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then they bowed themselves in front, then to the right and to the left, then to the back, when off they ran into the sea up to their navels, and worshipped the sun for some time, turning their faces to the right and to the left. Then they came ashore, and went to eat within white cloth screens, so that no one could see them at meals. But if persons should happen to see them, they would cast out their food and break the earthen vessels in pieces, buying others for the next time. Others there were who could eat before people, but they could not speak; but their mouths kept repeating the gomita kamita (?) and their fingers kept counting while they were eating, nor could they stir from this position. I saw many other foolish customs. Others there were who could not taste fish and flesh, or things of blood, but only vegetables. How many forms of people did I then not see, and kinds of dresses that I had never in my life seen before. And it was to be perceived that the English had provided their leaders with different dresses, some had tigers' skins for coats, others had hats covered with fowls' feathers dyed red, white, or black; while others had beasts' skins for trowsers; there were also others who had clothes spotted like leopards. Also at that time I had an opportunity of inspecting various kinds of tents; some were like houses, with their sleeping chambers, and rooms furnished with tables and chairs, also doors and windows, bath-house and water-closet, all of cloth; others were contrived so as to be red inside and white outside, decorated with various flowering.

Now, their daily routine, morning and night, was to drill them in companies; others to fire cannon, and in rank and file to use musketry. Again, others to draw cannon with big bullocks; and much was I astonished to see them fire the great guns close to the ears of these bullocks, as they did neither start nor move in the

slightest. And when the officers ordered the sepoys to run, the bullocks also ran with them; and when halt was cried, they also halted at the same moment; and if the men went at slow pace, they also did the same, as if they had the intelligence of mankind. Now, this brought some thoughts into my head. Here were brutes, that had no reason in them, yet how did they learn; especially then should we (who have reason given to us to know bad from good, but who love to sit in idleness, and refuse to learn anything of wisdom or utility) do likewise.

Again, after a few days came a very large ship, carrying troops to the number of 300 men. These were all Mussulmen, under three English officers. So they landed, and were quartered at Banda Illiar, in the garden of Mr. Adrian Kock. Many people went to see them, myself amongst the rest; and I saw them being exercised by their officers in the middle of the open ground, all on horseback, and their horses were of the Arab breed, standing high, and of the same colour of hair and beauty. And the men were alike of great height and build, and all decorated; their coats, trowsers, and hats being pearly, each having a musket slung from behind, with a cartridge box attached to the left side, also a forage bag hung to his shoulder, and two pistols in the saddle locked. And when he mounted, there were two skirts of leather binding his waist, so that he might not fall, for he did not have much grasp of any bridle, the horses being so well trained. They raced their horses as if they were flying; and neither did they fall and rise in the firing of their guns, and re-loading, or in cutting with the sword. In the first place, their officer taught them this, not by the mouth but by the trumpet in the hand. And as he wished he sounded by the trumpet, when all the horses raced with a swiftness equal to

lightning. Then he would sound the halt, when each horse would halt at the same moment in close line. The sound would be again for the horses to separate, when they would form a true square, as if they had been a fort. Then would be another blast, when the men would fire at once, as if they were one. Then they would all load again. At another blast they would sling their muskets and draw their swords. Then the trumpet would again be sounded, and they would go full speed up the hill, surrounding it, so as to have the appearance of a fort. Then would come the wood-cutters, ready with ropes round their waists, with the view to tie the wood after it was cut down; each would then carry a bundle, and in this manner soon make all clear in front of the troops. Then the trumpet would sound, when all the cavalry would rush down, like the sound of the hurricane, to range themselves round their officers, who were also on horseback.

Now, I was much more astonished at the intelligence of the horses than I was at that of the bullocks which drew the cannon; for the former obeyed the sound of the trumpet as if they had been spoken to, and this without a slip, however great the distance; neither did the rider guide with the bridle, but the horses manœuvred by their own intelligence. Further, the horses of the officers were higher than those of the sepoys; and when they had done drilling, and were returning, they did not take the horses through the gates, but leaped the fence, which was seven cubits high* (ten and a half English feet). This was the case daily. And the Malacca people in hundreds came every day to see this feat, and to witness the officers leaping the fence, loud were they in their cries of astonishment at seeing the skill of the horses-equal as it was to that of mankind-in * Oriental hyperbole.


understanding the sound of the trumpet. Says one, This is not men's but jins' work. Further, the sepoys were well acquainted with the reading of the Koran, understanding the Arab language, and especially Hindostanee. And amongst them were many descendants of the Arabs of the race of Syeds. They were gracious and manly and courteous. And I asked them how the English had got hold of them; when they informed me that they were from Delhi, the Nabob's men, and the English having asked for their services, the Nabob had sent them. Then they added, 'We are three hundred, but we have left behind many thousands, all horsemen as we are.' Then I asked, 'What wage do you get?' when they told me that the Nabob's allowance to each of them was 300 rupees monthly, and that the English allowed them the same, but with a further proviso that if they should take Java they were to have prize-money besides.

Three days after this there came six large vessels, and in one of these was the General of Madras; and when it had anchored, they saluted him from the fort. And immediately there were brought into Malacca about one thousand rank and file of sepoys from Lambongan and Kalambri, preceded by drums, fifes, etc., playing. And when they had arrived they were arranged in three lines on the right and left of the street, from the sea-shore to the Government House. On this the General disembarked, when I had an opportunity of seeing his mightiness. His face was long and red, his body was stumpy, of half the usual height of men. He wore a long black coat, with a star on his breast. There were four or five gentlemen with him. Then Mr. Raffles, Colonel Farquhar, and other leading men of Malacca, shook hands with him with due respect, and just as his feet touched the shore the guns were fired, and the guard of honour presented arms as he proceeded to the

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Government House. And when he looked to the right and the left he perceived the multitude saluting him, at which he bowed on either side; and when he was about to ascend the stairs, the guard of honour fired three times in succession, with a sound as if the earth of Malacca were topsy-turvy. After this all returned to their homes.

Five or six days after this came the General from Bombay, who also was saluted from the fort; and when he came on shore he was also received by Mr. Raffles as in the manner above related, only he had' fewer guns given him than the Madras General got. His appearance was that of a short person, with a round face, hair white, body of moderate proportions; but he seemed nervous at the crowd gazing on him. Him also Mr. Raffles saluted and carried to the Government House; and as he stepped in, the regiments also fired as before, and then returned to their tents. Thus it went on daily, vessels continually arriving, to the number of four or five, till the anchorage was filled, like a fence of masts. This created a great rise in the price of provisions: three eggs for two wangs (about one shilling), one fowl for a rupee, while vegetables and fish were not to be had; the mud fish in the creeks, in all their filthiness, were thus finished.

And at that time, with the people of Malacca, the poor spoke as the poor, and the rich spoke as the rich, each in their own degrees in making their livings. Also at that time not a woman stirred out of her house, for the streets were defiled with men; some were drunk, others were fighting. The pings (?) were kept constantly busy in taking up drunkards; for at that time peons or policemen were not known, but only the fiscal's officials, called pings (?). All the drunkards were sent to their places. And at that time no dollars or

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