockman. One of the resolutions voted by this Conference was to the effect that all doctors should undergo compulsory training in the diagnosis and treatment of venereal disease!

The recognition of the Finnish Red Cross by the International Committee and its membership of the League entail certain new international obligations. Already the correspondence maintained with the two central institutions has become so important as to necessitate an increase in the Secretariat staff; an acting Secretary-General has been engaged. Frequent appeals to participate in international action. have been received but nothing could be done owing to lack of ressources. Through the intermediary of the League, a considerable number of health propaganda pamphlets and other printed matter has reached us, and has been distributed by the Society throughout the country. Thanks to the scholarships created by the League, two Finnish nurses have been able to attend the International Public Health Courses in London. The League has given further proof of its interest in the Finnish Red Cross by inviting it to send a delegate to Paris for a period of one month, in order that he might become familiar with the work of the Secretariat. There can be no question that the Finnish Society which is engaged in preparing its peace programme, will derive great benefit from the experience acquired by its delegate during this visit.

Having thus briefly sketched the aim and origin of the League, I will revert to the subject of this article. In Finland, as already stated, the position. of the Red Cross is widely different from that of the

The combating of tuberculosis is being successfully pursued by several institutions and the State is constantly increasing its support of their efforts.

Similarly, Child Welfare has achieved considerable development. Numerous organizations are engaged in this work, among which General Mannerheim's League for Child Welfare and the Finnish Branch of the Child Relief Union « Râdda Barnen ». These institutions are progressing rapidly and operate in practically all parts of the country. The Society for the Protection of Public Health in the Swedish regions of Finland, displays considerable activity. Its programme, established at a time when the aims of the League had not yet been made public, might serve possibly as a model for those of other countries and is entirely in agreement with the ideas inspiring the founders of the League.

Enough has been said to show that in Finland, as regards the greater part of the activities of which the League has demonstrated the importance, considerable progress has already been made.

Nevertheless, the Finnish Red Cross can play a useful part in connexion with these activities; thanks to its international relations it is constantly informed of the peace action in other countries, of

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