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had fully made up his mind to accept the terms of the Bengal authorities. The Sultan assented. The Tomungong was then asked the same question, when he also assented. Mr. Crawfurd then drew out two rolls of parchment from his desk, handing one to the Sultan and one to the Tomungong, when the Sultan asked to have them translated into Malay, as follows:

'Bahwa ini surat pada meniatikan; maka adala kita Sultan Hussain Shah, bin Sultan Mahomed Shah, Sultan Johor dan Pahang eia-itu Sultan de negri Singapura mengaku dedalam surat ini bahwa sisungoh-nia maka adala dingan suka-suka hati kita tela meniarahkan negri Singapura ini serta dingan parenta-nia sakali kapada Kumpani Ingris ada-nia. Sahadan adala pula pejanjian Kumpani kapada Sultan maka jekalau kera-nia Sultan handa berpinda deri Singapura ini ka negri lain meleinkan Kumpani bri hadia tiga pulo ribu ringit dan kapada Tomungong lima blas ribu ringit. Dan lagi ada perjanjian Kumpani Ingris membri belanjer kapada kita pada sa bulan siribu tiga ratus ringit besar dan kapada Tomungong tuju ratus ringit ada-nia. Bermula ada pembeiaran Kumpani Ingris iang tersibut pada sa bulanbulan itu saleggi ada siat Sultan sahaja; maka sepeningal Sultan anak chucha Sultan tiadala buleh mendapat wang iang tersibut itu ada-nia. Dan leggi Kumpani membri hadia kapada Sultan tiga pulo ribu ringit.'

Which is rendered as follows:

This writing witnesseth that we, Sultan Hussain Shah, son of Sultan Mahomed Shah, King of Johore and Pahang, to wit, who is now in Singapore, acknowledge by the writing aforesaid that we truly and of our own pleasure make over the country of Singapore and its government entirely to the English Company. More

over, the Company bind themselves to us, the Sultan, that should we desire to leave Singapore for another country, that the Company shall give us thirty thousand Spanish dollars, and to the Tomungong fifteen thousand Spanish dollars. Further, the Company bind themselves to us to give us a monthly allowance of thirteen hundred Spanish dollars, and to the Tomungong seven hundred Spanish dollars. Moreover, the payments of the English Company, as above stated, shall be made monthly, and shall be for the lifetime of us the Sultan only, and after us our offspring will not receive the same. The Company will further give to us, by way of present, thirty thousand Spanish dollars.’



After this agreement had been read, Mr. Crawfurd explained it in Malay, and the Sultan assented and sealed it, the Tomungong doing likewise. When the treaty had thus been signed, twelve guns were fired from the top of the hill—a sign of pleasure. So the Sultan and Tomungong returned, and as the Sultan was going, he said to Mr. Crawfurd, When will we get the money?' which he replied, that he could send for it at once. they returned to their homes. Then on the morrow a servant of the Sultan, named Inchi Abu Putih, came to get the amount; and after it had been counted up, and the debts of the Sultan to Mr. Raffles taken into consideration, there remained to be given to the Sultan 20,000 dollars. This settled, the whole of the balance was made over to Inchi Abu. The money arrived at the Sultan's, and then only did he begin to reflect, and see that he had cause for repentance, in his having made over the settlement of Singapore. Henceforth the monthly allowance of the Sultan was 1300 Spanish dollars, and of the Tomungong 700 Spanish dollars. This continued the same till the death of Sultan Hussain Shah in

Malacca. Praise be to God that I have been able to say so!

After this affair was settled Mr. Crawfurd ordered the gong to be beaten round the town of Singapore and Campong Glam, proclaiming to the inhabitants that the laws and government of the place had been given over to the English Company, and that the Sultan and Tomungong no longer held sway, and that without the concurrence of the police neither could move in any matter. And when the Sultan heard the proclamation by gong, he now understood the real effects, which were as if a person's hands and feet had been tied-as the Malays say, 'Repent before, for afterwards repentance comes too late.'"

In the treaty the word meniarahkan is used, the root of which is srah, on the meaning of which I have commented. It will be observed that force is given to it here by the addition of the word sakali-that is, wholly, entirely, altogether, once and for all time to come. But this would still not imply the right of the English to give Singapore over to other nations, and I think this is the light in which the treaty is looked upon by the Malay chiefs themselves.

The detail of the transactions gives a good idea of kindred dealings, such as Mundy's taking over Labuan; and while, on the whole, the end has been beneficial to all parties, it does not entirely appear to be to the satisfaction of our autobiographer, whose party would have much greater power and advancement in a Mahomedan kingdom. This is but natural, and we cannot blame him for his political feelings. The regeneration of his race seems to have been his leading passion. He had the bias of a reformer, but not the energy.



"ABOUT a month after this, at day-break, there came twenty-seven women, who were both young and beautiful, to the police-office, to lay their complaints. One opened the clothes on her back to show the marks of the rattan cane; others had marks of having been hung up; others of burnings with pitch; others complained of being punished by fasting and nakedness. Some further said that they had been burnt with pitch in such a part. Others complained that several of their friends had been ordered to be killed, from jealousy, the prince wanting to make concubines of them. These and such others were the complaints of the young girls at the police-office. Mr. Crawfurd ordered them to go where they liked, as now no one could touch them or interfere with them. So each went on their way: some went with the policemen, some to the Klings, others to the Chinese, and a few of them to the houses of the Europeans, just whereever they could get food and clothing.

Then, at two in the afternoon, the Sultan made his appearance at the police-office to see Mr. Crawfurd; and when he arrived, Mr. Crawfurd received him and took him to a seat. The Sultan now asked why he had let loose all his female slaves; adding, 'For they have all run away from my house. They were mine, for I had an

agreement with Mr. Raffles that the Company should have no authority over them.' To this Mr. Crawfurd replied, that he knew nothing of Mr. Raffles' engagements with the Sultan, but that he had an order from the chief authority in Bengal that on English ground there should be no slaves, but free men only; further, should any one buy or sell such, he should be severely punished. Likewise it was not right to punish mankind by burning them with fire, or by beating them without mercy. Again, he added, 'I have learnt that men have been murdered in your court; but if I find the murderers, I will have them killed also.' To this the Sultan replied, that it was not fair to let his slaves go. To this Mr. Crawfurd replied, that if he was dissatisfied, the Sultan could write to the authorities in Bengal, or he could sail himself to Bengal to make inquiries. It was not his pleasure, but the Company's. When the Sultan heard this he was silent, and going to his carriage, he returned without even saying good-bye.

About a month after this an order came from Bengal to have all the streets put right, by having those straightened which were crooked. So all were perfected till they came to Campong Glam, but to straighten one of the streets here would take it into the heart of the Sultan's court. So Mr. Crawfurd let the Sultan know that the Company wished the street to be carried so. But when the Sultan heard of it he was dreadfully enraged, and would not let it be done. And when Mr. Crawfurd saw this, he opened up the wall by force. So the convicts set to to knock down the wall. Thus the court was then made as we see it; half on this side of the street, half on the other. And when the Sultan perceived that force was used, he restrained himself and said nothing, seeing that he no longer had any power in Singapore. As the Malay proverb says,

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