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appellation of the North Polar Star; but it is, in reality, more than a degree and a half distant from it, and revolves abort the true pole every 24 hours, in a circle whose radius is 1° 31'. It will consequently, in 24 hours, be twice on the meridian, once above, and once below the pole; and twice at its greatest elonga ion E and W.

The Polar Star not being exactly in the N. pole of the heavens, but one degree ana 4. micutes on that side of it which is towards Caph, the position of the latter becomes important, as it always shows on which side of the true pole the polar star is.

There is another important fact in relation to the position of this star. It is equidisant from the pole, and exactly opposite another remarkable star in the square of the Great Bear, on the other side of the pole. [See Megres.] It also serves to mark a spot in the starry heavens, rendered memorable as being the place of a lost star. Two hundred and fifty years ago, a bright star shone 5 N. N. E. of Caph, where now is a dark void!

On the 8th of November, 1572, Tycho Brahe and Cornelius Gemma saw a star in the Constellation of Cassiopeia, which became, all at once, so brilliant, that it surpassed the splendor of the brightest planets, and might be seen even at noonday. Gradually, this great brilliancy diminished, until the 15th of March, 1578, when, without moving from its place, it became utterly extinct.

Its color, during this time, exhibited all the phenomena of a prodigious flame-first, It was of a dazzling white, then of a reddish yellow, and lastly of an ashy paleness, in which its light expired. It is impossible, says Mrs. Somerville, to imagine anything more tremendous than a conflagration that could be visible at such a distance. It was seen for sixteen mouths. Some astronomers imagined that it would reappear again afte: 150 years; but it has never been discovered since. This phenomenon alarmed all the astronomers of the age, who beheld it; and many of them wrote dissertations concerning it.

Rev. Professor Vince, one of the most learned and pious astronomers of the age, has this remark "The disappearance of some stars may be the destruction of that system at the time appointed by the Deity for the probation of its inhabitants; and the appearance of new stars may be the formation of new systems for new races of beings then called into existence to adore the works of their Creator."

Thus, we may conceive the Deity to have been employed from all eternity, and thus he may continue to be employed for endless ages; forming new systems of beings to adure him; and transplanting beings already formed into happier regions, who will continue to rise higher and higher in their enjoyments, and go on to contemplate system after system through the boundless universe.

LA PLACE says:-As to those stars which suddenly shine forth with a very vivid light, and then immediately disappear, it is extremely probable that great conflagrations, produced by extraordinary causes, take place on their surface. This conjecture, continues he, is confirmed by their change of color, which is analogous to that presented to us on the earth by those bodies which are set on fire, and then gradually extinguished.

The late eminent Dr. Good also observes that-Worlds, and systems of worlds, are not only perpetually creating, but also perpetually disappearing. It is an extraordinary fact, that within the period of the last century, not less than thirteen stars, in different constellations, seem to have totally perished, and ten new ones to have been created. In many instances it is unquestionable, that the stars themselves, the supposed habitation of other kinds or orders of intelligent beings, together with the different planets by which it is probable they were surrounded, have utterly vanished, and the spots which they occupied in the heavens have become blanks! What has befallen other systems will Essuredly befall our own. Of the time and the mani er we know nothing, but the fact is incontrovertible; it is foretold by revelation; it is inscribed in the heavens; it is felt through the earth. Such is the awful and daily text; what then ought to be the commest? The great and good Beza, falling in with the superstition of his age, attempted to prove. bat this was a comet, or the same lurainous appearance which conducted the magi, or rise men of the East into Palestine, at the birth of our Saviour, and that it now appeared announce his second coming.

Daph? What other important fact in relation to the position of Caph? What remarkable fact stated? By whom attested? Describe phenomenon? Mrs. Somerville's Other astronomers'? Professor Vince's remarks? The author's? Lo Place's? Dr. Good's? Beza's?

remark?

HISTORY.

Cassiopeia was the wife of Cepheus, King of Ethiopia, and mother of Andromeda. She was a queen of matchless beauty, and seemed to be sensible of it; for she even boasted herself fairer than Juno, the sister of Jupiter, or the Nereides-a name given to the seanymphs. This so provoked the ladies of the sea, that they complained to Neptune of the nsult, who sent a frightful monster to ravage her coast, as a punishment for her inso lence. But the anger of Neptune and the jealousy of the nymphs were not thus appeased They demanded, and it was finally ordained that Cassiopeia should chain her daughter Andromeda, whom she tenderly loved, to a desert rock on the beach, and leave her exposed to the fury of this monster. She was thus left, and the monster a proached, but just as he was going to devour her, Perseus killed him.

"The saviour youth the royal pair confess.

