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that both were sent to Coventry. Thus Nature, true to her principles, in young Raffles's humiliation opened the road to his future elevation. Had he been carried away by the gaieties of society he could never have studied the native languages deeply, nor could he have mixed with the chiefs so as to gain their confidence. What sympathies he could not interchange with his own country-men he perforce interchanged with them; and by this means he established a position which a high and nobleminded man like Lord Minto was not slow to appreciate. Thus also was it with his wife. If ladies of her husband's rank would not associate with her, the wives of native chiefs would, and thus she gained in one way what she lost in the other; and by devoting her talents to the cause of her husband, she was, as Abdulla very beautifully expresses himself, the jewel in the ring.

Of the Malay pantun I must explain that the second line of each verse is put first in the next. The Malays are fond of this style of versification, and see more in it than Europeans are able to appreciate. By way of contrast, Abdulla gives us a pantun to a bad wife, not a bad idea.

VIII.

THE JAVA EXPEDITION.-LORD MINTO AND

THE TUANKU.

"Now Mr. Raffles had stayed in Malacca about four months, sending letters with presents to all the Malay princes, east and west, when came Tuanku Pangeran, Raja of Siak, known as Tuanku Penglima Besar, his name being Syed Hassin. But as to his coming, whether he had been fetched by Mr. Raffles, or that he had come of his own accord to see him, I have not learned. He came to Malacca, bringing with him two sons; and when he arrived, Mr. Raffles received him with the greatest consideration, placing a house and garden at Banda Illiar at his disposal, with attendants, carriages, and horses. He never needed to walk, but either drove or rode, visiting Mr. Raffles every other day, to converse, and then returning to his place.

Now, at that time many English ships went to blockade the island of Java, seizing all boats and vessels that carried the Dutch flag, and bringing them to Malacca. Then did people begin to surmise that the English were at war with the Dutch, or about to commence it. At this time one or two English ships had arrived at Malacca, bringing material for this war; such as tents by the hundred, carriages and the implements of cannon, guns and powder, and such like.

Then, on a certain day, came Tuanku Penglima Besar to converse with Mr. Raffles, who informed him of the intention of the English to attack Java, mentioning the difficulty of obtaining persons to carry letters to the Susanan (native emperor) at Bantaram,* to tell him the news and learn as to his mind about siding with the Dutch or not. He also hinted that he would be very glad if he could get any one to do this service. On this Tuanku Penglima Besar rose up, and drawing his kris, said with vehemence, 'What is the use of this kris? As long as I have strength, wherever you go I shall lead: let me die before you. Write a letter, and I am the man that will take it to the Susanan at Bantaram.' Now, when Mr. Raffles heard what Tuanku Penglima Besar said, his face brightened, and smiling, he thanked the Tuanku, promising that the East India Company would well reward him and assist him in any manner he desired. So they grasped each other's hands by way of clenching the agreement as to carrying the letter.

Now, there was at that time the son of some great man in Java stopping in Malacca, at the Ujong Pasir quarter, whose name was Pangeran, † he also was friendly with Mr. Raffles. So Mr. Raffles called him, on which he came directly. He went over the whole subject with him; when the Pangeran replied, 'I would undertake to open a road to the Susanan were it not for the numerous English vessels that watch every port of Java; on this account there is no getting out nor in; and further, the Dutch are very vigilant at the river entries, and were they to find such a letter on me, to a certainty they would hang me without another thought.' Then replied Mr. Raffles, 'Don't be afraid, Pangeran, on that account, for I will give you a note in case of your meeting any English vessels at sea, and when you show + Pangeran is a title, not a name.

* Mataram.

it they are bound to assist you; further, they will be bound to show you a place where you can land, and the Tuanku Penglima Besar can take the letter.' So when the Pangeran had heard what Mr. Raffles said, he said, "That will do.' Then said Mr. Raffles, 'Come this night to my house, when we can compose the letter to be sent; for this work is one of importance and cannot be delayed, for in four or five days hence many ships will arrive here, and in fifteen days more the ships carrying Lord Minto and the General of the Madras army. So the Pangeran replied, 'Very good;' when he returned to Ujong Pasir. Then said Mr. Raffles to Tuanku Penglima Besar, 'Could you go in my vessel two days hence?' to which he assented; so he also returned to his house. Then when evening had arrived he again called the Pangeran, and when he had come he told him to compose a letter which he desired to send to the Susanan at Bantaram, in the Javanese language. So he did accordingly, being engaged at it till about twelve o'clock. So this was duly prepared, Mr. Raffles placing his signature and stamp to it, together with the presents of various sorts, to the value of five or six hundred Spanish dollars. On this the Pangeran returned home. Then in the morning Tuanku Penglima Besar was again sent for, and on his arrival Mr. Raffles gave him four hundred Spanish dollars for the expenses of himself and companions; and the vessel having been got ready, they prepared to sail, taking with them all the men of Siak that they had brought, also the two sons of the Tuanku. Mr. Raffles now gave them three boxes and another two hundred Spanish dollars, having instructed them in every matter, at the same time arming them with a letter, written in the English language, to show to any ships of that country which they might fall in with, whose assistance would thus be commanded. He further

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enjoined that it was to be understood that Tuanku Penglima Besar was to be the captain of the vessel, whom the Pangeran was to obey; and they both were to arrange, under any circumstances, to bring word back before the fleet left Malacca for Java. This is for Lord Minto's information,' said Mr. Raffles; 'so return as quickly as possible; don't anchor at sea, nor tarry anywhere.' Thus, after their provisions were all ready, on the morrow, at 6 a.m., the vessel sailed. Mr. Raffles and Colonel Farquhar conveyed Tuanku Penglima Besar and the Pangeran to the shore, and both shaking hands they bid them farewell; so they embarked and sailed.

But I will now leave this matter for a time and proceed to relate about the English fleet collecting at Malacca before going on to attack Java. After the vessel of the Tuanku had left, in about five days, there came to Malacca about three or four vessels daily, and afterwards six or seven. All these carried Bengal lascars and sepoys, with a great many high people: these erected their tents from Lambongan as far as Tanjong Kling, this without break, each with their entrances. And amongst these were various races of Hindoos and Mussulmen; and I saw others, who ate like dogs, to wit, they licked their food with their tongues; while there were others who, on being seen eating, would throw the 'food away, and chase you as if they would kill you, they were so angry. There were others who only half heated the food, and eat it there covered with perspiration, as if bathing in it. And when they had eaten they buried the rice and curry that was over in the sand. And there were others who tied three strands of thread round their belly before they ate, nor did they stop eating till the thread had broken. There were others who took white and red earth and smeared it on their breasts, with three stripes on their arms and brow;

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