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Again, at the citadel of Chanderi, he says, "The Pagans who were stationed in the covered way took to flight, and that, part of the works was taken. They did not defend the upper fort with so much obstinacy, and were quickly put to flight; the assailants climbed up, and entered the upper fort by storm. In a short time the Pagans, in a state of complete nudity, rushed* out to attack us, put numbers of my people to flight, and leaped over the ramparts. Some of our troops were attacked furiously, and put to the sword. The reason of this desperate sally from their works was that, in giving up the place for lost, they had put to death the whole of their wives and women, and having resolved to perish, had stripped themselves naked, in which condition they had rushed out to fight; and, engaging with ungovernable desperation, drove our people along the ramparts. Two or three hundred Pagans had entered Medini Rao's house, where numbers of them slew each other in the following manner :-one person took his stand with a sword in his hand, while the others one by one crowded in, and stretched out their necks eager to die. In this way many went to hell; and, by the favour of God, in the space of two or three gharis I gained the celebrated fort without raising my standard or beating my kettledrum, and without using the whole strength of my arms. On the top of the hill to the north-west of Chanderi, I erected a tower of heads of the Pagans."

Such is an account of Mahomedan transactions in Hindostan. We will now go to a Christian one of about the same date. Vasco de Gama, after having overcome a Malabar fleet, we are told by Gasper Correa, † ordered his people to cut off the hands, ears, and noses of all the vanquished crews, and put all into one of the small vessels, into which he ordered them to put the friar, also * Amoked in Malay. See works of Hakluyt Society.

without ears, nose, or hands, which he ordered to be strung round his neck, with a palm-leaf for the king, on which he was told to have curry made to eat of what this friar had brought him. When all the Indians had been thus mutilated, he ordered their feet to be tied together, as they had no hands with which to untie them; and in order that they should not untie them with their teeth, he ordered them to strike upon their teeth with staves, and they knocked them down their throats; and they were thus put on board, heaped up upon the top of each other, mixed with the blood which streamed from them; and he ordered mats and dried leaves to be spread over them, and the sails to be set for the shore, and the vessel set on fire; and there were more than 800 Moors; and the small vessel with the friar, with all the hands and ears, was also sent on shore under sail without being set on fire.

Again, Vicente Lodre having caught a Moorish captain, "He ordered two negroes to strip him and tie him to the boat's mast by the waist, feet, and neck, and to give him, with two tarred ropes, so many stripes on the back and stomach, which was very fat, that he remained like dead, for he swooned from the blood which flowed from him. Upon this he ordered him to be unbound, and he remained stretched out half dead." Again, "He ordered them to put dirt into his mouth, and fastened on the top of it a piece of bacon, which he sent for from the ship for that purpose; and, with his mouth gagged with a short stick, and his hands tied behind him, he ordered the others to take him away and go and embark. The Moors offered ten thousand pardaos of gold, which were in the bag, if they would not put the dirt in his mouth. This the captain would not take."

From such sickening details we turn with pleasure to the account of our autobiographer, a Mahomedan, and

his recapitulation of acts of grace and kindness by a Christian gentleman and lady towards himself. Where ignorance, bigotry, and rapacity rule, we encounter the former; where knowledge, expansiveness, and generosity triumph, we find the latter.



"Not long after this, Colonel Farquhar also made up his mind to return to Europe; and when the report got abroad, the Singapore people were very much distressed, because he had been a good Governor, clever and careful of his people. The Malacca people especially felt this, as he had been as a father to them. From the time he had been in both countries, he had never hurt any one's feelings, nor done but what was right; to all races he had been equally fatherly, helping them much and counselling them. On this account all loved him with fear, for his decisions were just. There was in his disposition a high excellence, that, in whatever measure or regulation, he had no leaning to the rich or to the poor, but all were the same to him. Now, it cannot be denied that many high officials regard the wealthy rather than the poor. So, when they give their decisions, they come heavy on the poor, and light on the rich. It thus follows that high officials hoarded wealth quickly, by taking a deal of bribes. These deeds deserve the fires of hell, and they set God far from them, and so also from all good and reputable people, by their covetousness for the goods of this flitting world.

So all the people of Singapore made ready presents, requisites for a procession, prows, and musical instru

ments; and on the day before he intended to sail, thousands of them came to see him. Some wept outright, knowing his goodness; but others feigned it, to make people believe that they were friends of his. Others brought various kinds of presents, Chinese in Chinese fashion, Malays in Malay fashion, Klings in Kling fashion. He took the names of all these, and returned the value in money; to some he gave cloth, others European articles as they desired. He was thus so

careful of the people's love. Thus it continued for two days; the people's eyes were wet, and whoever came to see him he gave them advice and best wishes, and tendered his help in directing them, adding that he was returning to his country, but if he lived he would come back to Singapore. He said this with tears in his eyes, as his earnest feelings were to remain. All these days numbers of poor people gathered around him asking charity, and he gave a share to all. His sons and daughters were also all in tears, sitting in grief. Moreover, there were provisions, sweetmeats, pickles, and various kinds of meats, and hundreds of bags, jars, and bottles, which were given to people in heaps.

Then, on the morrow, all races turned out with their prows decorated with flags, and accompanied by music and presents. The prows were in hundreds. After all was ready, the harbour resounded with Chinese, Malay, Kling, and Javanese bands of instruments. There was firing of guns and crackers, as the people followed the boat of Raja Farquhar; and when it was perceived by the officials and Europeans, that all races gave such reverence and greatness to Colonel Farquhar, they became divided, one party being glad, the other angry with spite. Some thus said: What is the use of paying respect to him? He has no standing here he has no This sentiment met with this reply:

power over us.'

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