And with heav'd hands, their daughter's bridegroom bless."
Eusden's Ovid.

TELESCOPIC OBJECTS.

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CASSIOPEж(Shedir)—A bright star, with a companion in the bosom of the figure, R. A Oh. 81m 29s.; Dec. 65° 39 05". A 8, pale rose tint; B 10, small blue. Sy th and Herschell note Shedir as variable.

2. CASSIOPEE (Caph)-A bright star on the left side, with a minute companion; R. A. Oh. Om. 42s.; Dec. N. 58° 16′ 08. A 2%, whitish; B 11, dusky. Look directly opposite Megris, in the great dipper, through the pole star, and about as far beyond.

3. Y CASSIOPE-A bright star with a distant companion on the right side of the figure; R. A. Oh. 47m. 05s.; Dec. N. 59° 50′ 08′′. A 8, brilliant white; B 18, blue. Mary small stars in the field.

4. 7 CASSIOPE-A BINARY STAR, about 4° from a towards Polaris; R. A. Oh. 89m. 27s., Dec. N. 56° 57' 09". A. 4, pale white; B. 7%, purple. Estimated period 700 years.

5. CASSIOPE-A coarse TRIPLE STAR in the right elbow; R. A. 0h. 57m. 23s.; Dec. N. '4° 08′ 01′′. A 5%, deep yellow; B 14, pale blue; Č 11, bluish. Several small stars in the

field.

6. CASSIOPEÆ-A beautiful double star in the left elbow; R. A. 23h. 50m. 55s.; Dec. N. 54° 51' 08. A 6, flushed white; B 8, smalt blue; the colors clear and distinct.

7. A coarse QUADRUPLE STAR, just south of Cepheus' right hand; or about 27° southBouth-west of Polaris, on a line drawn over y Cephei. R. A. 23h. 17m. 45s.; Dec. N. 61′ 24' 03". A 5, pale yellow; B 9, yellowish; C 11, and D, 13, both blue.

8. A LARGE AND STRAGGLING CLUSTER, between the footstool of Cassiopeia and the head of Cepheus; R. A. Oh. 18m. 10s.; Dec. N. 70° 30′ 08'. A line from y Cassiopeæ, & the dis tance to y Cephei, will fall upon this object. A coarse double star in the field.

9. A R.CH, BUT SOMEWHAT STRAGGLING CLUSTER; R. A. 0h. 24m. 5s.; Dec. N. 62° 23′ 09". Vicinity splendidly strewed with stars-a double star in the centre. Look near the

star K.

10. A LOOSE CLUSTER, including a small double star; R. A. 0h. 84m. 15s.; Dec. N. 54 07". A 81⁄2, B 11, both pale. Situated just half way between and Kγ

γ

11. A LOOSE CLUSTER of small stars; R. A. Ch. 58m. 19s.; Dec. N. 60° 44'. On a line from towards ε, about the distance.

12. A CLUSTER and neat double star on a line from a through d, and about 21⁄2° beyond. In an elegant field of large and small stars.

18. A FINE GALAXY CLUSTER of minute stars, about 3° south-west of B, and about the same distance west of a. R. A. 23h. 49m. 07s.: Dec. N. 55° 49' 06". A glorious assem blage, both in extent and richness. Resembles a crab, having spangled rays of stars, spreading over many fields Map VIII., Fig. 23.

CEPHEUS.-MAP VI.

47. Cepheus is represented on the map as a king, in his royal robe, with a sceptre in his left hand, and a crown of stars upon

HISTORY?-Who was Cassiopeia? Personal appearance? Sad consequences? Rescu TELESCOPIC OBJECTS -Double and multiple stars? Clusters? What shown on map? 47. How is Cepheus represented? Where situated?

his head. He stands in a commanding posture, with his lef foot over the pole, and his sceptre extended towards Cassiopeia, as if for favor and defence of the queen.

"Cepheus illumes

The neighboring heavens; still faithful to his queen,
With thirty-five faint luminaries mark'd."

This constellation is about 25° N. W. of Cassiopeia, near the 2d coil of Draco, and is on he meridian at 8 o'clock the 3d of November; but it will linger near it for many days. Like Cassiopeia, it may be seen at a.l hours of the night, when the sky is clear, for to us it never sets.

By reference to the lines on the map, which all meet in the pole, it will be evident that artar, near the pole, moves over a much less space in one hour, than one at the equino tial; and generally, the nearer the pole, the narrower the space, and the slower

he motion.

The stars that are so near the pole may be better described by their polar distance, than by their declination. By polar distance is meant, the distance from the pole, an Is what the declination wants of 90°.

