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rocks, round stones, tops of hills and headlands. This was the basis of the mind of the people, on which Mahomedanism, Hindooism, and Bhuddism had been, from time to time, superimposed by northern races. Now it was sought to substitute Protestant Christianity, which ignored all these ideas, and, besides, attacked the vital parts of their social system, viz. polygamy and slavery. Thus the mission difficulty was enormously increased; superstition and spiritism might be overcome, and materialism or reason substituted, but the institutions innate from all time could not be done away with. Hence the cause of want of success- -a circumstance which soon led to the breaking up of the two missions, and the dispersion of the labourers to more promising fields. Now, as to the Roman missions, one was French and the other Portuguese. The latter had lost all its vitality, for the days of Francis Xavier had gone. All it did was to show a useless opposition to its more energetic rival. This rival was under the direction of one well versed in human nature, and alert to every chance that tended to increase his neophytes. His mode of working was entirely different from that of the Protestant missionaries. He and his assistants were seen at all times of the day and night trudging along the roads and through the forests, visiting the various native houses and villages. And here they only followed natural laws, as well as their Protestant opponents. The young unmarried priesthood of Rome delighted in excursions, new scenery, and experiences. Their bed might be on the ground for that matter. The married priesthood, on the contrary, held to the school-form or studio, that his regularity as a devoted husband might not be questioned. In short, one courted sunstroke and the other liver complaint, that both should die martyrs.

They gave their principal attention to the Chinese, in

whose interests, temporal as well as spiritual, they cast their whole thoughts. If a Chinaman had a plea at the police-office or the court, or before any of the public departments, there were his French missionary friends alongside of him. I saw little of schooling here.

Human nature seems to have been taken as it was found, and manipulated accordingly, and self-interest is the best of polemical arguers. Thus, before I left Singapore, I found Christian Chinese in all parts of the settlement, both in the open and the forest; these to the number of from two to five thousand. Often, when halting at mid-day for a little shelter from the sun, I have gone into the Chinese Gambier bangsals, where I have found the crucifix over the altar instead of the Joss. But otherwise you could see no difference. I do not say it by way of commendation, but here superstitious reverence was in no way interfered with. The transitions effected appeared to be without a struggle. But yet polygamy and slavery remained to be overcome; these in Singapore would not be very serious difficulties, as few of the Chinese were married in the settlement,probably not one in twenty, and the other institution was suppressed as much as possible by the English Government.

I have observed of people who have never been out of Europe, that these vital difficulties to the introduction of that phase of Christianity that is most agreeable to the mind of the people there, are not apparent. This is not to be wondered at. But missionaries find them to be too certain; nor dare they accept the Christianity of Abyssinia, as such could have no support on their basis of operations. Contact with the black man may have its advantages, but the counter objections balance the account. Could European and American missionaries imitate the conduct of the Mahomedan

ones, their influence and religion would spread like wild fire. Let the ladies marry the elevated natives, and the gentlemen make similar connections, and, the bond of sympathy thus being practical, the superior mind of the white would enormously increase its functions and range. In this manner the white whalers and sealers of New Zealand were the real proselytizers there. It was by their native marriages and connections that they paved the way for Marsden, Selwyn, and other Christian apostles, who now had only to develop by nurture a tree whose seed had been planted, and whose shoots were coming forth out of the ground. And yet a widespread. reaction took place against Christianity in the native mind, fully twenty years after it was thought to be firmly established. This was due, no doubt, to many causes; but one of the most influential was that of the everincreasing presence of the white woman, whose interests demanded that her countrymen should hold the Maori apart. The two races thus became distinct castes, having no common bond; thus estrangement, leading to virulent animosity, followed. What effect the measures of the beneficent and benevolent McLean may lead to is yet to be seen.

But to return to our subject. Missionary influence in the far East, as I have seen it, has not had the stimulus which it had in New Zealand, and the efforts, so far, have in no practical manner got hold of the indoor sympathies of the people. Till that is done no advancement can be made, unless the tactics of the Romanists are pursued. But this is impossible for Protestants. Thus our missionaries are placed between two dilemmas, viz., to sacrifice their home associations, nay more, their country and very blood; or to do virtually nothing. True, education they can give, but this merely sharpens the weapons of ethical acuteness against them. Faith

alone, which comes of inner conviction, and which is promoted by social connection, will do it. I once went through this subject fully with an honest and intelligent American missionary, and such was the conclusion at which we arrived.

So fully was I persuaded of this, that when a society for the elevation of the Maori was got up in Otago, on being called upon for my subscription by three maiden ladies, I said I would subscribe if they would promise to marry a Maori after he had been elevated. But the bargain was rejected with scorn, and I kept my money, being of opinion that there might be self-conceit on their part, but no true Christian philanthropy. They would artificially elevate a being so as he could see the degraded position from which he had risen, and then refuse him the consolations of the higher sphere to which they had raised him. This was promising him bread and giving him a stone.

After this the Chamber of Commerce is noticed; but we proceed to the next translation.



"I WILL now tell about the English church at Singapore. It is situated in the centre of the plain of what was Kamunting and Sikadudus scrub. After it had been cleared by Colonel Farquhar, in a short time there came sepoys with their officers, who were stationed on the site. They remained here during the time of Colonel Farquhar; but after this all were removed to the lines on the road towards Tullo Blangah, where are now to be seen houses appropriate for officers. So from that time the plain remained open-a place for racing horses, and for the Europeans to take an airing in the evenings. Then by-and-by one or two European houses were built on the plain.

Then, coming down to the year of the Hejira 1254, or A.D. 1838, during Mr. Bonham's governorship and Mr. Wingrove's police commissionership, the English gentlemen residents combined to erect a great church; for, before this, Mr. Thomsen had only erected a small one, where the English went to worship. So when the combination was completed each gave as he could afford; also subscriptions came in from other quarters. So now they commenced to lay the foundations of the church, the architect of which was Mr. Coleman, who reared

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