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Chinese Hill; and the third towards Banda Iñar. All these were made so as to be drawn up, which they did at night-time; but if there was any disturbance, or war, or such like, they kept them up. When large vessels were entering the river they had to pay does, as well as when going out.

Moreover, around the fort there was a breastwork of earth, whose thickness was two fathoms, and at the foot of it they planted sharp iron spikes, and at the side of the spikes there was a ditch, whose breadth was about five fathoms, with about the same depth, from whence water could be let in or out. The sluice for inlet was near to the small bridge, but that for outlet was seaward, near the landward bridge. There were also banks round the moat planted with trees. And in the moat there were numbers of alligators and sikap fish, with mullets and prawns. Again, on the top of the fort, at about every two fathoms, they placed a cannon, also what was called a monkey-house-a place for the sepoys to watch; thus it was all round the fort. Then after six in the evening they would allow no one to enter-but only to walk outside, and when it was eight, they fired a gun and lifted the drawbridges, after which, if we did not carry lights we were taken hold of, and if we did not answer to the call we were fired at from above. There was also a road round the fort of ten or twelve fathoms in width, from the banks of the moat, all kept beaten down and planted with senna trees at seven fathom distances. Thus it was as far as the small

bridge.

To proceed. Now there was a hill in the interior of the Malacca fort-just in the centre-of moderate elevation, on whose top stood a Dutch church, but which originally belonged to the Portuguese (Nazarenes). So when the Dutch had taken possession they converted it

to their own purposes. It is now used as a burial-place by the latter. The fort, however, was built by the Portuguese, and the way I know this is by the evidence of certain figures, over one of the gates, which were cotemporary with its construction, and whose appearance is that of that nation. These figures are made of stucco, standing erect, and of the size of children. They are to be seen at this day on the gate towards Banda Illiar: but the gate on the Malacca side was broken down by Colonel Farquhar. Near the church there is a garden belonging to the East India Company, in which are a great variety of plants, consisting of fruit trees, flowers, and all kinds of vegetables. There was also a well of many hundred fathoms depth, indeed of unknown depth, for if we threw a stone into it, it was a space before we heard the sound of it. Outside of the garden there was also another well of the same description. At the foot of the hill was situated the Governor's house, of elaborate construction, whence there led a covered passage into the hill leading to a water-gate.

Then behind the garden of the East India Company is the place of burial of Rajah Hajée, a Malay man of might, but of Bugis descent. It was he who made war on Malacca when the Dutch held it—which happened about fifty years ago, i.e., about A.D. 1790, at which time he nearly took it, for he had gained all the suburbs and surrounding villages, merely leaving the circuit of the town itself untaken. At that time all the different peoples of Malacca bore arms, including Malays, Klings, Chinese, Portuguese, each under their respective captains and leaders. And after some years of warfare, Rajah Hajêe was struck by a ball at a place called Tanjong Pallas, when the Dutch, obtaining his corpse, carried it to Malacca and buried it there; this, as I have had related to me, was in a pig-sty. Twenty or thirty years

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after this came his son from Linga and Rhio to Malacca, asking of the English Governor that he might carry the remains away for burial to Rhio, for which he obtained consent. Now, the history of the war of Raja Hajée is a very long one, and to go on with it would protract the work in hand, so I must set it aside.

Furthermore, there is on that side of the hill a prison, named by the Malacca people miskurdia (misericordia ?) that is in the Portuguese language, or tronko; and in that place there is a room called tronko glap (dark dungeon), for the keeping of the greatest criminals. Here night and day are equally the same. And at the side of this are the instruments for putting people to death, or for other punishments; the name of the place being "trato," that is, where people were racked on wood, when their joints were all separated and broken before being hung or gibbeted at Pulo Java (to which place the body was removed). Again, here were branding irons, used on criminals, whose print was about the size of a dollar. The branding was done before persons were put in chains, either to be strangled or to be rolled in a barrel full of spike nails, with the points inwards. Now the criminals were put into the barrel and rolled round the town till their bodies were mere pulp. I have not, however, seen this of myself, but have been told it by old people. Still, there were the instruments in existence, and the barrel stuck full of nails, besides all the other material of the Dutch for punishing and correcting the people. All these things, with their dungeons and the customs thereof, have now been done away with and burnt. The dark cell was demolished at the time of the war of Batavia, i.e., the taking of Java by the English. While Lord Minto was in Malacca he put an end to these brutal practices, the instruments of torture being either burnt or thrown into the sea.

Now I return to the subject of Colonel Farquhar's undertaking to demolish the fort. He first called all the workmen (coolies) of various nations to commence landward, near the Chinese Hill, and he set on several hundreds of them; but they could not break a single stone in several days, for they were in such a fright, they being surely persuaded that there were evil spirits in the fort. This idea was caused by many people having dreamed different manner of things, amongst which were of some having been slapped in the face by Satan himself, calling for their death's blood, or bringing on them numerous kinds of diseases. Thus the panic amongst the workmen increased the more and more. These no doubt were absurdities arising out of a strong prepossession and mere timidity, which made the fear of danger a reality to them just as lime sticking to a stone is taken for the stone itself, and the smell of it as if it had just been put on. When it was found so difficult to break up the masonry, then they were set to undermine the foundations; but the further down they went, there were less hopes of reaching them in this manner; they failed in this also. They measured the upper part, and found they had gone down the same distance below; so they stopped the work of digging down to the foundation, but they were ordered to commence demolishing on the seaward side-using hoes, rakes, pickaxes, and the like tools, but this proved but a sore trouble, so that many left off from fear, many men having died or fallen sick. The wages now rose to half a dollar per diem, but this even was not a sufficient inducement. Thus the demolishing of the fort became more and more difficult, and the people of Malacca began to think, at this period, that it would not be the English who could do it, by reason of its strength and the multitude of evil spirits opposing them.

Thus it went on for three months, in sicknesses, and

other disagreeables, as well as in the men dying or breaking their legs and arms. While such were the circumstances, it was bruited abroad that the Governor had ordered a mine to be carried under the sea bastion, where he intended to deposit powder boxes, with the view of blowing it up. When this was known, people cried out, What kind of an affair is this? Hundreds went to see it, myself amongst the number; and true enough, they had dug holes about one fathom square, of great depth to their desire. Then they dug the earth at the side of these wells, at about a fathom distance, in which they put the powder chests, to which they applied a fuse below the ground,-whose length was about ten fathoms,-made with cloth. The grains of the powder were rough, and as big as one's great toes. They then ordered these holes to be closed, which they plugged hard with stones and earth. They worked at these for five or six days, with ten or twenty men; after which they sent round the gong to make people aware that on the morrow, at eight o'clock in the morning, no persons were to come to the fort side of the river, or into the houses near, but to go to houses at a distance. Then, on the morrow, came Colonel Farquhar on horseback, holding a staff in his hand. He ordered his men to mount the fort and drive all people across the river, which they did pell mell. Immediately after this he lighted the fuse. This being done he spurred his horse; and in about four or five minutes the mine was fired with a noise like thunder, and out flew stones as big as houses and elephants, right out to the sea. There were also stones that were carried across the river to the tops of the houses. The people, when they heard the sound, got into a high state of alarm and consternation, for they never had heard such a noise before. The mighty power of gunpowder blowing up into the

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