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numbers would be very inferior, though the native levies might be enormously in excess; yet the whole burden of defending Java would fall on the Europeans. As between English and Dutch, the natives in their hearts would stand aloof; they had no practical interest in the quarrel, excepting to get rid of both. On asking a Malay friend the cause of this, he said, “An elephant eats sugar-cane, and a tiger eats kids; but when they quarrel we do not know their motives, certain it is, if we interfere we may be eaten by the one or crushed by the other, so our sense of preservation tells us to avoid the melée." That these sentiments are not confined, as between the black and the white races, is proved by the Commentaries of Alboquerqui, in which De Barros states, that on the invasion of Malacca by the Portuguese the Malabarese, Peguans, and Javanese favoured the enterprise against the Malays themselves.

The next subject that the autobiographer takes up is his intercourse with the Protestant missionaries, who had established a station at Malacca under the auspices of the London Mission Society. He states that these first arrived in 1823, but from the context this is evidently a mistake; for we find, in the life of Dr. Morrison, that Dr. Milne was sent out in 1813. Thus Abdulla's age would be at that time sixteen. He says that the name of the missionary was Mr. Milne, whose daughter was called Maria, and whose twin sons were called William and Robert. He got news that English was taught gratuitously, nor was a charge even made for paper, ink, or pens. This news delighted him, for he still remembered the advice of Lord Minto and Mr. Raffles, to study English, which would be of great service to him by-and-by. Of Dr. Milne he observes that his bearing and deportment were those of a gentle

man; his conversation was polite and refined. Even in anger his countenance gleamed with mildness. He was indefatigable in studying all things, and had a retentive memory; and he naively adds, if he was taught anything one month he could answer correctly the next. This was reversing positions. A little native boy teaching an old man, on whose shoulders were placed the responsibilities of great future events. However, I presume one must stoop to conquer. The stronger mind in the long run will beat.

Betimes the native boy became attached to Mr. Milne's family; for further on he says, "As I went daily to teach Mr. Milne, the boys became familiar with me, insomuch that they came to my house to eat and drink. Under such circumstances I became fond of them, and they of me. Further, Mrs. Milne was a nice lady, drawing one's affection and regard with gentleness and sweetness of countenance."

Of Dr. Morrison, the great Chinese scholar, Abdulla says that a short time after Mr. Milne had removed to his new house, Dr. Morrison came to Malacca to stay with him, when he employed himself constantly, night and day, in studying and writing Chinese. He wrote with a Chinese hair-pencil, as is their custom. Abdulla believes that at that time there was not a single European so learned in Chinese as Dr. Morrison; and Mr. Milne got lessons from him. He adds that his only fault was that he wore the Chinese costume, for in the Chinese dress no one could have taken him for a white man! His reason for saying this is, that his manner, voice, furniture, and instruments, were all Chinese. He adds, moreover, that there was one quality in Dr. Morrison, viz., that he had the mein of a gentleman, gaining great influence over one's feelings by soft and gentle conversation, and giving good counsel.

Abdulla was at this time, he tells us, learning the Gospel of St. Matthew, when Dr. Morrison would explain difficult passages.

So much for Abdulla's idea of the learned Northumbrian. That he could see no difference between him and a Chinaman appears astonishing; but I presume the autobiographer was affected with the same obtuseness of perception that people in general have in looking at sheep-they say sheep are all alike, while the shepherd himself sees the most marked difference of features and expression. On the same principle, I have heard people remark that all Chinamen are alike; Chinamen, no doubt, remark the same of us. Abdulla expresses his astonishment that men such as Dr. Morrison should condescend so much; and as a reason for this, he explains that intelligent men do so for the good it does to posterity. No doubt this is an admirable solution of a very difficult and perplexing problem.

In course of time Abdulla tells us that he became an agent of the missionaries, to "call Malay children" to come to learn to read and write, but which undertaking soon called down on him the wrath of his co-religionists, they having taken fright lest their children might be forced, as Abdulla expresses himself, to become "English," meaning Christians. He seems to have argued and explained to no purpose, telling them that the object was no other than to teach them their own language, and the language of the English, as these acquisitions in after-life would greatly facilitate their earning a livelihood. But this would not do, for the Mahomedan parents. got the other idea into their heads, and there was no pacifying them—the more he harangued, the more they avoided him. Matters came to such a pitch at last, that they conceived a spite against him, so they complained to his father. Upon this high words took place between

father and son, till at length the former went into his room to seek a rattan to flog our autobiographer; but this was avoided by Abdulla falling at his father's feet. Matters between father and son were at length made up by the missionary calling on the father and apparently pacifying him with regard to his religious scruples. After this Abdulla prospered, so that his co-religionists' spite was inflamed the more, on which they nicknamed him. "Abdulla Padre," an opprobrious epithet in the feelings of Mahomedans.

This candid confession leads us to look at the principle of action on the part of the English missionaries, nor is this principle confined to their body, but I have seen it practised both by French and Portuguese as occasion offered. They, it is true, take their commission from the home societies to propagate the Gospel, then why should they pretend to the natives to do another thing? Is this honest? and if not honest, will the measure not re-act against the real object? Or, provided that the missionaries honestly ignore the gospel in their teaching, and give secular instruction only, are they doing their duty to those who sent them out? In either case there is a dilemma out of which various minds will extricate themselves in different ways; some will say the ends justify the means; others, enlighten first and proselytize afterwards; others (I have known them) resign the task, as not being straightforward. I have seen a few of the enlightened subjects of this secular teaching, and in mind and genius they were young Bengal on a small scale; they had lost what reverence for religion and respect for parents they had ever had, and revelled in full freedom of thought and license of behaviour. The melancholy address of Dr. Duff to the Free Church Assembly of Scotland was inspired by this state of matters.

Abdulla informs us that he remained six or seven years at these duties, during which time he translated. many books. At length he got married, and had the honour of entertaining his principals. When dinner was over they complimented him, and desired to see his wife, when he took them in (to the inner apartments), where they shook hands with her, a most unusual thing for Christian gentlemen to do to Mahomedan ladies; but in this we see the force of the progress of good understanding. It is therefore notable.

Of Dr. Milne our autobiographer appears to have conceived a very high opinion. He says of him, "He was gentle, mindful, and helpful to me, with great kindness. These benefits I can never repay to him. It is God alone who will give him seven-fold blessings. I shall never forget him as long as I live. It was now only that I was over head and ears in debt, as the Malay proverb goes; the debt of gold can be repaid, but the debt of gratitude we carry to our graves. But the change of the world fell on him,-his wife died, and after this he seemed always buried in grief. He tired of study and fell sick, and in a short time died also." Thus a noble spirit was lost to the earth, too often the sad fate of the ardent, the benevolent, and the truly pious. This was in 1822, thus the event has been made to precede the course of the narrative.

And while on this subject, I may notice the habits of Protestant missionaries in warm climates as being obnoxious to their bodily health. As I have observed them, they generally arrive in the tropics after they are no longer young men; thus their habits are confirmed, and these, being generally of a studious and sedentary nature, aggravate the climatic influences working against them. They seldom, I may say never, mix in the social circles of their countrymen, which induces an ascetic form

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