48. In this constellation there are 35 stars visible to the naked eye; of these, there glitters on the left shoulder, a star of the 3d magnitude, called Alderamin, which with two others of the same brightness, 8° and 12° apart, form a slightly curved line towards the N. E. The last, .whose letter name is Gamina, is in the right knee, 19° N. of Caph, in Cassiopeia. The middle one in the line is Alphirk, in the girdle. This star is one-third of the distance from Alderamin to the pole, and nearly in the same right line.

It cannot be too well understood that the bearings, or direction of one star from. another, as given in this treatise, are strictly applicable only when the latter one is on, or near the meridian. The bearings given, in many cases, are not the least approximations to what appears to be their relative position; and in some, if relied upon, will lead to errors. For example:-It is said in the preceding paragraph, that Gamma, in Cepheus, bears 19° N. of Caph in Cassiopeia. This is true, when Caph is on the meridian, but at this very moment, while the author is writing this line, Gamma appears to be 19° due west of Caph; and six months hence, will appear to be the same distance east of it. The reason is obvious; the circle which Cepheus appears to describe about the pole, is within that of Cassiopeia, and consequently when on the east side of the pole, will be within, or between Cassiopeia and the pole-that is, west of Cassiopeia. And for the same reason, when Cepheus is on the west side of the pole, it is between that and Cassiopeia, or east of it.

Let it also be remembered, that in speaking of the pole, which we shall have frequent occasion to do, in the course of this work, the North Polar Star or any imaginary point very near it, is always meant; and not, as some will vaguely apprehend, a point in the horizon, directly N. of us. The true pole of the heavens is always elevated just as many degrees above our horizon, as we are north of the Equator. If we live in 42° N. latitude, the N. pole will be 42° above our horizon. (See North Polar Star.)

49. There are also two smaller stars about 9° E. of Alders .nin and Alphirk, with which they form a square; Alderamir being the upper, and Alphirk the lower one on the W. 8° apart. In the centre of this square there is a bright dot, or semi-visible

star.

The head of Cepheus is in the Milky-Way, and may be known

46. Number of stars visible? Principal stars? Situation? 49. What other stars and situation? Situation of the head, and how known? Distance of this Asterism from the pole star?

by three stars of the 4th magnitude in the crown, which form a small acute triangle, about 9° to the right of Alderamin. The mean polar distance of the cousteilation is 25°, while that of Alderamin is 28" 10'. The right ascension of the former is 338°; consequently, it is 22° E. of the equinoctial colure.

The student will understand that right ascension is reckoned on the equinoctial, from The first point of Aries, E., quite round to the same point again, which is 360°. Now, 338 measured from the same point, will reach the same point again, within 22°; which in the difference between 860° and 338°. This rule will apply to any other case.

HISTORY.

This constellation immortalizes the name of the king of Ethiopia. The name of hig queen was Cassiopeia. They were the parents of Andromeda, who was betrothed to Perseus. Cepheus was one of the Argonauts who accompanied Jason on his perilous expedition in quest of the golden fleece. Newton supposes that it was owing to this circumstance that he was placed in the heavens; and that not only this, but all the ancient constellations, relate to the Argonautic expedition, or to persons some way conrected with it. Thus, he observes, that as Musæus, one of the Argonauts, was the first Greek who made a celestial sphere, he would naturally delineate on it those figures which had some reference to the expedition. Accordingly, we have on our globes to this day the Golden Ram, the ensign of the ship in which Phryxus fled to Colchis, the scene o the Argonautic achievements. We have also the Bull with brazen hoofs, tamed by Jason; the Twins, Castor and Pollux, two sailors, with their mother Leda, in the form, of a Sioun, and Argo, the ship itself; the watchful Dragon, Hydra, with the Cup of Medea, and a raven upon its carcase, as an emblem of death; also Chiron, the Master of Jason, with his Altar and Sacrifice; Hercules, the Argonaut, with his club, his dart. and vulture, with the dragon, crab, and lion which he slew; and Orpheus, one of the company, with his harp. All these, says Newton, refer to the Argonauts.

Again; we have Orion, the son of Neptune, or, as some say, the grandson of Mines with his dogs, and hare, and river, and scorpion. We have the story of Perseus in the constellation of that name, as well as in Cassiopeia, Cepheus, Andromeda, and Cetus; that of Calisto and her son Arcas, in Ursa Major; that of Icarius, and his daughter Erigone, in Bootes and Virgo. Ursa Minor relates to one of the nurses of Jupiter. Auriga, to Erichtonius; Ophiuchus, to Phorbas; Sagittarius, to Crolus, the son of one of the Muses; Capricorn, to Pan, and Aquarius to Ganymede. We have also Ariadne's crown, Bellerophon's horse, Neptune's dolphin, Ganymede's eagle, Jupiter's goat, with her kids, the asses of Bacchus, the fishes of Venus and Cupid, with their parent, the southern fish. These, according to Deltoton, comprise the Grecian constellations men tioned by the poet Aratus; and all relate, as Newton supposes, remotely or immediately to the Argonauts.

