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This abbreviation is not only unnecessary, but unjustifiable in profe; because as we have happily two methods of exprefling the fame idea, we can either fay, Achilles's wrath, or the wrath of Achilles.

3. The pronoun whofe, which is ufually appropriated to perfons, is generally applied by the poets to inanimate objects.

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Be his this fword, whofe blade of brafs difplays
A ruddy gleam; whofe hilt, a filver blaze.

Ib. viii. 437.

Bishop Lowth accounts for this use of the word, by obferving, that "the higher poetry loves to confider every thing, as bearing a per

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fonal character." But this remark is not applicable in the present inftance. There can be no shadow of a personal character, or any personification, in the foregoing paffages *. Whofe is ufed by a poetic licence, inftead of-of which, merely because the latter expreffion is profaic, and cannot easily be admitted into elevated poetry.

4. Adjectives are frequently used instead of adverbs.


Fierce as he mov'd †, his filver shafts refound.

Il. i. 64.

Slow from his feat arofe the Pylian fage.

Ib. 330.

Sedate and filent move the num'rous bands.

Ib. iv. 486.

*See Perfonification in the Appendix.

The variation of the tenfes, in the words mov'd and refound, is a poetic licence, or rather, a grammatical impropriety.

In this line Mr. Pope has not preferved the idea, which Homer gives us of Nefter. When that old experienced warrior forefaw the fatal effects of the contention between Aga. memnon and Achilles, he forgot his infirmities, and rose up in bafte to pacify them, avogauti. Jl. i. 248.

Silent the warrior fmil'd, and pleas'd refign'd.
Il. vi. 504.

Swift down the steep of heav'n the chariot rolls.
Il. v.

Smooth glides the chariot thro' the liquid sky.


Ib. viii. 477.

5. Adverbs are fometimes compared by er and est, instead of the adverbs more and most.

Sceptre and pow'r-I gladlier shall refign.

P. L. vi, 730.

Plainlier fhall be reveal'd.

Ib. xii. 151.

This is to be confidered as a grammatical impropriety, rather than a poetic licence: fo is the word either, which frequently occurs, instead of each.

Here in the midft, in either army's fight.

Il. iii. 127.

And next the troops of either Ajax views.

Il. iv. 311.

Faft by our fide, let either faithful swain
In arms attend us, and their part sustain.

Odyf. xxii. 120.

These are the words of Ulyffes; and the two fwains, whofe affiftance he required, were Eumæus and Philætius. Either is used for each, and their,

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improperly, inftead of his. The pronominal adjective each fignifies both of them, taken feparately; either means only the one, or the other; which is contrary to the sense of the original.

A previous knowledge of Accentuation, or the measure of an English verfe, will enable the young reader to pronounce the ancient Greek and Roman names of gods, goddeffes, heroes, countries, cities, &c. in a proper manner.


A chief ftood nigh, who from Alydas came.

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Agricola with prudence rul'd the land.

Then from his glitt'ring throne Alcinous role.

From his proud pyramid Amafis † torn.

Odyf. viii.

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* A Roman governor in Britain, from the year 78 to 84. About this time many of the Britons began to wear the drefs, imitate the manners, learn the arts, and speak the language of the Romans.

Non mihi pyramidum tumulis evulfus Amafis.

Luc. ix. 155.

The first fyllable in vxn, victoria, from which the latter part of the word Andronicus is derived, is a long fyllableBouλero viuny. Il. vii. 21. For this reafon, Andronicus, Cleonicus, Stratonicus, Polynices, Thefalonica, &c. have the penultima always long. Shakespeare, fuppofing him to have been the author of the tragedy of Andronicus, is not to be vindicated

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