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PT AND THE EGYPTIAN
CHAPTERS ON EGYPTIAN ARCHEOLOGY.
SIR E. A. WALLIS BUDGE,
M.A., LITT.D., D.LITT., D.LIT., F.S.A., ETC.
F THE EGYPTIAN AND ASSYRIAN ANTIQUITIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM.
COOK & SON, LUDGATE CIRCUS, E.C.
от 45 BIZ 1924
HARRISON AND SONS, LTD.,
PRINTERS IN ORDINARY TO HIS MAJESTY
IN 1886, after hearing some lectures which I gave that year in Aswân, my friend, the late Mr. J. M. Cook, asked me to write a short description of the principal Egyptian monuments on the Nile as far south as the Second Cataract, for the use of those who travelled in Egypt under the special arrangements made by Messrs. Thos. Cook & Son. Following the general suggestions which he made, I prepared a description of the most important ancient Egyptian remains, and it appeared in 1888-9 in the form of a small octavo volume entitled "The Nile: Notes for Travellers." This little work dealt exclusively with the temples and tombs on the Nile between the Mediterranean and the foot of the Second Cataract, a few miles to the south of Wâdî Ḥalfah. It made no attempt to describe all Egypt and Nubia, and in no way laid claim to be a "Guide" to Egypt. The increase in facilities for visiting ancient sites in Egypt, the quickened progress of archæological research in that country, and the rapid development of its resources under British rule, made it necessary to enlarge from time to time my "Notes for Travellers." Mr. J. M. Cook spared no expense in having the text revised for each edition and brought up to date, and the work grew larger and larger, until, in the Twelfth Edition (which appeared in 1913), it contained nearly 1,000 pages. My "Notes for Travellers" seemed to fill a want. Messrs. Cook GAVE a copy of the book to every traveller who went up the Nile on their large and comfortable steamers, and in spite of
the numerous applications for copies and pressing offers to purchase which have been made to Messrs. Cook in London and Cairo, they have kept the book "out of the trade," and have never parted with a copy for payment.
Now, there remained a great deal of information about places and monuments off the beaten track which could not be compressed into the "Notes for Travellers," and as demands for a Guide to Egypt which could be purchased became more numerous and insistent, Messrs. Cook decided to issue a "Handbook for Egypt and the Egyptian Sûdân," with new maps and plans and illustrations. The carrying out of this work was entrusted to my hands, and the present volume is the result.
In preparing this Handbook I have endeavoured to include the principal facts relating to all the ancient monuments in the Nile Valley between the Mediterranean Sea and Khartum. Where necessary, brief descriptive paragraphs, chiefly of an historical character, have been added. In this edition full accounts of the routes to Mount Sinai, Jerusalem, the Natron Valley and the Oases in the Western Desert, Port Sûdân, Ķûşêr and Berenice on the Red Sea, and an Itinerary of the Nile Valley from Khartûm to Sennaar, and from Kharțûm to the great Equatorial Lakes, have been added.
In the Introduction (pp. 1-27) will be found a mass of practical information for travellers and a series of suggestions which should be carefully studied by those who intend to travel in Egypt. These suggestions are the outcome of the great experience of Messrs. Cook, and in drawing them up I have had the benefit of their invaluable assistance. Travellers in Egypt owe the ease and comfort which they now enjoy in journeying through the country entirely to the efforts of Messrs. Cook, who were the first to organize the tourist system and to make the antiquarian marvels of Egypt available to all classes.
They have spared neither pains nor money in perfecting their arrangements for travellers, and seize promptly every opportunity of placing at the disposal of those who travel under their care the advantages of rapid and comfortable transit inaugurated by British enterprise. The experience of their officials is unrivalled, and on all questions concerning travel they impart full information to all enquiries freely and courteously.
This Handbook is divided into Five Parts. Part I pp. (28118) contains a description of the land of Egypt in ancient and modern times; of the Nile and its sources, and its Cataracts and Barrages; of the modern Egyptians and their religions and manners and customs; and of the Government of Egypt, Trade, Revenue, &c. Part II (pp. 119-347) describes the Delta, Alexandria, Port Sa‘îd, Suez (Suwêz) and the Suez Canal, Cairo, Heliopolis, Memphis, Ṣakkârah, and the Coptic and Arab buildings of Cairo and Fusțâț. In this Part too are included excursions from Cairo to the Fayyûm, Damietta, Sîwah, and the other Oases, Jerusalem and Sinai. Part III (pp. 348–541) deals with all the principal antiquities from Cairo to Wâdî Ḥalfah; and Part IV (pp. 542-634), with Nubia and the Egyptian Sûdân. In Part V (pp. 635-862) is given a series of Chapters on Egyptian Archæology. In earlier editions of this Handbook these appeared in the Introduction, but it was thought that the traveller might find them more convenient for reference if they were printed at the end of the book, and there, accordingly, they are now placed. They contain a connected outline of the History of Egypt, brief accounts of the Writing, Religion, Art, Architecture, Learning, &c., of the Ancient Egyptians, and descriptions of the principal facts about the Religion of the Muḥammadans, Arab Architecture, &c. Hieroglyphic type has been used wherever necessary, and in the list of cartouches of Egyptian Kings, all the royal names