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sebab marika-itu menaro dinki kapada saya tagal saya meniaroh ana-ana belajar deripada dudu dingan chuma-chuma iang tida berpaida bukanka belajar bai. Maka jawab bapaku angkan suda pandei berchakap sekarang aku tida bulih terlawan lagi, dehulu angkan kichil bulih aku ajar sekarang angkan suda besar pada sangka mu aku takut akan-d-aku. Maka jawab ku jangankan saya ini jikalan menjeddi raja pun sikali pun kalan ada barang apu ku-salahan saya bulih juga bapa boat apa suka. Maka apa bila de dingar itu maka.'

NOTE. The above is written as the language is actually spoken, and independent of the influence of Arabic orthography.

III.

MALAY SPELLING.

SPECIMEN of the first lines of the above as spelt in Malay, the equivalents of the Jawi letters being given in Roman:Dbauh pntu ait ad suat batu als pntu ait. Mk adalh kera kera tujh dlapn pulh rngit. Mk smoa-nia aorng aorng ait mndirikn pntu ait srt trdiri mk dtmpr aulh Tuan Mlin pntu ait srt brtrik-nia nma-nia.

NOTE. The above specimen will show that this system of orthography is a species of shorthand, there being no vowel marks, as in its basis, viz. the Arabic.

IV.

EXTRACTS FROM THE KORAN.

In order that the reader may more thoroughly understand our autobiographer's position, as well as the motives that would prompt him, I have made short extracts from the Koran, showing its leading principles; and it is to be remembered that, in early youth, these were strictly inculcated in him by his parents and native preceptors. They were thus

engrained in his nature. While both Christianity and Islamism are offshoots of a common Theocracy, viz. Judaism, they, in essentials, are the antitheses of each other. Thus the sentiments of the Koran appear as a reaction against image worship from which, almost alone, Protestants abstainalso against Trinitarianism, monogamy, the doctrine of the Atonement, the divine essence of man, etc., etc. Arguments against these principles are constantly recurring in the Koran. The doctrines practically suit themselves to the habits and tendencies of tropical peoples, more particularly in the commerce of the sexes, the coercion of the weaker of both sexes for food and clothing alone; while, as a counterpoise, prohibitions are placed on the indulgencies of the palate, such as the use of wine and certain meats. And as to these indulgencies a tropical people are not addicted, they are not a barrier to the extension of the faith. As is well known to our missionaries-and it is a fact which has been publicly acknowledged the innate constitutional tendencies and weaknesses of tropical peoples form the great obstacles to the success of European Christian missions, whose doctrines and practices are irreconcilably averse to them.*

To the Koran, also, as a book, certain occult virtues are ascribed which have great attraction to people given to fetishism. It thus forms a strong bond as a mysterious common standard. A large portion of it is derived from the Old Testament, as well as from legends connected with Judaism.

EXTRACTS FROM THE KORAN (as translated by Sale).

1. Earth as a plain. O men, serve the Lord, who hath spread the earth as a bed for you. Chap. ii.

But

2. The transgression of Adam and Eve. But approach not this tree, lest ye become of the number of transgressors. Satan caused them to forfeit Paradise. Chap. ii.

* Ethiopian Christianity is a phase that adapts itself to the tropical nature of man.

3. Passage of the Red Sea. And when we divided the sea for you and delivered you, and drowned Pharaoh's people while ye looked on. Chap. ii.

4. Miracle of the rock. And when Moses asked drink for his people, we said, Strike the rock with thy rod; and there gushed thereout twelve fountains. Chap. ii.

5. Belief in prophets. We believe in Abraham the orthodox, Ismail, Isaac, Jacob, and Jesus. Chap. ii. 6. Law of retaliation altered. This is indulgence from your Lord and mercy. And he who shall transgress after this, by killing the murderer, shall suffer a grievous punishment. Chap. ii.

7. Fast ordained. A certain number of days shall ye fast. Chap. ii.

8. Ramadan. The month of Ramadan shall ye fast. Chap. ii.

9. Superiority of men over women. But the men ought to have a superiority over them. Chap. ii.

10. Divorce. But when ye divorce women, and they have fulfilled their prescribed time, etc. Chap. ii.

11. Usury. They who devour usury shall not arise from the dead. Chap. ii.

12. Unity of God (constantly repeated). There is no God but God, the living, the self-subsisting. Chap. iii.

13. Nature of the Koran. Some verses clear to be under. stood; they are the foundation of the book, and others are parabolical. Chap. iii.

