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viol, the tabret and pipe, and wine, are in their feasts; but they regard not the work of the Lord, neither consider the operations of his hands. Therefore my people are gone into captivity, because they have not knowl edge; and their honoured men are famished, and their multitudes dried up with thirst. Therefore Hell hath enlarged herself, and opened her mouth without measure; and their glory and their multitude, and their pomp, and he that rejoiceth shall descend into it" (Isaiah v. 11-13).

Amos complains that the tribes of Judah frequent heathen banquets and drink their strong wines. (Amos xi. 6--12). Daniel describes the great feast of Belshazzar, the Babylonian king. We are told in Judges of the drunken Philistines, who, while engaged in a sacrifice to Dagon, brought out for their diversion Samson, who pulled down the house on their heads. Josephus says: "They brought him to their feast, that they might insult him in their cups."

The Druids used liquor in their rites; and in northern Europe, the followers of Odin drank from the skulls of their enemies. Tacitus relates that the ancient Teutons commonly drank a liquor prepared from barley and wheat. Their diet was simple, consisting of wild fruits, venison and curdled milk. But their drink customs were less simple. Concerning these, he said:

"They, being armed, proceed to business; but as often to parties of conviviality, where they spend whole. days and nights in drinking, without any disgrace being attached to it. At these feasts, when the guests are intoxicated, frequent quarrels arise, which not only terminate in abuse, but in blood. The subjects of de

bate at these feasts are the reconcilement of enemies, forming family alliances, the election of chiefs, and, lastly, peace and war. The German thinks the soul is never more open to sincerity nor the heart more alive to deeds of heroism, than under the influence of the bottle; for then, being naturally free from artifice and. disguise, they open the inmost recesses of their minds; and the opinions which are thus broached they again canvass the next day.”

We have little information of the drink practices of Britain at the beginning of the Christian era. Diodorus says that the people avoided the luxuries of wealth, and adds, "Their ordinary drink was water. Upon extraordinary occasions they drank a kind of fermented liquor made of barley, honey or apples, and when intoxicated never failed to quarrel, like the ancient Thracians." Pliny speaks of various liquors similar to beer being known to the inhabitants of the west of Europe. French * is of the opinion that wine was not known in Britain before the Roman conquest. The earliest intoxicant was metheglin, a sort of mead. Cider and ale followed the introduction of agriculture. The Druids of ancient Britain contained an order of people called the Brughaibhs who kept open house. In Ireland, the Bruigh kept a similar resort. These neighbourhood clubs developed into the Saxon eala-hus or win-hus, in which the drink feature rose into prominence.

But the Britons were apt pupils in the use of wine. As early as 81 A.D., Emperor Domitian, in order to check the growth of intemperance, ordered the de

*Nineteen Centuries of Drink in England. p. 2.

struction of half the vineyards, and commanded that no more be planted without the imperial licence. Here began the battle by regulation against the rav ages of alcohol among the Anglo-Saxon people.

CHAPTER II.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PUBLIC HOUSE.

Though I look old, yet I am strong and lusty;
For in my youth I never did apply

Hot and rebellious liquors in my blood,
Nor did not with unbashful forehead woo
The means of weakness and debility;
Therefore my age is as a lusty winter,
Frosty, but kindly.

-As You Like it, Act II., Scene 3.

ALCOHOLIC excesses among the ancients largely took the form of libations to the gods and feasts of a religious, social nature, or in honour of a victory at arms. Indulgence in drink was occasional, or periodical. A debauch now and then was the rule, rather than the day by day tippling common to the civilisation of our age. But in the course of time the priests drank more and more of the offerings, while the portion devoted to the gods proportionately diminished. From the priests, bibulous practices in connection with festal celebrations spread among the people and the orgies of the gods became the excesses of the populace.

We are now to consider the evolution of the modern institution known as the "saloon" in America. and the "public house" in Great Britain, the germ of which is found in the customs and practices of Anglo-Saxon times.

In the time of the Druids, before and during the Roman period of English history, the Brughnibhs

and Beatachs kept houses for dispensing hospitality, very much like the chaoultries of India and the caravansaries of the East. In Ireland, the Bruigh, a person designated by the prince of the territory, performed similar functions; his master provided lands, stock and stabling with which to accommodate the traveller. Beds, food and backgammon boards were among the indispensables of the establishment.*

In the three hundred years of the Roman occupation, the aboriginal character received a deep impress of Latin civilisation. Wine was introduced. The quaint signboards of Rome were first hung out in front of places of public hospitality; signboards that are now a more striking feature of England than of Italy. The practice of toasting and drinking the health was introduced in the Roman period,† and all centred more or less around the public house inaugurated by the Brughnibhs.

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At first the natives did not take kindly to the alcoholic feature of civilisation, and, moreover, the Romans made some effort to protect the "child races from their own worst enemy. The order of the Emperor Domitian, that one-half of the vineyards be destroyed and not replanted without a royal licence, has been referred to. Similar steps were taken from time to time, until Probus became Emperor in 276 A.D. He reversed the national policy and permitted all provinces to plant vines and make wine without limit. The aversion of the natives to the new order of things is abundantly shown. Queen Boadicea, addressing her soldiers (61 A.D.), plainly, if indirectly, referred to the intemperance of the invaders when she said: "To us, every herb and root * French, Nineteen Centuries of Drink, p. 5. + See Appendix A. Chap. II.

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