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more merciful creditors than the native usurers, however, show a different state of things. There are no ryots in India, or tenants in Britain either, who are more considerately treated or who have more encouragement to better their condition than the tenants upon the extensive zemindaries owned by the Messrs. Morrell in Eastern Bengal.

Of the courts, again, the writer says that the most strenuous exertions of the Government have never yet succeeded in cleansing them from corruption. Every court is infested by subordinates, barring access of suitors to the magistrates. In this the Brahmins even assist the landlord, from venal objects. Thus the ryot is overcome in his search for justice, though more enlightenment is spreading amongst his class round Calcutta.

Religion, properly so called, they have none; and while they importune this or that idol in the hour of their necessity, they seldom trouble their heads about the infinite and the future. Judged by these and other considerations mentioned by the writer, he adds, we might safely say that civilization has as yet failed to reach the rural classes; they eat the same food and wear the same clothes as their ancestors did, before an Englishman set his foot in India, and they ask for nothing better; and we doubt if the ryot will admit that any marked improvement in other respects has overtaken his condition. And yet the fault does not rest with the Government. We cannot civilize a continent by an Act of Parliament; education may dispel gross ignorance, and, by raising their intelligence, enhance their productive powers, beyond anticipation.

Thus, by the writer's account, we see that the native Hindoo is his own enemy, in immersing himself in poverty and chronic difficulties. As such he must be discontented, and naturally will not blame himself, but

the Government. Hence he will always be the cat's paw of the demagogues or the revolutionizer; though in his own frailty innocuous. The climate in which he labours disinclines him to exertion; this is a continuous influence acting on him. In temperate climates the contrary is the case. Thus the tropical labourer must feel himself in a state of coercion before he can perform any useful act, such coercion taking the shape of slavery-the corvée, or the bond debtor.

The above account applies correctly in principle to what I have personally observed of the Malay population in that part of Kiddah called Sabrang Prye, under the British, where the cultivator paid cent. per cent. for advances, payment being in kind, though the conditions of tenure were different.

To apply the rules of civilization as interpreted in North-western Europe seems to be the great effort of the philanthropist. But how different must the genius of the people be, and how altered the climate, before such a consummation can here take place, such as would be approved of by those politicians who rejoice, or profess to rejoice, in the elevation of the people. When this happy consummation takes place, then will we see the Hindoo and Javanese ryots with their trades unions, strikes, intimidations, and rattenings, which give people at a distance so high and lovable ideas of the modern developments of our elevated social system. In these days we see that the press gives greater powers to numbers-that is, greater power to sinew over intellect. Supposing the same consummation could take place in Bengal, then we would see with the elevation of the natives the waning of the influence of England over them. Thus arises a dilemma for which antagonistic politicians will have their respective solutions.



"AGAIN, on a certain day came a letter written in Malay from the Raja of Siam, addressed to Mr. Raffles, the purport of which was that the Raja of Siam desired friendship with the English Company (East India); but he, at the same time, was frightfully pompous and selfadulating. The letter appeared also to have only three corners, the fourth being torn off. After I had read it, Mr. Raffles inquired why the letter had only three corners. I told him that I had never seen the like before, yet it seemed to be done purposely, as the paper had not the appearance of having been torn originally in its manufacture. Mr. Raffles replied, 'You are right in your suggestion; but what is the meaning of the corner being torn?' To this I said I did not know. Then Mr. Raffles told me that there was a hidden design of much importance in it, which I had not yet learned, and which he would show me, viz., it was from the inflated self-assumption, combined with ignorance, of the Raja of Siam; for to his limited understanding his country was the whole world, and that the corner torn off the letter represented all countries beyond his. When I heard. this I was astonished with perfect surprise at his penetration of such devices; so I thought to myself, This truly is a man of high intellect, for from him I have learnt

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two wrinkles of high import: first, when I knew him in Malacca, he detected the forgery of Tuanku Penglima Besar, in the letter said to be from the Susanan at Benharam; and secondly, in ferreting out the secret of the Raja of Siam.' All this I remembered, and have written it in my autobiography, so that it may have the approval of those who read it, and as an example of how superior intellects attain their greatness, mightiness, love of the people, and high name; these not being got from good looks, or from high race, but from good ability and knowledge,-for in these times Mr. Raffles was yet young, busy, engaged with duty and office work, as others were. But it was owing to his wit, sagacity, and foresight, thus he, in his intercourse with the Governor-General of Bengal, proved that Java could be conquered, which gained him the trust, so that the work was given over to him. His sagacity and intelligence were his forte. This is the mark by which a man is truly great.

After this he told me that he wished me to reply to the letter of the Raja of Siam, saying to me, 'I will give you the idea, which you can put on paper in a proper style.' I replied, 'Very good.' So he said, 'Sit down here,' and with a smile he continued, that he wished to humble him, as he had displayed his mightiness. You will understand me by a parallel story, thus: There was a child, and when it was born by its mother it saw a cock; and when it saw the cock, both its eyes became blind. After this, it was nursed by its father till it had grown up sufficiently to listen to general news, when it was told that the sovereignty of England was very extensive. On hearing this, the blind one asked if it was as big as a cock. To which the people replied, Oh! the subjects are immensely numerOn this the blind one asked, Are they as numerous


as the feathers on the cock, these English subjects? The people now told him that the English were very clever in warfare. The blind one then asked them if they were as clever as the cock in fighting. To which the people replied, They have wonderful science. On which the blind one asked, Have they the science of the cock ? Then the people told him that if he ever heard the sound of their cannon, that he would die from fright. The blind one then asked if the sound was the same as the cock-crow, and so on. Thus, to all the sayings and reports of people he always compared the cock; for he only saw this, and so put it in comparison to all other things. And so the existence of the Raja of Siam is in such like, because he has not seen other countries, nor governments, nor great warlike expeditions touching on his shores. Thus to him his country and the whole world are one and the same, just as the blind one sees the cock and nothing else; but if he could see the size of England and other great nations, the power of their governments, wealth, and warlike material, only then would it come home to him that his country was merely a spot in the round world.'

So when he had done telling the story he told me to compose a letter in such terms, as the ship would sail on the morrow evening, and to put in nothing else besides, but good wishes as between the two parties, viz. the English Company and himself. In addition he sent presents of broadcloth and five rolls of satin, flowered with gold. And when I had heard his order I was much concerned, and my heart failed me like a vessel overloaded. Such was the state of my mind when I had to set to the task; and, furthermore, I had to write the same in gold lettering. But by the help of God and the prosperity of my tutor's teaching, I had the letter finished by twelve at midnight, the margins and contents

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