14. Day of judgment.

O Lord, Thou shalt surely gather mankind together unto a day of resurrection. Chap. iii. 15. Rewards of the devout. Gardens through which rivers flow; therein shall they continue for ever, and they shall enjoy rivers free from impurity. Chap. iii.

16. The Word born of Mary. O Mary, verily God sendeth thee good tidings: that thou shalt bear the Word proceeding from Himself. His name shall be Jesus Christ, the son of Mary, honourable in this world and in the world to come, and one of those who approach near to the presence of God. Chap. iii.

17. Unbelievers perish. And in the next life they shall be of those that perish. Chap. iii.

18. Mahomed. Mahomed is no more than an apostle; the other apostles have already died before him. Chap. iii.

19. Wife created out of man. O men, fear your Lord, Who has created you out of one man, and out of him created his wife. Chap. iv.

20. Restriction of wives. Take in marriage of such other women as you please-two, or three, or four, but not more. Chap. iv.

21. Estates of orphans. Surely, they that devour the possessions of orphans unjustly shall swallow down nothing but fire into their bellies, and shall broil in raging flames. Chap. iv.

22. Female adulterers. Imprison them in separate apartments until death release them. Chap. iv.

23. Suicides. Neither slay yourselves, for God is merciful to you. Chap. iv.

24. Reward to those that die in battle. Whether he be slain or be victorious, we will surely give him a great reward. Chap. iv.

25. Jesus not crucified. And have said, Verily, we have slain Jesus Christ, the son of Mary, the Apostle of God. Yet they slew Him not, neither crucified Him, but He was represented by one in His likeness. Chap. iv.

26. Certain flesh forbidden. Ye are forbidden to eat that which dieth of itself, and blood, and swine's flesh, etc.

Chap. v.

27. God's sons. The Jews and the Christians say, We are the children of God, and His beloved. Answer: therefore, does He punish you for your sins? Chap. v.

Why,

28. Punishment for stealing. If a man or woman steal, cut off their hands. Chap. v.

29. Punishment by God's pleasure. He punisheth whom He pleaseth, and He pardoneth whom He pleaseth; for God is almighty. Chap. v.

30. Metempsychosis. He whom God hath cursed, and with

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whom He hath been angry, having changed some into apes and swine. Chap. v.

31. Jews and Christians one. O true believers, take not the Jews or Christians for your friends; they are friends the one to the other. Chap. v.

32. Judgment day. Whoever of them believe in God and the last day, and doth that which is right, etc. Chap. v.

33. Idolatry, etc. O, true believers, surely wine, and lots, and images, and divining arrows, are an abomination, the work of Satan; therefore avoid them, that ye may prosper. Chap. v.

34. Personification of Satan. Satan seeketh to sow dissension and hatred among you. Chap. v.

35. Omniscience of God. God is omniscient. Chap. v.

36. Christ's miracles. Didst make the figure of a bird of clay, and didst breathe thereon, and it became a bird, by My (God's) permission; and Thou didst heal one blind from his birth, and the leper, by My (God's) permission, etc. Chap. v.

37. Punishment for disbelief. I ask therefore punishment due unto you, for that ye have disbelieved. Chap. vi.

38. Leaf cannot fall. There falleth no leaf but He knoweth. Chap. vi.

39. Boiling water for unbelievers. Shall have boiling water to drink, and shall suffer a grievous punishment because they have disbelieved. Chap. vi.

40. Prophets given. And we gave unto them Isaac and Jacob. We directed them both, and Noah had we before directed, and of his posterity, David and Solomon, and Job and Joseph, and Moses and Aaron. Thus do we reward the righteous. And Zacharias and John, and Jesus and Elias, all of them were upright men; and Ismail and Elisha, and Jonas and Lot. Chap. vi.

41. God no sons and daughters. And they falsely attributed to Him sons and daughters without knowledge. Chap. vi. 42. Plurality of devils. But the devils will suggest unto their friends. Chap. vi.

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