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This is an account of one of those occurrences which have made the Malays notorious all over the world, termed in English "running amuck;" the Malays themselves 66 it as pronounce amo," and it is written in the Jawi character as "amok." On referring to Marsden, I perceive that authority, besides giving various significations, applied both to men and beasts, calls the "amok" the commission of indiscriminate murder in a frenzy. The late assassinations of Lord Mayo and Chief Justice Norman, though not committed by Malays, would be called “amoks.” One of the Governors of Bencoolen was thus "amoked" in his own sitting-room, where he met instant death, owing to his having by mistake struck the son of a Malay chief with his whip when taking his evening airing in a buggy.* A Dutch admiral was "amoked" on his own quarter-deck when receiving a Javanese chief and his family on board, he having saluted (as was the custom of his country at that time) the chief's daughter. He died on the spot for the supposed insult. In the case of the Lieutenant-Governor of Singapore, his being “amoked" appears to have been a mere chance collision, the intended victim having been another native by whom the "amoker" had been imprisoned. The real cause of the "amok was the imprisonment-an insult to a descendant of the Prophet, and how artfully was the intended revenge concealed from the jailor!

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In this short account of an occurrence, Abdulla's prejudices and proclivities as a Mahomedan came, unexpectedly to me, more strongly out than I have perceived elsewhere, or else his credulity is greater than I anticipated. There appears to have been a good deal of religious fanaticism induced in the mêleê. In Mahomedan

* It is curious that on this very day accounts have arrived that another has been assassinated in this same Bencoolen.

eyes the holy Syed had merely killed a Kafir (the Hindoo) and wounded a Nazarene (Colonel Farquhar), so he dilates much on the cowardice of the Hindoo sepoys, and the utter inefficiency of their English officers. The barbarities that he ascribes to the British gentlemen composing the European residents, I may emphatically state as without foundation, and totally inconsistent with their character. This has been a mere rumour of fanatics. He gives a ludicrous account of the behaviour of all, and describes every one concerned as having lost their heads, save and excepting Sir Stamford Raffles himself, who appears to have acted with energy and decision.

The severity of Malay laws on such occasions, as described by the Sultan, may be obnoxious to our moral code, yet they are the most applicable to the genius of the people, and form notoriously the safety-guards to native rulers, who have never been known to be assassinated. The treatment of Syed Essen's body was a piece of impotent revenge, which by its savageness and unmeaningness was calculated to create a reaction in the "amoker's" favour. Thus Syed Essen's grave at Tanjong Pagar is to this day a place of pilgrimage, and he himself is accounted a great saint. Thus the effect of the exposure of his body took a direction opposite to what was intended.

XIII.

ON WEARING WEAPONS.

"Now, in my estimation it is very foolish in those who oppose the custom of the English, which prevents people wearing arms, for there is great wisdom in their so doing. For no doubt, if people will wear arms, they do it with the intention of using them, i.e. to stab either men or beasts. Also, when there is a weapon on the body, it is thought of no consequence. But look at the effects of it in Malay countries, where weapons are always borne, and we see people stabbed daily, as well as people amoking (running amuck). But, praise be to God, in my native country Malacca it is difficult to hear of such an event once in the year. Further, all evils arise from and have their origin in wearing arms in all places. It is but right that people should have arms for warfare, or in places infested by wild animals; but if not in such circumstances, they are of course useless. Further, from the wearing of arms arise pride, vanity, and laziness in duty; whence proceed poverty and ignorance in a nation, owing to the few real workers and men of intelligence. It is the feeling amongst all Malays who live under the English and Dutch Governments, that it is a great hardship and unfairness that there should be such strictness against wearing armstheir impression being that they thereby have the great

ness of their ancestry taken from them; but thus they only disclose their stupidity in being angry at what is not intended."

These remarks are admirable, and will be fully assented to by all subjects belonging to industrial nations, who have well organized laws and institutions. Safety to life and property is held by a very loose tenure where each man has to protect his own by force of arms. Strength and cunning there over-rule justice and equity.

XIV.

RAFFLES FOUNDING THE SINGAPORE INSTITUTE.

"ON a certain day Mr. Raffles called together all the European gentlemen, merchants, and ship captains, together with the Sultan and Tomungong, with their chiefs; and entertained them in his house at the top of the hill. The Malay victuals were prepared in the house of the Tomungong, at Mr. Raffles' expense. After they had done eating and drinking, then Mr. Raffles came and sat beside the Sultan and Tomungong, to whom he thus addressed himself, “I have a strong desire of great consequence which I wish to make known to you, as well as to all present." On this the Sultan asked what it was. Mr. Raffles then said that the son of the Sultan and the son of the Tomungong, together with two or three companions and followers, sons also of chiefs, he wished to send to the Governor-General of Bengal, in order that they might learn English, writing, arithmetic, and other kinds of knowledge, in order that they might not remain ignorant, like other Malays who were not fond of study; arguing further, that while they were young they could learn quickly, and so that in four or five years they would be finished; thus in times hereafter' (addressing himself to the Sultan), 'when your son becomes Sultan, he will be one that is accomplished above all others.' He added, 'See, O Sultan, in Singa

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