It may be remarked, however, that while none of these figures refer to any transactions of a later date than the Argonautic expedition, yet the great disagreement which appears in the mythological account of them, proves that their invention must have been o greater antiquity than that event, and that these constellations were received for some time among the Greeks, before their poets referred to them in describing the particular of that memorable expedition.

TELESCOPIC OBJECTS.

1. a CEPHEI (Alderamin) – A FINE STAR, with a distant companion on the left shoulder of Cepheus; R. A., 21h. 15m.; Dec., 61° 54. It is about half way between Polaris and Deneb, and 8° south-west from 3 Cephei. A 3, white; B 10, pale blue, with a companion A the same magnitude and color.

2.

CEPHEI (Alphirk)—A DOUBLE STAR on the left side of the girdle of Cepheus, two hird of the distance from Polaris to Alderamin. A 8, white; B 8, blue, with a very minute double star preceding.

8 Y CEPHE (Er Rai,—A DOUBLE STAR in the knee of Cepheus, with a distant telescopic parion on the preceding parallel. A 8, yellow; B 14, dusky. R. A., 28h. 82m. 47%. Dec., N. 76' 44' 7". This star will be the Pole star in about 2360 years.

HISTORY.-Who was Cepheus?

of other constellations?

Why placed in the heavens? What said of the origi

TELESCOPIC OBJECTS.-Alpha? Beta, &c.?

What clusters?

4. O CEPHEI (Var) in the crown of Cepheus, a fine, though wide DOUBLE STAR; R. A. 22h. 28m. 14s.; Dec, N. 57° 35' 9". A 4, orange tint; B 7, fine blue-the colors in fiue con. trast. This star is variable, with a period of 5d. Sh. 30m.

5. A LARGE AND RICH CLUSTER on the left elbow; R. A., 20h. 28m. 17s.; 2'. It is 12 due north of a Cygni; and 8° west-south-west of 7 Cephei. Cistant collocation of suns bound together by mutual relations."

Dec., N. 60° 26 "A grand but

3. AN IRREGULAR CLUSTER between the head of Cepheus and the chain of Andromeda ; B. A., 28h. 17m. 10s.; Dec., N. 60° 43' 1". It is about one-third of the distance from 6 Cassiopeæ to a Cephei; and may be seen on Map VI., near the sceptre of Cephcus For a telescopic view, see Map VIII., Fig. 24.

CHAPTER II.

CONSTELLATIONS ON THE MERIDIAN IN DECEMBER.

ARIES (THE RAM).--MAP II.

50. TWENTY-TWO centuries ago, as Hipparchus informs us, this constellation occupied the first sign in the ecliptic, commencing at the vernal equinox. But as the constellations gain about 50" on the equinox, at every revolution of the heavens,* they have advanced in the ecliptic nearly 31° beyond it, or more than a whole sign: so that the Fishes now occupy the same place in the Zodiac, that Aries did in the time of Hipparchus ; while the constellation Aries is now in the sign Taurus, Taurus in Gemini, and Gemini in Cancer, and so on.

ARIES is therefore now the second constellation in the Zodiac. It is situated next east of Pisces, and is midway between the Triangles and the Fly on the N. and the head of Vetus on the S. It contains 66 stars, of which, one is of the 2d, one of the 3d, and two of the 4th magnitudes.

"First, from the east, the Ram conducts the year;
Whom Ptolemy with twice nine stars adorns,
Of which two only claim the second rank;
The rest, when Cynthia fills the sign, are lost."

Aries is readily distinguished by means of two bright stars in the head, about 4° apart, the brightest being the most north-easterly of the two. The first, which is of the d magnitude, situated in the right horn, is called Alpha Arietis, or simply Arietis; the other, which is of the 3d magnitude, lying near the left horn, is called Sheratan, and may be known by another star of the 4th magnitude, in the ear, 1° S. of it, called Mesartkim, which is the first star in this constellation.

Arietis and Sheratan, are one instance out of many, where stars of more than ordinary Brightness are seen together in pairs, as in the Twins, the Little Dog, &c., the brightest tar being cominonly on the east.

See "Precession of the Equinoxes," page 270.

0. Constellations in this chapter? Aries 22 centuries agof Now; and why? Low. istinguished? Arietis and Sheratan?

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